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Gabriel Duvall (December 6, 1752 – March 6, 1844) was an Americanmarker jurist. He was a U.S. Representative from the second district of Marylandmarker from November 11, 1794, to March 28, 1796, Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland from 1796 to 1802, and First Comptroller of the U.S. Treasury from 1802 through 1811. He was appointed to the United States Supreme Courtmarker to replace fellow Marylander Samuel Chase in 1811 and served until 1835, when he resigned due to old age.

In the twenty-three years he sat on the Supreme Court, Duvall penned an opinion in only seventeen cases. For all of Duvall’s tenure, John Marshall presided as Chief Justice. In only two cases, does the record show the two men holding different opinions. In Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. (4 Wheaton) 518 (1819), Duvall offered only a brief note calling attention to French law on the irrevocability of royal charters. In Mima Queen v. Hepburn, 11 U.S. (7 Cranch) 290 (1834), Duvall would have authorized the Circuit Court for the District of Columbia to accept hearsay evidence proving the emancipation of a slave by her owner, but the rest of the Court, per the Chief Justice, decided against it.

Justice Duvall's home, Marietta House Museummarker, is open to the public and is operated as an historic house museum by M-NCPPC.

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