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Gascon (Gascon, ; ) is often considered as a dialect of Occitan, but is also regularly considered by some linguists as a separate language. Gascon is mostly spoken in Gasconymarker and Béarn at south of France (in parts of the following Frenchmarker départements: Pyrénées-Atlantiquesmarker, Hautes-Pyrénéesmarker, Landesmarker, Gersmarker, Girondemarker, Lot-et-Garonnemarker, Haute-Garonnemarker, and Ariègemarker; and in the Aran Valleymarker of Spainmarker). It has about 250,000 speakers worldwide.

Only Aranese, a southern Gascon variety, is spoken in Spain. Aranese has been greatly influenced recently by Catalan and Spanish. Both these influences tend to differentiate it more and more from the dialects of Gascon spoken in Francemarker. Since the 2006 adoption of the new statute of Cataloniamarker, Aranese is co-official with Catalan and Spanish in Cataloniamarker (before, this status was valid for the Aran Valleymarker only).

Linguistic classification

See Occitan: Debates concerning linguistic classification.

Basque substrate

The language spoken in Gascony before Roman rule was part of the Basque dialectal continuum (see Aquitanian language); the fact that the word 'Gascon' comes from the Latin root vasco/vasconem, which is the same root that gives us 'Basque,' implies that the speakers identified themselves at some moment as Basque. There is a proven Basque substrate in the development of Gascon. This explains some of the major differences that exist between Gascon and other Occitan languages.

A typically Gascon feature that may arise from this substrate is the so-called '"f" to "h" change.' Where a word originally began with in Latin, such as festa 'party/feast,' this sound was weakened to aspirated and then, in some areas, lost altogether; according to the substrate theory, this is due to the Basque dialects' lack of an equivalent phoneme. Thus we have Gascon hèsta or . A similar change took place in continental Spanish. Thus Latin facere gives Spanish hacer ([aˈθer]) (or, in some parts of south-western Andalusiamarker, ).

However, some linguists deny the plausibility of the Basque substrate theory; many have sought a language-internal explanation for this and other changes. The fact that this particular change occurs in both Gascon and Spanish, both of which developed in originally Basque-speaking areas, may be coincidental. Nevertheless, it is highly unlikely and some linguists agree with historians to underline the connection between Gascon and Basque.

Note that modern Basque has had lexical influence from Gascon in words like beira ("glass"), polit ("pretty", Gascon polit/polida). One way for the introduction of Gascon influence into Basque came about through the Way of St Jamesmarker and the establishment of ethnic boroughs in several towns based on the privileges bestowed on the Franc by the Navarrese kings from the XIth century on. The other one takes place in the same period over the coastal fringe of Gipuzkoamarker extending from Hondarribiamarker to San Sebastianmarker, where Gascon was spoken and often used in formal documents up to the late XVIIIth century, with evidence of its occurrence in Pasaiamarker still in the 1870s.

Usage of the language

A poll conducted in Béarn in 1982 indicated that 51% of the population spoke Gascon, 70% understood it, and 85% expressed a favourable opinion regarding the protection of the language. However, use of the language has declined dramatically over recent years as Gascon is rarely transmitted to young generations any longer. The usual term for Gascon is "patois", a word designating in France a non-official and devaluated dialect whatever the concerned region. It is mainly in Béarn that the population uses concurrently the term "Béarnais" to designate its Gascon forms. This is because of the political past of Béarn, which was a sovereign state from 1347 to 1620. In fact, there is no unified Béarnais dialect; the language differs considerably throughout the province. Many of the differences in pronunciation can be divided into east, west, and south (the mountainous regions). For example, the a at the end of words is pronounced "ah" in the west, "o" in the east, and "œ" in the south. Because of Béarn's specific political past, Béarnais is distinguished from Gascon since the 16th century, though not for linguistic reasons.

Subdialects

Gascon comprises three main linguistic areas:
  • The 'Garonnais Gascon' used on and next to the river Garonne valley. These regions know the least specific Gascon forms.
  • The 'Southern Gascon' used in the south and in the south-west of the linguistic Gascon zone. The Gascon of these regions is the one with the most distinctive characteristics of Gascon, coming mainly from a supposed Basque substratum.
  • The 'Intermediary Gascon' in an intermediary zone between the two just mentioned.


English words of Gascon origin

An isard (Pyrenean chamois).
Austrian beret.
cadet: from capdèt ("captain, chief").
cep: from cep 'trunk'. Now more commonly known by their Italian name of porcini.
izard: from French isard or Gascon isard.
beret: from Bearnese French béret and Gascon berret "cap"..
Jingo: OED finds an etymology from Basque Jainko ("God") through Gascon possible but not proven.
The character of Gaston in the Disney Version of Beauty and The Beast is a reference to Gascon, his name means Man of Gascony

Influences on other languages

Probably as a consequence of the linguistic continuum of occidental Romania and the French influenceover the Hispanic Mark on the medieval times, shared similar and singular features are noticeable between Gascon and other Latin languages on the other side of the frontier: Aragonese and ultraoccidental Catalan (Catalan of La Franja)

Examples

























Word Translation
Earth tèrra
heaven cèu
water aiga
fire huec
man òmi/òme
woman hemna
eat minjar/manjar
drink béver
big gran
little petit/pichon/pichòt
night nueit
day dia/jorn


See also: Languages of France

External links



References

  • Le Gascon de poche, Jean-Marc Leclercq & Sèrgi Javaloyès, Assimil 2004, ISBN 2-7005-0345-7



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