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Gdańsk, also known by its German name Danzig (see Names below), is a city on the Balticmarker coast in northern Polandmarker, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.

Gdańsk is Poland's principal seaport as well as the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker. It is also historically the largest city of the Kashubian region. The city is close to the former boundary between West Slavic and Germanic lands and it has a complex political history with periods of Polish rule, periods of Germanmarker rule, and two spells as a free city. It has been part of modern Poland since 1945.

The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Baymarker (of the Baltic Seamarker), in a conurbation with the spa town of Sopotmarker, the city of Gdyniamarker and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricitymarker (Trójmiasto), with a population of over 800,000. Gdańsk itself has a population of 458,053 (2006), making it the largest city in the Pomerania region of Northern Poland.

Gdańsk is situated at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, whose waterway system supplies 60% of the area of Poland and connects Gdańsk to the national capital in Warsawmarker. This gives the city a unique advantage as the center of Poland's sea trade. Together with the nearby port of Gdyniamarker, Gdańsk is also an important industrial center. Historically an important seaport and shipbuilding center, Gdańsk was a member of the Hanseatic League.

The city was the birthplace of the Solidarity movement which, under the leadership of Gdańsk political activist Lech Wałęsa, played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule across Central Europe. It is also the home and birthplace of Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk, who is of Kashubian origin.

Names

Zwantepolc de Danceke, 1228
The city's name is thought to originate from the Gdania River, the original name of the Motława branch on which the city is situated. Gdańsk and Gdania are considered to be derivations from the Gothic name of the area (Gutiskandja), however this has also been questioned. Like many other Central European cities, Gdańsk has had many different names throughout its history.

The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert's death in 997 AD as urbs Gyddanyzc and later was written as Kdanzk (1148), Gdanzc (1188), Danceke (1228), Gdansk (1236, 1454, 1468, 1484, 1590), Danzc (1263), Danczk (1311, 1399, 1410, 1414–1438), Danczik (1399, 1410, 1414), Danczig (1414), Gdąnsk (1636). See also Names of European cities in different languages.

In Polish the modern name of the city is pronounced . In English (where the diacritic over the "n" is frequently omitted) the usual pronunciation is or .

For much of its history the majority of the city's inhabitants were German-speakers, who called it Danzig . This name was also used in English until the end of World War II, and is still used in historical contexts. Other former English spellings of the name include Dantzig, Dantsic and Dantzic.

In the Kashubian language the city is called Gduńsk. The city's Latin name may be given as either Gedania, Gedanum or Dantiscum; the variety of Latin names reflects the mixed influence of the city's Polish, German and Kashubian heritage.

Ceremonial names

On special occasions the city is also referred to as "The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk" (Polish Królewskie Polskie Miasto Gdańsk, Latin Regia Civitas Polonica Gedanensis, Kashubian Królewsczi Polsczi Gard Gduńsk).

Kashubians also use the name "Our Capital City Gdańsk" (Nasz Stoleczny Gard Gduńsk) or "The Kashubian Capital City Gdańsk" (Stoleczny Kaszëbsczi Gard Gduńsk).

History

Foundation and the Middle Ages

At the mouth of the Motlawa river (archaic Gdania), a Pomeranian settlement was archaeologically recorded that probably dates back to the 7th century. In the 980s, a stronghold was built most probably by Mieszko I of Poland who thereby connected the Piast realm with the trade routes of the Baltic Seamarker. The first written record of this stronghold is the vita of Saint Adalbert, written in 999 and describing events of 997. This date is generally regarded as the founding of Gdańsk in Poland; in 1997 the city celebrated the millennial anniversary of the year 997 when Saint Adalbert of Prague baptized the inhabitants of the settlement on behalf of Boleslaw the Brave of Poland. In the 12th century, the settlement comprised the ducal, former Piast stronghold, a settlement at modern Long Market, a craftman's setllements along the Altstädter Graben ditch, and a settlement of German merchants around the St Nicolas church. In 1186, a Cistercian monastery was set up in Oliwamarker nearby (now within the city limits). In 1215, the ducal stronghold became the center of a Pomerelian splinter duchy. In 1224/25, Germans in the course of the Ostsiedlung established a settlement in the area of the earlier fortress.

