( ), officially the Federal
Republic of Germany
( , ), is a country
. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the
Sea; to the east by Poland and the
Republic; to the
south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the
The territory of Germany covers and is
influenced by a temperate seasonal
.With 82 million inhabitants, it accounts for the
largest population among the member states of the European Union
and is home to the third-largest number
of international migrants
A region named Germania
several Germanic peoples
known and documented
before AD 100.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central
part of the Holy Roman Empire
lasted until 1806. During the 16th century, northern Germany became
the centre of the Protestant
. As a modern nation-state
, the country was first unified
amidst the Franco-Prussian War
after World War II, Germany was divided
into two separate states—East Germany and West
Germany—along the lines of Allied occupation.
Germany was reunified
West Germany was a founding member of the European Community
) in 1957, which became the
European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen zone
and adopted the European
currency, the euro
, in 1999.
Germany is a federal parliamentary republic
of sixteen states
( ). The capital and
largest city is Berlin.
a member of the United Nations,
NATO, G8, G20, OECD, and the
It is a
the world's fourth
by nominal GDP
purchasing power parity
is the largest exporter
and second largest
of goods. In absolute terms, Germany allocates the
second biggest annual budget of development aid
in the world,while its
military expenditure ranked sixth
. The country has developed a
standard of living
and established a comprehensive system of
. It holds a key
position in European affairs and maintains a multitude of close
partnerships on a global level. Germany is recognised as a
scientific and technological leader in several fields.
The English word "Germany" derives from Latin
. The name "Germania"
came into use after Julius Caesar
adopted it from a Gallic term for
the peoples east of the Rhine that
probably meant "neighbor".
of the Germanic tribes
is assumed to have occurred
during the Nordic Bronze Age
at the latest, during the Pre-Roman
. From southern Scandinavia
and northern Germany, the tribes began expanding south, east and
west in the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the
tribes of Gaul
well as Iranian
, and Slavic
tribes in Eastern Europe
. Little is
known about early Germanic history, except through their recorded
interactions with the Roman Empire
etymological research and archaeological finds.
Augustus, the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to
invade Germania (a term used by the Romans to define a territory
running roughly from the Rhine to the
Mountains), and it was
in this period that the Germanic tribes became familiar with Roman
tactics of warfare while maintaining their tribal identity.
AD 9, three Roman legions led by
Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan
leader Arminius in the Battle of the
Teutoburg Forest. Modern Germany, as far as the Rhine and the
Danube, thus remained outside the Roman
By AD 100, the time of Tacitus
, Germanic tribes settled along
the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes
) , occupying most of the area of modern Germany. The
3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic
, and Thuringii
Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke through the Limes and the
Danube frontier into Roman-controlled lands.
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
On 25 December 800, Charlemagne
the Carolingian Empire
, which was
divided in 843
. The medieval empire
resulted from the eastern portion
this division and existed in varying forms from 962 until 1806.
territory stretched from the Eider River
in the north to the Mediterranean coast in the south.
Often referred to as the
Holy Roman Empire
(or the Old
Empire), it was officially called the Sacrum Romanum Imperium
(Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation)
starting in 1448, to adjust the title to its then reduced
reign of the Ottonian emperors (919–1024),
the duchies of Lorraine, Saxony, Franconia,
Swabia, Thuringia, and Bavaria were consolidated, and the German king was crowned
Holy Roman Emperor of these
regions in 962. Under the reign of the Salian emperors (1024–1125), the Holy Roman Empire
absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy, although the emperors lost power
through the Investiture
Under the Hohenstaufen
emperors (1138–1254), the
German princes increased their influence further south and east
into territories inhabited by Slavs
in these areas and further east (Ostsiedlung)
. Northern German towns grew
prosperous as members of the Hanseatic
. Starting with the Great Famine
in 1315, then
the Black Death
of 1348–50, the
population of Germany plummeted.
The edict of the Golden Bull
1356 provided the basic constitution of the empire that lasted
until its dissolution. It codified the election of the emperor by
who ruled some
of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.
in the 15th century, the emperors were elected nearly exclusively
from the Habsburg dynasty of Austria.
The monk Martin Luther
in 1517, challenging
practices of the Roman Catholic
, initiating the Protestant Reformation
. A separate
church became the official
religion in many German states after 1530. Religious conflict led
to the Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648), which devastated German lands. The population of the
German states was reduced by about 30%. The Peace of Westphalia
religious warfare among the German states, but the empire was
divided into numerous independent principalities.
onwards, the dualism between the
Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the
Prussia dominated German history.
In 1806, the
was overrun and dissolved as a result of the
Restoration and revolution (1814–1871)
the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte,
the Congress of Vienna convened
in 1814 and founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign
Disagreement with restoration
politics partly led to the
rise of liberal
demanding unity and freedom. These, however, were followed by new
measures of repression on the part of the Austrian statesman
, a tariff union,
profoundly furthered economic unity in the German states. During
this era many Germans had been stirred by the ideals of the
, and nationalism
became a more significant force,
especially among young intellectuals. For the first time, the
colours of black, red and gold were chosen to represent the
movement, which later became the national colours
In light of a series of
revolutionary movements in Europe
, which successfully
established a republic in
, intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of 1848 in
the German states
. The monarchs initially yielded to the
revolutionaries' liberal demands. King Frederick William IV of
was offered the title of Emperor
, but with a loss of power; he rejected the
crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback
for the movement. Conflict between King William I
and the increasingly liberal parliament
erupted over military reforms in 1862, and the king appointed
Otto von Bismarck
the new Prime Minister of Prussia
Bismarck successfully waged war
in 1864. Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German
Federation (Norddeutscher Bund) and to exclude Austria, formerly the leading German state, from the
affairs of the remaining German states.
