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 ( ; Irish for "Guard(ians) of the Peace of Ireland", often rendered as "The Guardians of the Peace (of Ireland)" and known in everyday speech as the Gardaí is the police force of the Republic of Irelandmarker.


The force is headed by the Commissioner who is appointed by the Irish Government. Its headquarters are located in the Phoenix Parkmarker in Dublinmarker.

Terminology

The former English language name of the force was the Civic Guard; this is no longer used. In Hiberno-English the force is known (in decreasing order of formality) as ( pronounced ); the ; the (in the preceding names, "guard" is a collective noun, like police); the ( ; "guards", plural); or the Guards. Police is used infrequently and policeman rarely.

An individual officer is also called a (plural ), or, informally, a guard. A police station is called a station. is also the lowest rank within the force, also used as a title (e.g. " John Murphy", analogous to the British term "constable" or the American "officer" ("deputy/trooper/etc."). "Guard" is the most common form of address used by members of the public speaking to a garda on duty. A female officer was once officially referred to as a ( ; "female guard"; plural ). This term was abolished in 1990, but is still used colloquially in place of the now gender-neutral .

Organisation

Rank Number of operatives (2005)
Commissioner 1
Deputy Commissioners/Chief Administrative Officer 3
Assistant Commissioners 13
Chief Superintendents 50
Superintendents 178
Inspectors 307
Sergeants 2,173
11,821
Student NA


The force is headed by the Commissioner. His immediate subordinates are two Deputy Commissioners - in charge of "Operations" and "Strategy and Change Management", respectively - and a civilian Chief Administrative Officer with responsibility for resource management (personnel, finance, ICT and accommodation). There are twelve Assistant Commissioners: one for each of the six geographical Regions, and the remainder dealing with various national support functions. At an equivalent or near-equivalent level to the Assistant Commissioners are the civilian positions of Chief Medical Officer, Executive Director of ICT and Executive Director of Finance. The position of Assistant Commissioner (Human Resource Management) is to be civilianised in the near future.

The six geographical "Assistant Commissioners" command the six " Force Regions", which are currently:
  1. Dublin Metropolitan
  2. Eastern
  3. Northern
  4. Southern
  5. South-Eastern
  6. Western


Directly subordinate to the Assistant Commissioners are approximately 50 Chief Superintendents, about half of whom supervise what are called Divisions. Each Division contains a number of Districts, each of which is commanded by a Superintendent, who is assisted by a team of Inspectors. Within each District there are a number of Subdistricts, which are usually commanded by Sergeants.

A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána.


Typically each Subdistrict contains only one Garda station. A different number of will be based at each station depending on its importance. Most of these stations employ the basic rank of , which was referred to as the rank of Guard until 1972. The most junior members of the force are students, whose duties can vary depending on their training progress. They are often bestowed with clerical duties, as part of their extra curriculum studies.

The Garda organisation also has over 2,500 civilian support staff encompassing a diverse range of areas such as human resources, finance, IT, photographers, research and analysis, teaching and general administration. The figure also includes industrial staff such as traffic wardens, drivers and cleaners. It is ongoing government policy to bring the level of civilian support in the organisation up to international standards - thus enhancing its capacity and expertise in a range of specialist and administrative functions, and releasing more of its police officers for operational duties.

Reserve

The Act 2005 provided for the establishment of a Garda Reserve, consisting of 4,000, to assist the force in performing its functions, and supplement the work of members of the .

The intent of the Reserve is "to be a source of local strength and knowledge". Reserve members are to carry out duties defined by the Commissioner and sanctioned by the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform. With reduced training, these duties and powers must be operated under the supervision of regular members of the Force, and are also limited from those of regular members.

As of December 2006 more than 7,000 had applied to join the Reserve, and the first 36 graduated on 15 December 2006 at the Garda Collegemarker, in Templemoremarker.

Garda Mounted Unit
Emergency Response Unit on duty in Dublin.