About 1235, the town was granted city rights under Lübeck law by Pomerelian duke Swantopolk II, an autonomy charter similar to that of Lübeckmarker which was also the primary origin of many settlers. In 1300, the town had an estimated population of 2,000. While overall the town was not that an important trade center at that time, it had some relevance in the trade with Eastern Europe. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights took over the town. Medieval massacre records of 10,000 inhabitants are perceived divergently in modern literature: while sources state it as a fact, other sources discard it as a medieval exaggeration. The alleged massacre was used as evidence by the Polish crown in a subsequent papal lawsuit. The knights colonized the area, replacing local Kashubians with German settlers. In 1308, they founded Hakelwerk near the town, initially as a Slavic fishing settlement. In 1340, the Teutonic Knights built a large fortress, which became the seat of the knights' Komtur. In 1343, they founded Rechtstadt, which in contrast to the pre-existing town (thence Altstadt, "Old Town" or Stare Miasto) was chartered with Kulm Law. In 1358, Danzig joined the Hanseatic League, and became an active member in 1361. It maintained relations with the trade centers Brüggemarker, Novgorodmarker, Lisboamarker and Sevillamarker. In 1377, the Old Town's city limits were expanded. In 1380, Neustadt ("New Town" or "Nowe Miasto") was founded as the fourth, independent settlement.



After a series of Polish-Teutonic Wars, in the Treaty of Kalisz the Order had to acknowledge that it would hold Pomerelia as an alm from the Polish Crown. Although it left the legal basis of the Order's possession of the province in some doubt, the city thrived as a result of increased exports of grain (especially wheat), timber, potas, tar, and other goods of forestry from Prussia and Poland via the Vistula River trading routes, despite the fact that after its capture, the Teutonic Knights tried to actively reduce the economic significance of the town. While under the control of the Teutonic Order German migration increased. A new war broke out in 1409, ending with the Battle of Grunwaldmarker (1410), and the city came under the control of the Kingdom of Poland. A year later, with the first First Peace of Thorn, it returned to the Teutonic Order. In 1440, the city participated in the foundation of the Prussian Confederation which was an organization opposed to the rule of the Teutonic Knights. This led to the Thirteen Years' War of independence from the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussiamarker (1454-1466). This intermittent warfare ended on May 25, 1457, when the city - jointly with Royal Prussia - became part of the Crown of Poland while maintaining its rights and independence as an autonomous city.



Modern Ages

On 15 May 1457, Casimir IV of Poland granted Danzig the Great Privilege ( ), after he had been invited by the town's council and had already stayed in town for five weeks. With the Great Privilege, the town was granted autonomy from Poland. The privilege confirmed to the town independent jurisdiction, legislation and administration of her territory, and the rights of the Polish crown were limited to the following: The Polish king was allowed to stay in town for three days a year, he was further allowed to choose a permanent envoy from eight councilmen proposed to him by the town, and received an annual payment, the Gefälle. Furthermore, the privilege united Old Town, Hakelwerk and Rechtstadt, and legalized the demolition of New Town, which had sided with the Teutonic Knights. Already in 1457, New Town was demolished completely, no buildings remained.

Gaining free and privileged access for the first time to Polish markets, the seaport prospered while simultaneously trading with the other Hanseatic cities. After the Second Peace of Thorn with the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia the warfare between the latter and the Polish crown ended permanently. After the incorporation of Royal Prussia by the Kingdom of Poland in 1569, the city continued to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (cf. Danzig Law).

King Stephen Báthory's attempt to subject the city, which had supported Maximilian II in the prior election of the king, failed. The city, encouraged by its immense wealth and almost impregnable fortifications, as well as by the secret support of Denmarkmarker and Emperor Maximilian, shut its gates against Stephen. After the Siege of Danzig , lasting six months, the city's army of 5,000 mercenaries was utterly defeated in a field battle on December 16, 1577. However, since Stephen's armies were unable to take the city by force, a compromise was reached: Stephen Báthory confirmed the city's special status and her Danzig Law privileges granted by earlier Polish kings. The city recognised him as ruler of Poland and paid the enormous sum of 200,000 gulden in gold as payoff ("apology").



Beside the German-speaking majority, whose elites sometimes distinguished their German dialect as Pomerelian, the city was home to a large number of Polish-speaking Poles, Jewish Poles, and Dutch. In addition, a number of Scotsmen took refuge or immigrated to and received citizenship in the city. During the Protestant Reformation, most German-speaking inhabitants adopted Lutheranism.