German Empire (1871–1918)
known as Germany was unified as a modern nation-state in 1871,
when the German
Empire was forged, with the Kingdom of Prussia as its largest constituent.After the French
defeat in the Franco-Prussian
War, the German Empire was proclaimed in Versailles on 18 January 1871. The Hohenzollern dynasty of Prussia ruled
the new empire, whose capital was Berlin.
empire was a unification of all the scattered parts of Germany
except Austria ( , or "Lesser Germany"). Beginning in 1884, Germany
began establishing several colonies
In the period following the unification of Germany
secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances,
means, and avoiding war. Under William II
, however, Germany,
like other European powers
, took an
course leading to friction
with neighbouring countries. Most alliances in which Germany had
been previously involved were not renewed, and new alliances
excluded the country. Specifically, France established new
relationships by signing the Entente
Cordiale with the United Kingdom and securing ties with the Russian
Aside from its contacts with Austria-Hungary
, Germany became increasingly
Germany's imperialism reached outside of its own country and joined
many other powers in Europe in claiming their share of Africa
. The Berlin
divided Africa between the European powers.
owned several pieces of land in Africa including German East Africa, South-West Africa, Togo, and Cameroon.
caused tension between the great powers
that may have contributed to the
conditions that led to World War
assassination of Austria's crown prince
on 28 June 1914 triggered World War
Germany, as part of the unsuccessful Central Powers
, suffered defeat against the
in one of the bloodiest
conflicts of all
time. An estimated two million German soldiers died in World War I.
The German Revolution
broke out in
November 1918, and Emperor William II and all German ruling princes
. An armistice
end to the war was signed on 11 November and Germany was forced to
sign the Treaty of Versailles
in June 1919. Its negotiation, contrary to traditional post-war
diplomacy, excluded the defeated Central Powers. The treaty was
perceived in Germany as a humiliating continuation of the war by
other means and its harshness is often cited as having facilitated
the later rise of Nazism
Weimar Republic (1919–1933)
At the beginning of the German Revolution, Germany was declared a
and the monarchy collapsed.
However, the struggle for power continued, with radical-left
communists seizing power in
, but failing to take control of all of Germany.
revolution came to an end in August 1919, when the Weimar
The Weimar Constitution
came into effect
with its signing by President
on 11 August
Suffering from the Great
, the harsh peace conditions dictated by the Treaty of Versailles
, and a long
succession of more or less unstable governments, the people of
Germany increasingly lacked identification with their political
system and the "Establishment Parties" in their parliamentary democracy
. This was
exacerbated by a widespread right-wing (monarchist
, and Nazi) , which
promoted the view that Germany had lost World War I because of the
efforts and influence of those who wanted to overthrow the
government. The top brass of the Weimar government was accused of
betraying the German Nation by signing the Versailles Treaty, while
the radical left-wing communists
, such as
the Spartacist League
, had wanted
a revolution to abolish "capitalist rule
in favour of a , and were also targeted.
Nevertheless, discontentment with the new Weimar government helped
fuel the growth of the German
. Many conservatives were drawn towards the
reactionary/revolutionary right, particularly the National
Socialist German Workers Party—the Nazi
. By 1932, these two parties controlled the majority of
parliament (296 total parliamentary seats by July 1932). After a
series of unsuccessful cabinets, President Paul von Hindenburg
made a crucial
decision: on 30 January 1933, seeing little alternative and pushed
by right-wing advisors, von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler
as Chancellor of Germany
honoring Hitler's request.
Third Reich (1933–1945)
On 27 February 1933, the Reichstag went
up in flames
. Afterwards an emergency decree was made and some
basic democratic rights were quickly abrogated. An Enabling Act
gave the Hitler-led
government full legislative power. Only the Social Democratic Party of
voted against the measure, while the Communists, who
were thought to be behind the fire, were not able to present
opposition due to the Reichstag
Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler's Germany: origins,
. Routledge 1999, p. 103. ISBN
Scheck, Raffael. Establishing a Dictatorship: The Stabilization of Nazi
Colby College. Retrieved 2006-07-12. A centralised
state was established by a
series of moves and decrees making Germany a single-party state
. Industry was
revitalised, with a focus on military
. In 1936, Germany reacquired control of the Rhineland
, the first of several expansionist
moves to establish Greater Germany
growing tensions from
nationalism, militarism, and territorial issues and a pact promising support from the
Union led the Germans to launch a blitzkrieg ("lightning war") against Poland, which was divided between Germany and the Soviet
Union which attacked the country from the east.
incident was followed by declarations of war from Britain and
France against Germany, but not against the Soviet Union. This
marked the beginning of World War II
Europe. As the war continued, Germany and its allies quickly gained
direct or indirect control of the
On 22 June 1941, Germany broke the pact with the Soviets and
invaded the Soviet Union
year, Japan attacked the
American base at Pearl Harbor, and Germany declared war on the United States as a consequence of its alliance with Japan.
the German army advanced into the Soviet Union quite rapidly, the
Stalingrad marked a major turning point in the war.