Sections



An unarmed force

Uniformed members of do not routinely carry firearms. It is a tradition of the service that standard policing should be carried out in both rural and urban areas by uniformed officers equipped only with a wooden truncheon. From March 2007 all new Gardaí have been issued with ASP extendable batons, with existing members to be trained in their use as training allows. In addition, the Garda Commissioner announced in October 2008 that all Gardaí are to be issued with Pepper Spray. A timescale for the implementation of this measure has not yet been announced.

The force when originally created was armed, but the Provisional Government decided to reverse the decision and reconstitute the force as an unarmed police force, in contrast to the attitude of the British Dublin Castlemarker administration which had refused appeals from the Royal Irish Constabulary that that force be disarmed. In the words of first Commissioner, Michael Staines, TD:

According to Tom Garvin such a decision gave the new force a cultural ace: "the taboo on killing unarmed men and women who could not reasonably be seen as spies and informers."

According to a recent government report, 3,000 (out of roughly 14,000) members of the force are armed this includes the Emergency Response Unit and Special Detective Unit (SDU) as well as most detectives.

On September 3, 2008, the Regional Support Unit was launched officially by the Commissioner Fachtna Murphy as a first response to back up regular Garda officers in critical situations due to a rise of incidents that contain firearms use.

Vehicles

patrol cars are mainly white, with yellow and blue fluorescent livery whereas traffic unit vehicles adopt the battenburg pattern. The crest is also present on vehicles. An Garda Síochána also use unmarked patrol cars in their duties and use of such vehicles is increasing becoming a matter of cost rather than the need to hide the vehicles, as the amendments to the exterior of the vehicle such as LED strobes, Tetra aerials and bumper LEDs in particular are extremely visible.

 cars are usually standard civilian vehicles. Patrol cars include versions of the Fiat Ulysse, Opel Vectra, Toyota Avensis & Camry, Ford Fiesta, Focus and Mondeo. Typically, these vehicles are used in either marked or unmarked roles by the mainstream force or the Traffic Corps. Higher-powered cars - such as the Saab 9-3, Volvo XC70, and BMW 5 Series - are used for certain specialised duties. Four-wheel drive vehicles are also used, including the Isuzu Trooper, Subaru Forester and Toyota Landcruiser.  vans include the Ford Transit, Fiat Ducato, and Mercedes Sprinter.


An Garda Síochána also provide and operate vehicles for presidential and government transport. These are typically unmarked vehicles and include Audi's A6 and A8, BMW's 5 and 7 Series, Mercedes E and S-Class, Lexus GS, and Ford Mondeos.

History

The Civic Guard was formed by the Provisional Government in February 1922 to take over the responsibility of policing the fledgling Irish Free State. It replaced the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and the Irish Republican Police of 1919-1922. In August 1922 the force accompanied Michael Collins when he met the Lord Lieutenant in Dublin Castlemarker.

The Garda Síochána Act 1923 enacted after the creation of the Irish Free State on 8 August 1923, provided for the creation of "a force of police to be called and known as 'The '". Under section 22, The Civic Guard were deemed to have been established under and to be governed by the Act. The law therefore effectively renamed the existing force.

During the Civil War of 1922-23, the new Free State set up the Criminal Investigation Department as an armed, plain-clothed counter-insurgency unit. It was disbanded after the end of the war in October 1923 and elements of it were absorbed into the Dublin Metropolitan Police.

In Dublinmarker, policing remained the responsibility of the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP, founded 1836) until it merged with the in 1925. Since then the has been the only police force in the state now known as the Republic of Irelandmarker, with the exception of the Military Police within the Irish Defence Forces, the Airport Police, and Dublin Port and Dún Laoghairemarker Harbour police forces.

Scott Medal

First established in 1925, the Scott Medal for Bravery is the highest honour for bravery and valour which can be awarded to a member of the Garda Síochána. The first medals were funded by Colonel Walter Scott, an honorary Commissioner of the New York Police Department. The first recipient of the Scott Medal was Pat Malone of St. Luke's Cork City who - as an unarmed - disarmed Tomás Óg Mac Curtain (the son of Tomás Mac Curtain).