The city suffered a slow economic decline due to the wars of the 18th century, when it was taken by the Russians after the Siege of Danzigmarker in 1734. Danzig was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussiamarker in 1793, only to be broken off by Napoleon as a pseudo-independent free citymarker from 1807-1814. Returned to Prussia after Francemarker's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, the city became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Danzigmarker within the province of West Prussia from 1815. The city's longest serving Regierungspräsident was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from 1841, through the revolutions of 1848, until 1863. The city became part of the German Empiremarker in 1871.

Throughout its long history Gdańsk/Danzig faced various periods of rule from different states before 1945:
  • 997-1308: as part of Poland
  • 1308-1454: as part of territory of Teutonic Order
  • 1454-1466: Thirteen Years' War
  • 1466-1793: as part of Poland
  • 1793-1805: as part of Prussia
  • 1807-1814: as a free city
  • 1815-1871: as part of Prussia
  • 1871-1918: as part of Imperial Germany
  • 1918-1939: as a free city
  • 1939-1945: as part of Nazi Germany
Altogether combining the number of years, the city was under rule of Poland for 641 years, under the rule of Teutonic Order for 158 years, 125 years as part of Prussia and later Germany, 29 years of its history are marked by the status of a free city, and 6 years under the occupation of Nazi Germany until it returned to Poland again in 1945.

The inter-war years, and World War II

Monument to the defenders of Polish Gdańsk


When Poland regained its independence after World War I with access to the sea as promised by the Allies on the basis of Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points", the Poles hoped the city's harbour would also become part of Poland. However, since a 1919 census determined that the city's population was 98% German, it was not placed under Polish sovereignty, but, according to the terms of the Versailles Treaty, became the Free City of Danzigmarker, an independent quasi-state under the auspices of the League of Nations with its external affairs largely under Polish control. This led to a large degree of tension between the city and the surrounding Republic of Polandmarker. The Free City had its own constitution, national anthem, parliament (Volkstag), and government (Senat). It issued its own stamps as well as currency.


The German population of the Free City of Danzigmarker favored reincorporation into Germany. In the early 1930s the local Nazi Party capitalized on these pro-German sentiments and in 1933 garnered 38% of vote in the parliament. Thereafter, the Nazis under Gauleiter Albert Forster achieved dominance in the city government, which was still nominally overseen by the League of Nations' High Commissioner. The Nazis demanded the return of Danzig to Germany along with an extraterritorial (meaning under German jurisdiction) highway through the area of the Polish Corridor for land-based access between the parts of Germany which had become physically separated after World War I. The Polish government in principle agreed to this proposal until the Anglo-Polish military alliance in March 1939 effectively canceled the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934 and ended Polish willingness to negotiate successions. German-Polish relations deteriorated rapidly afterwards, even escalating into border skirmishes. The German Nazi Government, knowing that its military strength was inferior to the combined British, French, Polish, and Soviet forces, invaded Poland on September 1 only after having secured Soviet approval in late August, hoping to negotiate a peace solution with Britain and France after the end of hostilities. This invasion of Poland is regarded as the beginning of World War II.

World War II began in Danzig, with a bombardment of Polish positions at Westerplattemarker by the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, and the landing of German infantry on the peninsula. Outnumbered Polish defenders at Westerplatte resisted for seven days before running out of ammunition. Meanwhile, after a fierce day-long fight(1 September 1939), defenders of the Polish Post office were murdered and buried on the spot in the Danzig quarter of Zaspamarker in October 1939. To celebrate the surrender of Westerplatte, the NSDAP organized a night parade on Sep 7th along Adolf-Hitlerstrasse that was inadvertently attacked by a Polish hydroplane taking off from Hel Peninsulamarker. The city was officially annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia.



Most of the Jewish community in Danzig were able to escape from the Nazis shortly before the outbreak of war. Nazi secret policemarker had been observing Polish communities since 1936, compiling information, which in 1939 served to prepare lists of Poles to be captured in Operation Tannenberg. On the first day of the war, approximately 1,500 ethnic Poles were arrested, some because of their participation in social and economic life, others because they were activists and members of various Polish organizations. On September 2, 1939, 150 of them were deported to the Stutthof concentration campmarker some 30 miles from Danzig, and murdered. Many Poles living in Gdańsk were deported to Stutthof or executed in the Piaśnica forest.

In 1941, the Nazi Regime ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union, eventually causing the fortunes of war to turn against it. As the Soviet Army advanced in 1944, German populations in Central and Eastern Europe took flight, resulting in the beginning of a great population shift. After the final Soviet offensive began in January, 1945, hundreds of thousands of German refugees, many of whom had fled to Danzig on foot from East Prussia (see evacuation of East Prussia), tried to escape through the city's port in a large-scale evacuation involving hundreds of German cargo and passenger ships. Some of the ships were sunk by the Soviets, including the Wilhelm Gustloffmarker after an evacuation was attempted at neighboring Gdynia. In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed.