Subsequently, the German army started to retreat on the Eastern front
marked another major turning point
in the war, opening up a Western front
; the Allied
forces landed on the beaches of Normandy
and made advances towards German territory. Germany's defeat soon
followed. On 8 May 1945, the German armed forces surrendered
after the Red Army occupied Berlin.
Approximately seven million German
soldiers—including ethnic Germans
from Eastern Europe—died during World War II.
In what later became known as The
, the Third Reich regime enacted governmental policies
directly subjugating many dissidents and minorities. About eleven
million people were murdered during the Holocaust, including six
and sizable number of Gypsies
, Poles and other
, the mentally ill and homosexuals and members of the
political opposition. World War II and the actions of the German Nazi regime, the regime of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union and other countries at the time resulted in 35
million premature deaths in Europe.
Division and reunification (1945–1990)
The war resulted in the death of nearly ten million German soldiers
and civilians; large territorial
expulsion of about 15 million Germans
from the eastern areas of
and other countries; and the destruction of multiple
major cities. The remaining national territory and
partitioned by the Allies
into four military occupation zones.
western sectors, controlled by France, the
Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949, to form the
Republic of Germany
(Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the
Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or
They were, mainly outside Germany, informally known as
"West Germany" and "East Germany" (in West Germany, East Germany
referred to the areas east of the GDR, while the GDR was often
referred to as Middle Germany), and the two parts of Berlin as
" and "East Berlin
". East Germany selected East Berlin as its
capital, while West Germany chose Bonn.
However, West Germany declared the status of its capital Bonn as
provisional, in order to emphasise its stance that the two-state
solution was an artificial status quo
that was to be
overcome one day.
West Germany, established as a federal parliamentary republic with
a "social market economy
allied with the United States, the UK and France. The country came
to enjoy prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s (
Germany joined NATO in 1955 and
was a founding member of the European Economic Community in
Germany was an Eastern bloc state under
political and military control by the USSR via the
latter's occupation forces and the Warsaw
While claiming to be a democracy, political
power was solely executed by leading members (Politburo
) of the communist-controlled
. Their power
was ensured by the Stasi
, a secret service of
immense size, and a variety of SED suborganizations controlling
every aspect of society. In return, the basic needs of the
population were satisfied at low cost by the state. A Soviet-style
was set up; later,
the GDR became a Comecon
East German propaganda
based on the benefits of the GDR's social programs and the alleged
constant threat of a West German invasion, many of her citizens
looked to the West for political freedoms and economic prosperity.
Wall, built in 1961 to stop East Germans from escaping
to West Germany, became a symbol of the Cold
Tensions between East and West Germany were somewhat reduced in the
early 1970s by Chancellor Willy
's , which included the de facto
Germany's territorial losses in World War II.
summer of 1989, Hungary decided (May 2) to dismantle
the Iron Curtain and open the borders
(August 23), causing an exodus of
thousands of East
Germans (September 11) going to
Germany via Hungary.The effects of the Hungarian events had
devastating effects on the GDR, with
The East German authorities unexpectedly
eased the border restrictions in November, allowing East German
citizens to travel to the West. Originally intended as a pressure
valve to retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border
actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process
in East Germany,
which finally concluded with the Two Plus
a year later on 12 September 1990, under which
the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the
Instrument of Surrender, and Germany regained full sovereignty
. This permitted German reunification
on 3 October 1990,
with the accession of the five re-established states in the former
GDR (New states
Berlin Republic and EU integration (1990–)
Based on the Bonn-Berlin Act, adopted by the parliament on 10 March
1994, Berlin once again became the capital of the reunified
Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a
(federal city) retaining some federal
ministries. The relocation of the government was completed in
Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the
and NATO. Germany sent a
peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of
German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that
country after the ousting of the Taliban.
These deployments were
controversial, since after the war, Germany was bound by domestic
law only to deploy troops for defence roles. Deployments to foreign
territories were understood not to be covered by the defence
provision; however, the parliamentary vote on the issue effectively
legalised the participation in a peacekeeping context.
The territory of Germany covers , consisting of of land and of
water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the
63rd largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the
Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at ) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the north-west and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the north-east. Between lie the
forested uplands of central Germany and the low-lying lands of
northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at below sea level), traversed by some of Europe's
major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe.
Germany shares borders with more European countries than any other
country on the continent. Its neighbours are Denmark in the
north, Poland and the
Republic in the east,
Austria and Switzerland in the south, France and Luxembourg in the south-west and Belgium and the Netherlands in the north-west.
Germany comprises 16 states
), which are further subdivided into 439
cities (kreisfreie Städte
Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal
in which humid westerly winds predominate. The climate
is moderated by the North
, which is the northern extension of the Gulf Stream
. This warmer water affects the areas
bordering the North Sea including the area along the Rhine, which
flows into the North Sea. Consequently in the north-west and the
north, the climate is oceanic
round with a maximum during summer.