To mark the United Statesmarker link, the American English spelling of valor is used on the medal. The Commissioner chooses the recipients of the medal, which is presented by the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform.

In 2000, Anne McCabe - widow of Garda Jerry McCabe, who was killed by armed Provisional IRA bank robbers, accepted the Scott Medal for Bravery that had been awarded posthumously to her husband.

The Irish Republican Police had at least one member killed by the RIC 21 July 1920.

The Civic Guard had one killed by accident 22 September 1922. Likewise 4 members of the Oriel House Criminal Investigation Department were killed/Died of wounds during the Irish Civil War

The Roll of Honor lists 31 members of the killed between 1922 and 1999. {See Below}

Commissioners
Name From Until Reason
Michael Staines February 1922 September 1922 resigned
Eoin O'Duffy September 1922 February 1933 dismissed for

encouraging military coup
Eamon Broy February 1933 June 1938 retired
Michael Kinnane June 1938 July 1952 died
Daniel Costigan July 1952 February 1965 resigned
William P Quinn February 1965 March 1967 retired
Patrick Carroll March 1967 September 1968 retired
Michael Wymes September 1968 January 1973 retired
Patrick Malone January 1973 September 1975 retired
Edmund Garvey September 1975 January 1978 replaced (lost

government confidence)
Patrick McLaughlin January 1978 January 1983 retired (wiretap

scandal)
Lawrence Wren February 1983 November 1987 retired
Eamonn Doherty November 1987 December 1988 retired
Eugene Crowley December 1988 January 1991 retired
Patrick Culligan January 1991 July 1996 retired
Patrick Byrne July 1996 July 2003 retired
Noel Conroy July 2003 November 2007 retired
Fachtna Murphy November 2007 Present current


Commissioners

The first Commissioner, Michael Staines, who was a Pro-Treaty member of , held office for only eight months. It was his successors, Eoin O'Duffy and Éamon Broy, who played a central role in the development of the force. O’Duffy was Commissioner in the early years of the force when to many people’s surprise the viability of an unarmed police force was established. O'Duffy later became a short-lived political leader of the quasi-fascist Blueshirts before heading to Spainmarker to fight alongside Francisco Franco's Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. Broy had greatly assisted the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the Anglo-Irish War, while serving with the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP). Broy's fame grew in the 1990s when he featured in the film Michael Collins, in which it was misleadingly suggested that he had been murdered by the Britishmarker during the War of Independence, when in reality he lived for decades and headed the from 1933 to 1938. The first Commissioner to rise through the ranks from ordinary Garda was William P Quinn who was appointed in February 1965.

One later Commissioner, Edmund Garvey, was sacked by the government of Jack Lynch in 1978 after it had lost confidence in him. Garvey won 'unfair dismissal' legal proceedings against the government, which was upheld in the Irish Supreme Court This outcome required the passing of the Act 1979 to retrospectively validate the actions of Garvey's successor since he had become Commissioner. His successor in turn, Patrick McLaughlin, was forced to resign along with his deputy in 1983 over his peripheral involvement in a political scandal. The current Commissioner, since November 2007, is Fachtna Murphy.

Past reserve forces

During the Emergency there were two reserve forces to the , and the Local Security Force.

 had the power of arrest and wore uniform, and were allowed to leave the reserve or sign-up as full members of the   at the end of the war before the reserve was disbanded. The reserve was established by the Emergency Powers (Temporary Special Police Force) Order, 1939.


The Local Security Force (LSF) did not have the power of arrest, and part of the reserve was soon absorbed into the Irish Army Reserve under the command of the Irish Army.