The city also endured heavy Allied and Soviet bombardment by air. Those who survived and could not escape encountered the Soviet Army, which captured the city on March 30, 1945 and was heavily damaged. In line with the decisions made by the Allies at the Yaltamarker and Potsdam conferences, the city returned to Poland. The remaining German residents of the city who had survived the war fled or were expelled to postwar Germany, and the city was repopulated with ethnic Poles deported by the Soviets in two major waves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union including many from the eastern portion of pre-war Polandmarker.

Contemporary times



The historic old city of Gdańsk, which had suffered large-scale destruction at the hands of the Soviet Army, was rebuilt during the 1950s and 1960s. Boosted by heavy investment in the development of its port and three major shipyards for Soviet ambitions in the Baltic region, Gdańsk became the major shipping and industrial center of the Communist People's Republic of Poland.

As part of German-Polish reconciliation policies driven by West Germanmarker Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik, German territorial claims on Gdańsk were renounced, and the city's full incorporation into Poland was recognized in the Treaty of Warsaw in 1970. This was confirmed by a reunited Germany in 1990 and 1991.

In December 1970, Gdańsk was the scene of anti-regime demonstrations, which led to the downfall of Poland's communist leader Władysław Gomułka. During the demonstrations in Gdansk and Gdynia, military as well as the police opened fire on the demonstrators causing several dozen deaths. Ten years later, on August 31, 1980, Gdańsk Shipyardmarker was the birthplace of the Solidarity trade union movement, whose opposition to the Communist regime led to the end of Communist Party rule in 1989, and sparked a series of protests that successfully overturned the Communist regimes of the former Soviet bloc. Solidarity's leader, Lech Wałęsa became President of Poland in 1990. Gdańsk native Donald Tusk became Prime Minister of Poland in 2007.

Today Gdańsk is a major shipping port and tourist destination and has been the setting for a number of major open air concerts, including Pink Floyd's David Gilmour and Jean Michel Jarre. The Rock band Queen staged a concert in the Shipyard in October 2008.

Wikimania 2010 — the 6th annual Wikimedia Conference — is scheduled to take place in the Polish Baltic Philharmonicmarker in Gdańsk, Poland from July 9-11, 2010.

Climate

Gdansk enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from -1.0°C to 17.2°C and rainfall varies from 31.0 mm/month to 84.0 mm/month. In general it is a maritime climate and therefore damp, variable and harsh.

The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times (with temperature reaching as high as 30-35C at least once per year) with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. The average annual hours of sunshine for Gdansk are 1600, similar to other Northern cities. July and August are the hottest months. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp and foggy in November. Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as -15°C.

Economy

The industrial sections of the city are dominated by shipbuilding, petrochemical and chemical industries, and food processing. The share of high-tech sectors such as electronics, telecommunications, IT engineering, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals is on the rise. Amber processing is also an important part of the local economy, as the majority of the world's amber deposits lie along the Balticmarker coast. The Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker, including Gdańsk, is also a major tourist destination in the summer months, as millions of Poles and European Union citizens flock to the beaches of the Baltic coastline.

Major companies in Gdańsk:

  • Grupa Lotos- energy
  • Energa Trading - energy
  • GE Money Bank - finance
  • Gdańska Stocznia Remontowa - shipbuilding
  • Elnord - energy
  • Elektrociepłownie Wybrzeże - energy
  • LPP - retail
  • Polnord Energobudowa - construction company
  • Petrobaltic - energy
  • Delphi - automotive parts
  • Intelmarker - IT
  • IBM - IT
  • Fineos - IT
  • Wirtualna Polska - internet service
  • Arla Foods - food processing
  • Acxiom - IT
  • Kainos - IT
  • Dr. Oetker - food processing
  • Lufthansa Systems - IT
  • Compuware - IT
  • ZenSar Technologies - IT
  • SII - IT
  • Suruga Seiki - IT
  • Thomson Reuters - media
  • ThyssenKrupp Johann A. Krause - steel, engineering, capital goods
  • Maersk Linemarker - services & pick-up
  • First Data - finance
  • Masterlease - finance
  • Transcom WorldWide - business processing outsourcing
  • Jysk - retail
  • Meritum Bank - finance
  • Glencore - raw materials
  • Orlen Morena - energy
  • Fosfory Ciech - chemical company
  • Crist - shipbuilding
  • Dr Cordesmeyer - flour milling
  • Hydrobudowa - construction company
  • Mercor - fire protection systems
  • Cognor - steel, engineering, capital goods
  • Llentabhallen - steel constructions
  • Atlanta Poland - nuts and dried fruit importer
  • Ziaja - cosmetics and beauty company
  • Stabilator - construction company
  • Skanska - construction company
  • Young Digital Planet - IT
  • Flügger - paints manufacturing
  • Satel - security systems, IT
  • HD heavy duty - retail
  • Dresser Wayne - retail fueling systems
  • Maersk Linemarker - services & pick-up
  • First Data - finance
  • Masterlease - finance
  • Transcom WorldWide - business processing outsourcing
  • Weyerhaeuser Cellulose Fibers - cellulose fibers manufacturing (planned)
  • Sony Pictures Entertainment - bookkeeping (planned)
  • Gdańsk Shipyardmarker - shipbuilding
  • Stocznia Północna - shipbuilding