Winters are mild and summers tend to be cool, though temperatures
can exceed for prolonged periods. In the east, the climate is more
; winters can be very
cold, summers can be very warm, and long dry periods are often
recorded. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which
vary from moderately oceanic to continental. Again, the maximum
temperature can exceed in summer.
, Germany is
shared between the Atlantic European and Central European provinces
of the Circumboreal Region
within the Boreal Kingdom
territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions
: European-Mediterranean montane mixed
forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. The majority of
Germany is covered by either arable land
(33%) or forestry
(31%). Only 15% is covered by permanent
Plants and animals are those generally common to middle Europe.
Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of
the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.
Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine
and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns,
flowers, fungi, and mosses. Fish abound in the rivers and the North
Sea. Wild animals include deer, wild boar, mouflon, fox, badger,
hare, and small numbers of beaver. Various migratory birds cross
Germany in the spring and autumn.
national parks in
Germany include the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area
National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Lower Oder Valley National
Park, the Harz National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National
Park and the Bavarian Forest National Park.
Germany is known for its many zoological gardens
, wildlife parks,
aquaria, and bird parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal
parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest
number in any single country of the world. The Zoologischer
Garten Berlin is the oldest zoo in Germany and presents the most
comprehensive collection of species in the world.
Germany is known for its environmental consciousness. Most Germans
causes to be a
significant factor in global warming
The state is committed to the Kyoto
and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low
emission standards, recycling, and the use of renewable energy, and
supports sustainable development at a global level.
The German government has initiated wide ranging emission reduction
activities and the country´s overall emissions are falling.
Nevertheless Germany's carbon
dioxide emissions per capita
are among the highest in the EU,
although they are significantly lower than those of Australia,
Canada, Saudi Arabia and the United States.
Emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to
air pollution. Acid rain, resulting from sulphur dioxide emissions,
is damaging forests
. Pollution in the Baltic
Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in former
East Germany have been reduced. The government under Chancellor
Schröder announced the intention to end the use of nuclear power
for producing electricity. Germany is working to meet EU
commitments to identify nature preservation areas in line with the
EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive. Germany's last glaciers
in the Alpine region are experiencing deglaciation. Natural hazards
are river flooding in spring and stormy winds occurring in all
Germany is a federal
, representative democratic republic
German political system operates under a framework laid out in the
1949 constitutional document
). By calling the document
, rather than Verfassung
), the authors expressed the
intention that it would be replaced by a proper constitution once
Germany was reunited as one state. Amendments to the
generally require a two-thirds majority of
both chambers of the parliament
articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the
federal structure, rule of law and the right to resist attempts to
overthrow the constitution are valid in perpetuity and cannot be
amended. Despite the initial intention, the Grundgesetz
remained in effect after the German
in 1990, with only minor amendments.
—is the head of government
and exercises executive power
, similar to the role
of a Prime Minister
in other parliamentary democracies
. Federal legislative power is vested in the
parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form a
unique type of legislative body.
elected through direct elections
members of the Bundesrat
represent the governments of the
sixteen federal states
members of the state cabinets. The respective state governments
have the right to appoint and remove their envoys at any
—is the head of state
, invested primarily with
representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the
convention), an institution consisting of the members of the
and an equal number of state delegates. The
second highest official in the German order of precedence
(President of the
), who is elected by the Bundestag
and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The
third-highest official and the head
is the Chancellor, who is nominated by the
after being elected by the
. The Chancellor can be removed by a constructive
motion of no confidence
, where constructive implies that the
simultaneously elects a successor.
Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic
and the Social Democratic Party of
with all chancellors hitherto being member of either
party. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party
has had members in the Bundestag
since 1949) and the
Alliance '90/The Greens
(which has controlled seats in parliament since 1983) have also
played important roles, as they are regularly the smaller partner
of a coalition
The Judiciary of Germany
independent of the executive and the legislative branches. Germany
has a civil or statute law
that is based on Roman law
some references to Germanic law
Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), located in
Karlsruhe, is the German Supreme Court responsible for
constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.
It acts as the
highest legal authority and ensures that legislative and judicial
practice conforms to the Basic Law for the
Federal Republic of Germany
(Basic Law). It acts independently
of the other state bodies, but cannot act on its own behalf.
Germany's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des
, is specialised. For civil and criminal cases, the highest
court of appeal is the Federal
Court of Justice, located in Karlsruhe and Leipzig.
The courtroom style is inquisitorial
. Other Federal Courts
are the Federal Labour Court in Erfurt, the
Federal Social Court in Kassel, the
Finance Court in Munich and the
Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig.
and private law
are codified on the national level
in the Strafgesetzbuch
respectively. The German penal system is aimed
towards rehabilitation of the criminal; its secondary goal is the
protection of the general public. To achieve the latter, a
convicted criminal can be put in preventive detention
) in addition to the regular sentence
if he is considered to be a threat to the general public. The
regulates the consequences of crimes against humanity
and war crimes
It gives German courts universal
if prosecution by a court of the country where the
crime was committed, or by an international court, is not
Legislative power is divided between the federation and the state
level. The Basic Law presumes that all legislative power remains at
the state level unless otherwise designated by the Basic Law
Any federal law overrides state law if the legislative power lies
at the federal level. A famous example is the purported Hessian
provision for the death penalty, which goes against the ban on
capital punishment under the Basic Law, rendering the Hessian
provision invalid. The Bundesrat is the federal organ through which the states
participate in national legislation.