Policing abroad

Since 1989, the has undertaken United Nations peace-keeping duties. Its first such mission was a 50 strong contingent sent to Namibiamarker. Since then the force has acted in Angolamarker, Cambodiamarker, Cyprusmarker, Mozambiquemarker, South Africa and the former Yugoslaviamarker. The force's first fatality whilst working abroad was Sergeant Paul M. Reid, who was fatally injured while on duty with the United Nations UNPROFOR at "Sniper's Alley" in Sarajevomarker on 18 May 1995.

Members of the also serve in the Embassies of Ireland in Londonmarker, The Haguemarker, Madridmarker and Parismarker. Members are also seconded to Europol in The Hague, Holland and Interpolmarker in Lyon, France. There are also many members working directly for UN and European agencies such as the War Crimes Tribunal.

 officers also co-operate with members of the Police Service of Northern Ireland in order to combat cross-border crime. They have also accompanied politicians from the Republic, such as the President on visits to Northern Irelandmarker.


Under an agreement with the British Government and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland are allowed to inspect the Sellafieldmarker nuclear facility in Cumbriamarker, Englandmarker.

Controversy and allegations involving the force

Like most police forces the Garda have faced many complaints including allegations of discourtesy, harassment and perjury While most allegations have not been proven, many out-of-court settlements have been made. A total of 1,173 complaints were made by the public against the in 2005. Some incidents involving the have attracted wide scale attention - such as those which resulted in the Morris and Barr Tribunals - and have resulted in broad reform initiatives . Other reports suggest that people who frequent gay and lesbian establishments feel that the are not doing enough to tackle reported homophobic crime in Ireland. In 2007 there was also some debate when a potential Sikh applicant of the Garda Reserve requested that he be allowed wear a turban in place of a standard uniform cap - Ultimately the provision was not made as it was stated that the force had the same uniform requirements for all members.

Mishandling of cases and complaints

The Kerry Babies case was one of the first public inquiries into mishandling of a investigation. Later, in the 1980s, the Ferns Report (an inquiry into allegations of clerical sexual abuse) described as "wholly inadequate" the handling of one of eight formal complaints made to Wexfordmarker gardaí , but noted that the remaining formal complaints were handled in an "effective, professional and sensitive" manner.

The Gardaí were also criticised in the Murphy Report in relation to the handing over of the case of Fr. Edmondus (a pseudonym) to Archbishop McQuaid by Commissioner Costigan. Some very senior Gardaí were criticised for regarding priests as being outside their remit in 1960. On November 26 2009, Commissioner Fachtna Murphy apologised for the failure of An Garda Siochánas' failure to protect victims of child abuse in the Dublin Archdiocese. He said that inappropriate relationships and contacts between gardaí and the Dublin Archdiocese had taken place at a time of undue or misguided deference to religious authorities and that these were incompatible with any investigation. On 27 November 2009 he announced that a senior investigator would examine the findings in the report.

Allegations resulting in Tribunals of Inquiry

In the 1990s and early 2000s the faced a series of allegations, including suggestions of corrupt and dishonest policing in County Donegalmarker. This became the subject of a judicial inquiry: the Morris Tribunal. The tribunal found that some gardaí based in County Donegal had invented an Provisional IRA informer, made bombs and claimed credit for locating them, and attempted to frame Raphoemarker publican Frank McBrearty Junior for murder the latter case involving a €1.5m settlement with the State. In a report to the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform the Morris Tribunal expressed grave concern about "organised insubordination" within the force that "proper discipline has been lost from ", suggesting that a few mischief-makers abused their positions within the and used the disciplinary process to damage the force. The tribunal also expressed concern that recruits were brought into an undisciplined culture that had the potential to do great damage in the longer term, and warned that a "terrible and costly" waste of talent would occur if the situation were to continue. These scandals damaged the reputation and standing of the force in County Donegalmarker.

