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George Francis FitzGerald (3 August 185122 February 1901) was an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" (i.e., physics) at Trinity Collegemarker, Dublinmarker, in the late 19th century.

FitzGerald was born at No. 19, Lower Mount Street in Dublinmarker on 3 August 1851 to the Reverend William FitzGerald and his wife Anne Francis Stoney. Professor of Moral Philosophy in Trinity and vicar of St Anne's, Dawson Street, at the time of his son's birth, William FitzGerald was consecrated Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross in 1857 and translated to Killaloe and Clonfert in 1862. George returned to Dublin and entered Trinity as a student at the age of 16. He became a Fellow of Trinity in 1877 and spent the rest of his career at the College.

Along with Oliver Lodge, Oliver Heaviside, and Heinrich Hertz, FitzGerald was a leading figure among the group of "Maxwellians" who revised, extended, clarified, and confirmed James Clerk Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field in the late 1870s and 1880s.

In 1883, following from Maxwell's equations, FitzGerald suggested a device for producing rapidly oscillating electric currents to generate electromagnetic waves, a phenomenon first shown experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in 1888.

However, FitzGerald is better known for his conjecture in 1889 that if all moving objects were foreshortened in the direction of their motion, it would account for the curious result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. FitzGerald based this idea in part on the way electromagnetic forces were known to be affected by motion; in particular, he drew on equations that had been derived a short time before by his friend Oliver Heaviside. The Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz hit on a very similar idea in 1892 and developed it more fully in connection with his theory of electrons. The so-called FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction or Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction hypothesis later became an important part of Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, published in 1905.

Long a sufferer from digestive problems, George Francis FitzGerald succumbed to a perforated ulcer at his home in Dublin on 21 February 1901.

FitzGerald was the nephew of George Johnstone Stoney, the Irish physicist who coined the term "electron".

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