State participation in
federal legislation is necessary if the law falls within the area
of concurrent legislative power, requires states to administer
federal regulations, or is so designated by the Basic Law. Every
state has its own constitutional court. The Amtsgerichte
are state courts of general jurisdiction
. They are
competent whether the action is based on federal or state
Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law
remain in the
jurisdiction of the states, though most states base their own laws
in that area on the 1976 Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz
(Administrative Proceedings Act) covering important points of
administrative law. The Oberverwaltungsgerichte
highest level of administrative jurisdiction concerning the state
administrations, unless the question of law concerns federal law or
state law identical to federal law. In such cases, final appeal to
the Federal Administrative Court is possible.
Germany has played a leading role in the European Union
since its inception and has
maintained a strong alliance
since the end of World War II. The alliance was
especially close in the late 1980s and early 1990s under the
leadership of Christian Democrat
Helmut Kohl and Socialist François
Germany is at the forefront of European
states seeking to advance the creation of a more unified European
political, defence and security apparatus. For a number of decades
after WWII, the Federal Republic of Germany kept a notably low
profile in international relations, because of both its recent
history and its occupation by foreign powers.
During the Cold War, Germany's partition by the Iron Curtain
made it a symbol of East-West
tensions and a political battleground in Europe. However, Willy
Brandt's Ostpolitik was a key factor in the détente
of the 1970s. In 1999, Chancellor
defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking a full part
in the decisions surrounding the NATO war
and by sending German troops into combat for
the first time since World War II.
governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.
, U.S. support (JCS 1067
) during the rebuilding process (Industrial plans for Germany
after World War II, as well as fraternisation (War
), and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond
between the two countries, although Schröder's very vocal
opposition to the Iraq War
end of Atlanticism
and a relative
cooling of German-American relations. The two countries are also
economically interdependent: 8.8% of German exports are U.S.-bound
and 6.6% of German imports originate from the U.S. The other way
around, 8.8% of U.S. exports ship to Germany and 9.8% of U.S.
imports come from Germany. Other signs of the close ties include the
continuing position of German-Americans as the largest ethnic group
in the U.S. and the status of Ramstein Air Base (near Kaiserslautern) as the largest U.S. military community outside the
The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an
independent area of German foreign policy. It is formulated by the
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and
carried out by the implementing organisations. The German
government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the
Germany's official development
and humanitarian aid
2007 amounted to 8.96 billion euros (12.26 billion dollars), an
increase of 5.9 per cent from 2006. It has become the world's
second biggest aid donor after the United States. Germany spent
0.37 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) on development,
which is below the government's target of increasing aid to 0.51
per cent of GDP by 2010. The international target of 0.7% of GNP
would have not been reached either.
Germany's military, the Bundeswehr
, is a military force with
(Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst
(Central Medical Services) and Streitkräftebasis
Service) branches. Military service is compulsory for men at the
age of 18, and conscripts serve nine-month tours of duty.
Conscientious objectors may instead opt for an equal length of
as civilian service), or a six year commitment to (voluntary)
emergency services like a fire
, the Red Cross
. In 2003, military
spending constituted 1.5% of the country's GDP
. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is
commanded by the Minister of Defence, currently Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
Germany went to war, which according to the constitution is allowed
only for defensive purposes, the Chancellor would become commander
in chief of the Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr employs 200,500 professional soldiers, 55,000
18–25 year-old conscripts who serve for at least nine months
under current rules, and 2,500 active reservists at any given time.
Roughly 300,000 reservists are available to the Armed Forces and
participate in defense exercises as well as deployments abroad.
Since 2001 women can serve in all functions of service without
restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are
presently around 14,500 women on active duty and a number of female
reservists who take part in all duties including peacekeeping
missions and other operations. Two female medical officers have
been promoted to a General rank so far.
, the German military had about 8,300 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of various international peacekeeping forces, including 2,470 Bundeswehr soldiers in Kosovo, 4,520 German troops in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, and 450 troops with UNIFIL in Lebanon.
In 2009, Defense Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
that conditions in Afghanistan were "like a war", while it
previously had been referred to as "stabilisation and civilian
reconstruction", avoiding the word "war".
With 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous country
in the European Union. Its fertility rate
is one of the lowest in
Europe and counts 1.41 children per woman. Germany has a number
of large cities, the most populous being Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt and Stuttgart. By far the largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (12 million), including
Düsseldorf (the capital of NRW) and the
cities of Cologne, Essen, Dortmund, Duisburg, and Bochum.
As of December 2004, about seven million foreign citizens were
registered in Germany, and 19% of the country's residents were of
foreign or partially foreign descent. The young are more likely to
be of foreign descent than the old. 30% of Germans aged 15 years
and younger have at least one parent born abroad. In the big cities
60% of children aged 5 years and younger have at least one parent
largest group (2.7 million) is from Turkey, and a majority of the rest are from European
states such as Italy, Serbia, Greece, Poland, and
The United Nations Population
lists Germany as host to the third-highest number
of international migrants worldwide
, about 5% or 10 million of
all 191 million migrants, or about 12% of the population of
Germany. As a consequence of restrictions
to Germany's formerly
rather unrestricted laws on asylum
and immigration, the number of immigrants seeking asylum or
claiming German ethnicity (mostly from the former Soviet Union) has
been declining steadily since 2000.