On 20 April 2000, members of the Emergency Response Unit shot dead, from behind, 27-year-old John Carthy at the end of a 25-hour siege as he left his home in Abbeylaramarker, County Longfordmarker with a loaded shotgun in his hands. There were allegations made of inappropriate handling of the situation and of the overuse of armed force by the . This led to a inquiry, and subsequently, a Tribunal of Inquiry under the Chairmanship of Mr Justice Robert Barr. This inquiry was established on 1 July 2002, and the hearing of evidence was completed on 7 December 2004. The final report was expected within six months, but publication of the report was delayed until 20 July 2006. The official findings of the tribunal were that Sgt Michael Jackson made 14 mistakes in his role as negotiator during the siege, and that he failed to make real efforts to achieve resolution during the armed stand-off. It further stated however that Sgt Jackson was limited by lack of experience and resources (psychologists, solicitors, dogs). The tribunal recommended that there be an urgent review of command structures, and that the ERU be equipped with stun guns and other non-lethal options, including "non-compliant firearms support police dogs".

The Barr tribunal further recommended a formal working arrangement between Gardaí and State psychologists, and improvements in Garda training (especially in the context of ERU in siege situations, including those with mental illness as a factor). This included a recommendation that local superintendents undergo refresher training for one week every year as scene commanders and a similar refresher course for ERU officers of the rank of inspector or superintendent. Commissioner Conroy, in a letter to the family of John Carthy, stated that the force was 'truly apologetic' for his death. Former Superintendent Joe Shelley, whose failure to interview John Carthy was cited in the Barr Tribunal Report as "extraordinary", and who was also severely criticised in the Report of the Morris Tribunal into the controversial death of Richie Barron, was awarded a top-up bonus of €110,000 when he took early retirement in July 2005. Mr Justice Morris described Shelley's probe as "prejudiced, tendentious, utterly negligent in the highest degree".

Allegations involving abuse of powers

One of the first charges of serious impropriety against the force rose out of the handling of the Sallins Train Robbery in 1976; this case eventually led to a serious miscarriage of justice and accusations of a "Heavy Gang" operating within the force which intimidated and tortured the accused. This eventually led to a Presidential pardon for one of the accused.

In 2004, an RTÉmarker Prime Time documentary accused elements within the of abusing their powers by physically assaulting people arrested. A retired Circuit Court judge (W. A. Murphy) suggested that some members of the force had committed perjury in criminal trials before him but later stated that he was misquoted, while a Minister of State (Dick Roche, a junior government minister) accused Gardaí in one instance of "torture". The Commissioner accused the television programme of lacking balance.

The Prime Time documentary followed footage published by the Independent Media Centre Ireland showing scuffles between and Reclaim the Streets demonstrators. One shown in this footage was later convicted of common assault which is a summary matter, while several other were acquitted of all offences.

Allegations involving cross-border policing

The family of Eddie Fullerton, a Buncranamarker councillor killed in his home by members of the Ulster Defence Association in 1991, have criticised the 's handling of the investigation and in 2005 they started a campaign for an inquiry.

The Smithwick Tribunal is also investigating allegations of collusion following the deaths of two Royal Ulster Constabulary officers killed by the Provisional IRA as they returned from a meeting with the in the Republic of Irelandmarker following a recommendation from the Cory Collusion Inquiry.

Operations around the Corrib Gas Project

Protests at the proposed Royal Dutch Shell Corrib gas refinery in County Mayomarker have seen a large Garda operation at its construction sites with up to 200 Gardaí involved , making it the single biggest policing operation in the country at times. By September 2008, the cost of the operation was €10 Million and is estimated to have cost €13.5 Million by the end of January 2009 . This is comparable to the €20 Million budgeted for Operation Anvil, the operation targeting organised crime, criminal gangs and their associates . A section of road used by the protesters has been dubbed the Golden Mile by Gardaí because of the overtime opportunities.. Complaints have been made about the Garda handling of the protests and several TD, including former Green Party leader Trevor Sargent have criticised the Gardai handling of the situation .