Main sights



The city has many fine buildings from the time of the Hanseatic League. Most tourist attractions are located along or near Ulica Długa (Long Street) and Długi Targ (Long Market), a pedestrian thoroughfare surrounded by buildings reconstructed in historical (primarily 17th century) style and flanked at both ends by elaborate city gates. This part of the city is sometimes referred to as the Royal Road as the former path of processions for visiting kings.

Walking from end to end, sites encountered on or near the Royal Way include:
  • Upland Gate (Brama Wyżynna)
  • Torture House (Katownia)
  • Prison Tower (Wieża więzienna)
  • Golden Gatemarker (Złota Brama)
  • Long Street (Ulica Długa)
    • Uphagen House (Dom Uphagena)
    • Main Town Hall (Ratusz Głównego Miasta)
  • Long Market (Długi Targ)
    • Artus' Court (Dwór Artusa)
    • Neptune Fountain (Studnia Neptuna)
    • Golden House (Złota kamienica)
  • Green Gate (Zielona Brama)


Gdańsk has a number of historical churches:
  • St. Bridget
  • St. Catherine
  • St. John
  • St Marymarker (Bazylika Mariacka), a municipal church built during the 15th century, is the largest brick church in the world.
  • St Nicholas' Church
  • Church of the Holy Trinity


The museum ship SS Soldekmarker is anchored on the Motława River and was the first ship built in post-war Poland.

In the 16th century, Gdańsk hosted Shakespearean theatre on foreign tours, and the Danzig Research Societymarker founded in 1743 was one of the first of its kind. Currently, there is a Fundation Theatrum Gedanensis aimed at rebuilding the Shakespeare theatremarker at its historical site. It is expected that Gdańsk will have a permanent English-language theatre, as at present it is only an annual event.

Famous people

Transportation

Gdańsk tram - Bombardier NGT6.


Train transportation provides good connection with all major Polish cities, and with the neighbouring Kashubian Lakes region. The A1 motorway connects the port and city of Gdańsk with the southern border of the country.

Gdańsk is the starting point of the EuroVelo 9 cycling route which continues southward through Poland, then into the Czech Republicmarker, Austriamarker and Sloveniamarker before ending at the Adriatic Seamarker in Pula, Croatiamarker.

Sports

There are many popular professional sports teams in the Gdańsk and Tricity area. Amateur sports are played by thousands of Gdańsk citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university). The city's professional football club is Lechia Gdanskmarker. Founded in 1945, they play in the Ekstraklasa, Poland's top division. Their home stadium, Stadion Lechiimarker, will be replaced by the under-construction Baltic Arenamarker one of the four Polish stadia to host the UEFA Euro 2012 competition.

Politics and local government

Contemporary Gdańsk is the capital of the province called Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker and is one of the major centres of economic and administrative life in Poland. Many important agencies of the state and local government levels have their main offices here: the Provincial Administration Office, the Provincial Government, the Ministerial Agency of the State Treasury, the Agency for Consumer and Competition Protection, the National Insurance regional office, the Court of Appeals, and the High Administrative Court.

Regional centre

Gdańsk Voivodeship was extended in 1999 to include most of former Słupsk Voivodeship, the western part of Elbląg Voivodeship and Chojnice Countymarker from Bydgoszcz Voivodeship to form the new Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker.The area of the region was thus extended from 7,394 km² to 18,293 km² and the population rose from 1,333,800 (1980) to 2,198,000 (2000). By 1998, Tricitymarker constituted an absolute majority of the population; almost half of the inhabitants of the new region live in the centre.