Large numbers of people with full or significant German
ancestry are found in theUnited States (50 million), Brazil (5 million) and Canada (3 million).
About 3 million
"Aussiedler" — ethnic Germans, mainly from Eastern Europe and
the former Soviet Union — have resettled in Germany since
is the largest religious
denomination in Germany, with 52 million adherents (64%). 26.5
million are Protestants
25.5 million are Catholics
second largest religion is Islam
with 4.3 million adherents (5%) followed by Buddhism
with around 200,000 adherents (c. 0.25%). Hinduism
has some 90,000 adherents (0.1%) and
75,000 (0.09%). All other religious
communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 (or less than 0.05%)
adherents. About 24.4 million Germans (29.6%) have no registered religious denomination
is concentrated in the
north and east and Roman
is concentrated in the south and west. The current Pope, Benedict XVI, was
born in Bavaria. Non-religious
people, including atheists and agnostics, make up 29.6% of the population, and
are especially numerous in the former East
Germany and major metropolitan areas.
4.3 million Muslims, most are Sunnis and Alevites from
Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites.
1.7% of the country's overall
population declare themselves Orthodox Christians
being the most
numerous. Germany has Europe's third-largest Jewish population (after
France and the United Kingdom). In 2004, twice as many Jews from former
settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than
200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification.
cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt and Munich.
Around 250,000 active Buddhists
Germany; 50% of them are Asian immigrants.
According to the Eurobarometer Poll
2005, 47% of German citizens agreed with the statement "I believe
there is a God", whereas 25% agreed with "I believe there is some
sort of spirit or life force" and 25% said "I do not believe there
is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".
Knowledge of German in EU
German is the official and predominantly spoken language in
Germany. It is one of 23 official languages in the
European Union, and one of the three working languages of the European
Commission, along with English and French.
native minority languages in Germany are Danish
, and Frisian
. They are officially protected by
. Most used immigrant languages are
, the Balkan languages
, and Russian
The standard German is a West
and is closely related to and classified
, and the Frisian languages
. To a lesser extent, it
is also related to the East
(extinct) and North Germanic
. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic
branch of the Indo-European language family. Significant minorities
of words are derived from Latin
, with a smaller amount from French
and most recently English (known as
). German is written using the
Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has
three vowels with Umlauts
ä, ö, and ü, as well as the Eszett
) which is written "ß".
are distinguished from
of standard German
. The German dialects are the
traditional local varieties and are traced back to the different
German tribes. Many of them are not easily understandable to
someone who knows only standard German, since they often differ
from standard German in lexicon
, and syntax
Around the world, German is spoken by approximately 100 million
and also about 80
million non-native speakers. German is the main language of about
90 million people (18%) in the EU. 67% of German citizens claim to
be able to communicate in at least one foreign language, 27% in at
least two languages other than their own.
Germany is the largest national economy in Europe
, the fourth largest by nominal
in the world, and ranked fifth by GDP
in 2008. Since
the age of industrialisation
country has been a driver, innovator, and beneficiary of an ever
more globalised economy. Germany is the world's top exporter
$1.133 trillion exported in 2006 (Eurozone
countries are included) and generates a trade surplus
of €165 billion. The service sector
around 70% of the total GDP, industry 29.1%, and agriculture 0.9%.
Most of the country's products are in engineering, especially in
automobiles, machinery, metals, and chemical goods. Germany is the
leading producer of wind turbines and solar power technology in the
world. The largest annual international trade fairs and congresses
are held in several German cities such as Hanover, Frankfurt, and
Of the world's 500 largest stock market listed companies measured
, the Fortune Global 500
, 37 companies are
headquartered in Germany. In 2007 the ten biggest were Daimler, Volkswagen,
Allianz (the most profitable company), Siemens, Deutsche
Bank (2nd most profitable company), E.ON,
Deutsche Post, Deutsche Telekom, Metro, and BASF.
Among the largest employers are also Deutsche Post
, Robert Bosch GmbH
, and Edeka
. Well known global brands are Mercedes Benz
, and Nivea
Germany is a strong advocate of closer European economic and
political integration, and its commercial policies are increasingly
determined by agreements among European
(EU) members and EU single
legislation. Germany uses the common European currency,
the euro, and its monetary policy is set by the
Central Bank in Frankfurt.
Prior to 1999, the official
currency was the Deutsche Mark
. As of
1 January 1999, this was converted to the euro at an exchange rate
of 1 euro for 1.95583 German marks
accounting purposes. Actual euro coins
followed on 1 January
2002. Even after the German
in 1990, the standard of living
and annual income
remains significantly higher in the former West German states. The
modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy
continues to be a long-term process scheduled to last until the
year 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to
roughly $80 billion. The overall unemployment rate has consistently
fallen since 2005 and reached a 15-year low in June 2008 with 7.5%.
The percentage ranges from 6.2% in former West Germany to 12.7% in
former East Germany.