Reform initiatives

Arising from some of the above incidents, the has undergone a number of reform initiatives in recent years. The Morris tribunal in particular identified areas that required redress, and highlighted that reforms were required in order to effect such a redress.

It was also stated by the tribunal Chairman, Mr Justice Morris, that the code of discipline was extremely complex and, at times, "cynically manipulated" to promote indiscipline across the force. Judicial reviews, for example, were cited as a means by which disciplinary action could be delayed.

The Act 2005 was the key vehicle put in place to facilitate change, the provisions for which arise from the fall out and findings of the tribunal and from the events in Donegal and elsewhere.

While fifteen members of the force were sacked between 2001 and 2006, and a further 42 resigned in lieu of dismissal in the same period, Commissioner Conroy stated that he was constrained in the responses available to deal with members whose misbehaviour is cited in public inquiries.

New procedures and code of discipline

With strong support from opposition parties, and reflecting widespread political consensus, the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform responded to many of these issues by announcing a new draft code of discipline on 17 August 2006. The new streamlined code introduced new procedures to enable the Commissioner to summarily dismiss a alleged to have brought the force into disrepute, abandoned duties, compromised the security of the State or unjustifiably infringed the rights of other persons.

In addition, a four member "civilian management advisory team" was appointed on 2 August 2006 to advise on implementing change options and addressing management and leadership challenges facing the . The advisers are also mandated to promote a culture of performance management; succession planning; with the recruitment of civilians with specialist expertise and improving training. The advisory team include Senator Maurice Hayes, Emer Daly (former director of strategic planning and risk management at Axa Insurance), Maurice Keane (former group chief executive at Bank of Ireland), Michael Flahive (Assistant Secretary at the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform and Dr Michael Mulreany (assistant director general at the Institute of Public Administration).

Enhanced civilian support

Civilian clerical and administrative support has been significantly enhanced in recent times. In the two-year period from December 2006 to December 2008 civilian staffing levels were increased by over 60% (from under 1,300 to approximately 2,100 in whole-time equivalent terms), in furtherance of government policies to release more desk-bound for operational duties and to bring the level of civilian support in line with international norms. A new tier of senior civilian management is also being introduced in a range of administrative and technical/professional support areas such as human resources, training, information technology, research and analysis, legal affairs, finance and procurement, accommodation and fleet management, and communications/public relations. A civilian Chief Administrative Officer at Deputy Commissioner level was appointed in October 2007 to oversee many of these key support functions, which in time will be largely if not completely managed by civilian staff.

Inspectorate

In accordance with Section 115 of the Act, the Inspectorate consists of three members who are appointed by the Irish Government. The functions of the Inspectorate, inter alia, are as follows:
  • carry out, at the request or with the consent of the Minister, inspections or inquiries in relation to any particular aspects of the operation and administration of the ,
  • submit to the Minister (1) a report on those inspections or inquiries, and (2) if required by the Minister, a report on the operation and administration of the Garda Síochána during a specified period and on any significant developments in that regard during that period, and any such reports will contain recommendations for any action that the Inspectorate considers necessary.
  • provide advice to the Minister with regard to best policing practice.


The first Chief Inspector (since July 2006), is former Commissioner of Boston Police , Kathleen M. O'Toole, who reports to the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform.

The two other inspectors are Robert Olsen and Gwen M. Boniface. Olsen was Chief of Police for 8 years of the Minneapolismarker Police Department. Boniface is a former Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police, and was one of 3 female police commissioners in Canada when appointed in May 1998. She recently suggested that rank and file Gardaí are not equipped to perform their duties or protect themselves properly. She also suggested routine arming may become a reality but dismissed the suggestion that this was currently being considered.