Education and science

Gdańsk University, Law and Administration Department


There are 14 universities with a total of 60,436 students, including 10,439 graduates as of 2001.
  • Gdańsk Universitymarker (Uniwersytet Gdański)
  • Gdańsk University of Technologymarker (Politechnika Gdańska)
  • Gdańsk Medical University (Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny)
  • Academy of Physical Education and Sport of Gdansk (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu im. Jędrzeja Śniadeckiego)
  • Musical Academy (Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanisława Moniuszki)
  • Arts Academy (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych) [1480]
  • Instytut Budownictwa Wodnego PAN
  • Ateneum Szkoła Wyższa
  • Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna
  • Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Administracji
  • Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa
  • Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Ekonomiczna
  • Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Hotelarstwa w Gdańsku
  • Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania


Scientific and regional organizations

  • Gdańsk Scientific Society
  • Baltic Institute (Instytut Bałtycki), established 1925 in Toruńmarker, since 1946 (?) in Gdańsk
  • TNOiK - Towarzystwo Naukowe Organizacji i Kierowania (Scientific Society for Organization and Management) O/Gdańsk
  • IBNGR - Instytut Badań nad Gospodarką Rynkową (The Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics)


International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Gdańsk is twinned with:Gdańsk is twinned with:[in chronological order]



See also



Footnotes

  1. From the history of Gdańsk city name, as explained at Gdansk Guide
  2. Adrian Room, Placenames of the World, 2nd Ed. [1] Quote: "The city has a Gothic name, from Gutisk-andja, "end of the Goths," as these people's territory extended to here. The city's former German name, Danzig, misleadingly suggests an association with the Danes."
  3. Dennis H. Green, The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century Quote: "...the difficulty with Gdańsk, Gdynia and gudas... in the Polish coastal area centuries before the Goths are known to have occupied this region... casts doubt on the theory of Gothic origin."
  4. Carl Tighe, "Gdańsk: national identity in the Polish-German borderlands", Pluto Press, 1990, [2]
  5. Marian Gumowski: Handbuch der polnischen Siegelkunde, 1966
  6. Britannica 11th edition (published in 1911)
  7. Gdańsk, in: Kazimierz Rymut, Nazwy Miast Polski, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1987
  8. Hubert Gurnowicz, Gdańsk, in: Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1978
  9. Baedeker's Northern Germany, Karl Baedeker Publishing, Leipzig 1904
  10. Hartmut Boockmann, Ostpreussen und Westpreussen, Siedler, 2002, p.158, ISBN 3-88680-212-4
  11. James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, ISBN 0313309841, p.376
  12. Thomas Urban: " Rezydencja książąt Pomorskich".
  13. From "Poland. Chronology
  14. From Danzig - Gdansk until 1920
  15. : "Geben wir und verlehen unnsir Stadt Danczk das sie zcu ewigen geczeiten nymands for eynem herrn halden noc gehorsam zcu weszen seyn sullen in weltlichen sachen."
  16. Bömelburg, Hans-Jürgen, Zwischen polnischer Ständegesellschaft und preußischem Obrigkeitsstaat: vom Königlichen Preußen zu Westpreußen (1756-1806), München: Oldenbourg, 1995, (Schriften des Bundesinstituts für Ostdeutsche Kultur und Geschichte (Oldenburg); 5), zugl.: Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Diss., 1993, 549 pp.
  17. Encyclopaedia Britannica Year Book, 1938,
  18. See Documents Concerning the German Polish Relations and the Outbreak of Hostilities between Great Britain and Germany on September 3, 1939. See also the Soviet archived, Documents Relating to the Eve of the Second World War Volume II: 1938-1939 (New York: International Publishers), 1948.
  19. See Documents Concerning the German Polish Relations and the Outbreak of Hostilities between Great Britain and Germany on September 3, 1939. Hitler's change of position is well reflected in Goebbel's personal diary. See also the Soviet archived, Documents Relating to the Eve of the Second World War Volume II: 1938-1939 (New York: International Publishers), 1948.
  20. Translation: The postage seal reads: "Danzig greets joyously her leader and liberator, Adolf Hitler."
  21. Museums Stutthof in Sztutowo. Retrieved January 31, 2007.
  22. Gdansk, history. Official website.
  23. According to FollowQueen.com FollowQueen.com
  24. Bytów official web site


External links




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