The nominal GDP of Germany contracted in the second and third
quarters of 2008, putting the country in a technical recession
following a global and European recession
January 2009 the German government under Angela Merkel approved a
€50 billion ($70 billion) economic stimulus plan to protect several
sectors from a downturn and a subsequent rise in unemployment
With its central position in Europe, Germany is an important
transportation hub. This is reflected in its dense and modern
transportation networks. The extensive motorway (Autobahn
) network that ranks worldwide third
largest in its total length and features a lack of blanket speed
limits on the majority of routes.
Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains
. The InterCityExpress
most advanced service category of the Deutsche Bahn
and serves major German cities
as well as destinations in neighbouring countries. The train
maximum speed varies between 160 km/h and 300 km/h.
Connections are offered at either 30-minute, hourly, or two-hourly
Germany is the world's fifth largest consumer of energy, and
two-thirds of its primary energy was imported in 2002. In the same
year, Germany was Europe's largest consumer of electricity,
totaling 512.9 terawatt-hours. Government policy promotes energy
conservation and the development of renewable energy
sources, such as solar,
hydroelectric, and geothermal
energy. As a result of energy-saving measures, energy efficiency
has been improving since
the beginning of the 1970s. The government has set the goal of
meeting half the country's energy demands from renewable sources by
In 2000, the government and the German nuclear power industry
agreed to phase out all nuclear
by 2021. Renewable energy still plays a more
modest role in energy consumption. In 2006, energy consumption was
met by the following sources: oil (35.7%); coal, including lignite
(23.9%); natural gas (22.8%); nuclear (12.6%); hydro and wind power
(1.3%); and other (3.7%). However, the share of renewable energy in
electricity supply has been rapidly increasing, reaching 14% in
2007. The German government has set a new target to increase this
share to 27% by 2020.
Germany has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers
in various scientific fields. The Nobel
has been awarded to 103 German laureates
. The work of
and Max Planck
was crucial to the foundation of
, which Werner Heisenberg
and Max Born
developed further. They were preceded by
physicists such as Hermann von
, Joseph von
, and Gabriel
. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
, which are called
(Röntgen-rays) in German and many other
languages. This accomplishment made him the first winner of the
Nobel Prize in Physics
Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun developed the first space rocket and later on was a prominent
member of NASA and
developed the Saturn V Moon rocket, which
paved the way for the success of the US Apollo program. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
's work in the
domain of electromagnetic
was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication
. Through his
construction of the first laboratory at the University
of Leipzig in 1879, Wilhelm Wundt
is credited with the establishment of psychology as an independent empirical
science. Alexander von
's work as a natural scientist and explorer was
foundational to biogeography
Numerous significant mathematicians
were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich Gauss
, David Hilbert
, Bernhard Riemann
, Gottfried Leibniz
, Karl Weierstrass
and Hermann Weyl
. Germany has been the home of many
, such as Johannes Gutenberg
, who is credited with
the invention of movable type printing
in Europe; Hans
, the creator of the Geiger
; and Konrad Zuse
, who built
the first fully automatic digital computer. German inventors,
engineers and industrialists such as Count
Ferdinand von Zeppelin
, Gottlieb Daimler
, Rudolf Diesel
and Karl Benz
modern automotive and air transportation technology.
Important research institutions in Germany are the Max Planck Society
, the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
. They are
independently or externally connected to the university system and
contribute to a considerable extent to the scientific output. The
Wilhelm Leibniz Prize
is granted to ten scientists and
academics every year. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it
is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world.
Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany lies primarily
with the federal states
individually, whilst the federal government only has a minor role.
provided for all children between three and six years old, after
which school attendance is compulsory
for at least nine years.
for four years and public schools are not stratified at this stage.
In contrast, secondary education
includes four types of schools based on a pupil's ability as
determined by teacher recommendations: the Gymnasium
enrols the most gifted
children and prepares students for university studies, and
attendance lasts eight or nine years depending on the state; the
has a broader range
of emphasis for intermediate students and lasts six years; the
prepares pupils for
vocational education, and the Gesamtschule
school combines the three approaches.
The Programme for
International Student Assessment
, coordinated by the OECD
, assesses the skills of 15-year-olds in OECD
countries and a number of partner countries. In 2006, German
schoolchildren improved their position compared to previous years,
being ranked (statistically) significantly above average (rank 13)
in science skills and statistically not significantly above or
below average in mathematical skills (rank 20) and reading skills
(rank 18). The socio-economic gradient was very high in Germany,
the pupils' performance in Germany being more dependent on
socio-economic factors than in most other countries.
A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung
("dual education") allows pupils in vocational training
to learn in a
company as well as in a state-run vocational school.
To enter a university in
, high school students are generally required to take
examination, which is
similar to A-levels in the UK
and typically done in the Gymnasium
at the age of 18 or
19. However, students possessing a diploma from a vocational school
may also apply for
in certain subjects.
Germany's universities are recognised internationally, indicating
the high education standards in the country. In the ARWU
2008, six of the top 100 universities in the world are in Germany,
and 18 in the top 200. Nearly all German universities are public
(i.e. non-private) institutions, charging tuition fees ranging from
€50–500 per semester for each student.
