The Full Wiki



Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

GROM in sea ops. training
GROM (In Polish: Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego "Operational Mobile Reaction Group"; the acronym itself means "thunderbolt") is the primary special forces unit of the Polish Land Forces. It was officially activated on July 8, 1990. It can be and is deployed in a variety of special operations and unconventional warfare roles, including anti-terrorist actions and projection of power behind enemy lines.

The unit's full name, in Polish, is Wojskowa Formacja Specjalna GROM im. Cichociemnych Spadochroniarzy Armii Krajowej (Special Military Formation GROM of the Cichociemni parachutists of Armia Krajowa), although this title is purely formal and is rarely used. The acronym GROM is also related to the name of General Gromosław Czempiński, who, among other actions, managed to rescue a number of American CIA agents and personnel from Iraqmarker prior to the onset of Operation Desert Storm in 1991. In Polish Army nomenclature, it is called JW 2305 (JW stands for Jednostka Wojskowa—Military Unit).


Early history

In the 1970s and 1980s, there were several formations of special forces units within Poland, but these were either trained in purely military tasks (sabotage, disruption of communications and such) or in purely counter-terrorist roles. After the Polish embassy in Bernmarker was taken over by militants of the Polish Revolutionary Home Army in 1982, General Edwin Rozłubirski proposed that a clandestine military unit be established to counter the threat from terrorism and other unconventional threats. This proposal, however, was initially rejected by the Polish People's Army.

In 1989, many Jews were allowed to emigrate from the Soviet Unionmarker to Israelmarker. For fear of Islamic extremists opposed to any increased immigration to Israel, many western European countries opted not to assist in the transportation of the civilians to Israel. Poland, however, was one of the handful of countries that did indeed provide aid in the form of organization for the operation, later dubbed Operation Bridge (Operacja Most). After two Polish diplomats were shot in Beirutmarker, Lt. Col. Sławomir Petelicki was sent to Lebanonmarker to secure the transfer of civilians and the Polish diplomatic outposts.

Upon his return to Poland, he presented his plan for the creation of a special military unit to the Ministry of Defense, a force that would be trained in special operations to be deployed in the defense of Polish citizens in situations similar to the one in Lebanon. Petelicki's ideas were well-received, and, on July 8, 1990, GROM was formally established as JW 2305.



Sławomir Petelicki was chosen as the first commander of the newly formed unit. As an officer specializing in reconnaissance, sabotage, and diversion, he seemed perfectly suited to oversee the unit's initial formation. He gathered around himself a group of like-minded and professional officers and set about choosing soldiers that would be fit for special operations. Due to the high risks involved in special service, it was decided that all men should be professional soldiers. The first batch of recruits all came from a variety of already-existing special units with the Polish armed forces. Among these were:

Out of the possible recruits, only a small group passed the training based on SASmarker' experiences and the psychological tests. Many of these initial instructors were trained by the Special Forces of the United Kingdommarker and the United States. Currently, GROM is co-operating with similar units of other NATOmarker countries:

During its formative first few years, GROM remained completely secret and hidden from the public. It was first reported to the press in 1992 and became known to the public in 1994, after their first major military operation in Haitimarker.

Before 1 October 1999, GROM was subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Interior, after which time command was transferred to the military.


Candidates applying to serve in GROM have to pass psychological and durability tests, along with the so-called truth test, a physically and psychologically exhausting field test designed to filter out the weaker applicants. GROM soldiers train with the best special forces units in the world. As special forces soldiers, they are ranked with the likes of SASmarker, Recces, SBSmarker, Pakistan Army Special Service Group, Delta Forcemarker, United States Navy SEALs, Swedish SSG, Israeli Sayeret Matkal , 707th Special Mission Battalion, and Israeli naval commando Shayetet 13.

The training of GROM soldiers includes a variety of disciplines. All of them undergo the same specialized training in anti-terrorism and special operations, as well as scuba diving, sniping, and parachuting. In four-man teams, each soldier must be prepared to assume the respective responsibilities of his colleagues, should it become necessary. GROM has their basic Spec. Ops training provided by the Swedish Navy's Special Command for Tactical Operations based in Karlskrona. Sweden's primary Naval Base. Approximately 75% of GROM personnel are trained as medics or paramedics. In addition, each group is supported by several professional physicians. It is also assumed that all GROM operatives are proficient in at least two foreign languages.

Unlike special-purpose units subordinate to the police, GROM operatives are trained primarily in the elimination of terrorists rather than capture.

At least two women have served in GROM during War in Afghanistan

Known operations

1991 - GROM operators extract six CIA-agents from Iraq during Operation Desert Storm.

1992 - "Macierewicz briefcases" affair (escorting duty during political problems in Poland)

1992 - Assault on residence and arrest of one of the bosses of Art B (Another great political and economic scandal)

1994 - Operation Uphold Democracy in Haitimarker.

1996 - UNTAES mission in Eastern Slavonia (East Croatia region) to arrest Slavko Dokmanović - they have since managed to arrest at least six more Yugoslavian war-criminals)

1996 - Bodyguard duties during US ambassador W.G Walker's mission in Kosovomarker and Macedoniamarker

1999 - Bodyguard duties during US ambassador W.G Walker's mission in Kosovo and Macedonia. Also they were (unofficially) reported to operate behind Yugoslavianmarker lines to identify artillery fire targets etc.

2001 - Hunt for war criminals in Kosovo

2001 - Recon mission in Afghanistan before the arrival of Polish troops

2002 - Mission in Afghanistan (VIP bodyguarding and base protecting duties)

2002 - Mission in Persian Gulf. At the beginning of September, some GROM members were seen training on US ships near Bahrainmarker coast.

2003 - GROM soldiers took part in the Operation Iraqi Freedom.


  • Manroy M2 QCB

  • Saab Bofors Dynamics Carl Gustav M3_MAAWS
  • Saab Bofors Dynamics AT4
  • Rafael Spike



  1. Dorschner, Jim (12 May 2008). "Shifting Trends: Special Forces Equipment". Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN: 02653818).

External links

Embed code:

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address