Ombudsman Commission

Also newly instrumented, the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (referred to colloquailly as the Garda Ombudsman or simply abbreviated to GSOC) replaces the earlier system of complaints (the Complaints Board). Becoming fully operational on 9 May 2007, the Commission is empowered to:
  • Directly and independently investigate complaints against members of the Garda Síochána
  • Investigate any matter, even where no complaint has been made, where it appears that a Garda may have committed an offence or behaved in a way that would justify disciplinary proceedings
  • Investigate any practise, policy or procedure of the with a view to reducing the incidence of related complaints


The Members of the Ombudsman Commission are: Dermot Gallagher (Commission Chairman; former Secretary General at the Department of Foreign Affairs), Carmel Foley (former Director of Consumer Affairs), and Conor Brady (former Editor of The Irish Times and author of a book on the history of the ). The Commission's first Chairman was Kevin Haugh (a High Court Judge) who died in early 2009, shortly before his term of office was to conclude.

Public Attitudes to An Garda Siochana

The Garda Public Attitudes Survey 2008, showed 81% of the population were satisfied with the , although 72% believed the service needed improvement, 91% described their local as being approachable.

The poll showed 8% of people believed a Garda has acted unacceptably towards them, the rate was highest in Dublin South Central at 14%, lowest in Mayo at 2%. The most common complaint was of being disrespectful or impolite.

Band

The Band is a public relations branch of the , and was formed shortly after the foundation of the force. It gave its first public performance on Dún Laoghairemarker Pier on Easter Monday, 1923. The first Bandmaster was Superintendent D.J. Delaney and he formed a céilí and pipe band within the Band. In 1938, the Dublin Metropolitan Band (based at Kevin Street) and the Band amalgamated and were based at the Headquarters in Phoenix Parkmarker.

The band was disbanded in 1965. However to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the it was reformed in 1972.

Besides providing music for official functions (such as Graduation Ceremonies at the Garda Collegemarker) the band undertakes a community orientated programme each year performing at schools, festivals and sporting events. It has a long association with Lansdowne Roadmarker for Rugby union and Soccer Internationals, the St. Patrick's Day Parade in Dublinmarker and the Rose of Tralee Festival.

In 1964 the band toured Americamarker and Canadamarker under Superintendent J. Moloney, and has also traveled to international events and represented the country at police festivals and concerts in Switzerland, Germany and Northern Ireland.

References

  1. Written Answers - Garda Titles from Dáil Éireann - Volume 404 - 5 February 1991
  2. http://www.garda.ie/angarda/faq.html#G2 Official Garda figures as at 2005-12-31
  3. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-162406830.html
  4. According to Irish constitutional theory he met the Lord Lieutenant to accept the surrender of Dublin Castle. However, as far as the British government were concerned, the purpose of the meeting was for the Lord Lieutenant to formally appoint Collins as Chairman of the Provisional Government.
  5. Garda.ie - History of the Scott Medal
  6. [1]
  7. Ireland in the Twentieth Century, Tim Pat Coogan
  8. Analysis: McDowell not for turning on Garda reserve, February 26, 2006, The Sunday Business Post
  9. Army Reserve - History, The Defense Forces, Retrieved May 23, 2008
  10. Complaints Board - Annual Report 2005
  11. 2006 GLBT Hate Crime Report (from gay rights organisation Johnny)
  12. The Ferns Report, October 25, 2005
  13. Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, part 1, sections 1.92 through 1.96
  14. Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, part 1, sections 1.92
  15. Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, part 1, sections 1.93
  16. Garda apologises for failures, Ciara O'Brien, The Irish Times, 26 November 2009
  17. Gardaí to examine abuse report findings, RTE News, 27 November 2009.
  18. Non-compliant dogs are 'attack' dogs that will bite or bring a person to the ground on command.
  19. Irish Independent, August 11, 2006 'Top garda apologies to Carthy family for fatal siege'
  20. Irish Independent, July 24, 2006 'Garda got €110,000 bonus despite chequered job history'
  21. [2]
  22. [3]
  23. [4]
  24. Irish Times - Analysis - New gas pipeline route likely to be as controversial as original - Tuesday, April 29, 2008
  25. Western People: Complaints against 20 Gardaí in Corrib row
  26. [5]


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