[[File:Beethoven.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Ludwig van Beethoven
Germany is historically called Das Land der Dichter und
(the land of poets and thinkers). German culture began
long before the rise of Germany as a nation-state
and spanned the entire
German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been
shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both
religious and secular
. As a result, it is
difficult to identify a specific German tradition separated from
the larger framework of European high
. Another consequence of these circumstances is the fact
that some historical figures, such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
, Franz Kafka
, though not citizens of Germany in the modern sense, must
be considered in the context of the German cultural sphere in order
to understand their historical situation, work and social
In Germany, the Federal States are in charge of the cultural
institutions. There are 240 subsidised theatres, hundreds of
symphonic orchestras, thousands of museums and over 25,000
libraries spread over the 16 states. These cultural opportunities
are enjoyed by many millions: there are over 91 million German
museum visits every year; annually, 20 million go to theatres and
operas; while 3.6 million listen to the great symphonic
Germany claims some of the world's most renowned classical music
Ludwig van Beethoven
, Johann Sebastian Bach
, Johannes Brahms
and Richard Wagner
. As of 2006, Germany is the
fifth largest music market in the world and has influenced pop
and rock music
through artists such as Kraftwerk
Numerous German painters have enjoyed international prestige
through their work in diverse artistic styles. Hans Holbein the Younger
, Matthias Grünewald
, and Albrecht Dürer
were important artists of
, Caspar David Friedrich
, and Max
contributions from Germany
include the Carolingian
, which were
important precursors of Romanesque
. The region later became
the site of significant works in styles such as Gothic
. Germany was particularly
important in the early modern
, especially through the Bauhaus
movement founded by Walter Gropius
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
also from Germany, became one of the world's most renowned
architects in the second half of the 20th century. The glass façade
skyscraper was his idea.
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the
works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide
Wolfram von Eschenbach
Various German authors and poets have won great renown, including
Johann Wolfgang von
. The collections of folk tales published by the
popularised German folklore
on an international
level.Influential authors of the 20th century include Thomas Mann
, Hermann Hesse
, Heinrich Böll
, and Günter Grass
Germany's influence on philosophy
is historically significant and many notable German philosophers
have helped shape western
since the Middle Ages. Gottfried Leibniz
's contributions to
; the establishment of
classical German idealism
, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
; Karl Marx
' formulation of
; Arthur Schopenhauer
's composition of
metaphysical pessimism; Friedrich
's development of Perspectivism
; Martin Heidegger
's works on Being; and the
social theories of Jürgen
were especially influential.
Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 34
million TV households.The many regional and national public
broadcasters are organised in line with the federal political
structure. Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite
TV, and viewers can choose from a variety of free-to-view public
and commercial channels. Pay-TV services have not become popular or
successful while public TV broadcasters ZDF and
ARD offer a range of digital-only
is home to some of the world's largest media conglomerates,
including Bertelsmann and the Axel Springer
Some of Germany's top free-to-air commercial TV
networks are owned by ProSiebenSat1.
The German book market produces around 60,000 new publications
every year. It represents 18% of all the books published worldwide
and puts Germany in third place among the world’s book producers.
The Frankfurt Book Fair
considered to be the most important book fair in the world for
international deals and trading and has a tradition that spans over
The country's news is provided for English speakers by news
magazine Der Spiegel
, state broadcaster
and news site The Local
In December 2008 the top visited websites by German internet users
.de, Google.com, YouTube
German cinema dates back to the very early years of the medium with
the work of Max Skladanowsky
was particularly influential during the years of the Weimar
Republic with German
such as Robert Wiene
and Friedrich Wilhelm
. Austrian-based director Fritz
, who became a German citizen in 1926 and whose career
flourished in the pre-war German film industry, is said to have
been a major influence on Hollywood cinema. His silent movie
(1927) is referred to
as the birth of modern Science Fiction movies.
In 1930 Austrian-American Josef von Sternberg directed The Blue Angel
, which was the first
major German sound film
and it brought
world fame to actress Marlene
. Impressionist documentary Berlin: Symphony of a Great
, directed by Walter
, is a prominent example of the city symphony genre.
The Nazi era produced mostly propaganda films although the work of
new aesthetics to film.
During the 1970s and 80s, New German
directors such as Volker Schlöndorff
, Werner Herzog
, and Rainer Werner
put West German cinema back on the international
stage with their often provocative films.More recently, films such
as Good Bye Lenin!
Gegen die Wand
(2004), Der Untergang
(2004), and Der Baader Meinhof Komplex
(2008) have enjoyed international success.
Award for Best Foreign Language Film
went to the German
in 1979, to Nowhere in Africa
in 2002, and to
Das Leben der Anderen
in 2007. Among the most famous German actors are Marlene Dietrich,
, Hanna Schygulla
, Armin Mueller-Stahl
, Jürgen Prochnow
, and Thomas Kretschmann
The Berlin Film Festival
annually since 1951, is one of the world's foremost film festivals.
An international jury places emphasis on representing films from
all over the world and awards the winners with the Golden and
Silver Bears. The annual European
ceremony is held every second year in the city of
Berlin, where the European Film
(EFA) is located. The Babelsberg Studios in Potsdam are the oldest large-scale film studios
in the world and a centre for international film
Sport forms an integral part of German life. Twenty-seven million
Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve
million pursue such an activity individually. Association football
is the most
popular sport. With more than 6.3 million official members, the
) is the largest
sports organisation of its kind worldwide. The Bundesliga
attracts the second
of any professional sports league in the
world. The German
national football team
won the FIFA
in 1954, 1974 and 1990 and the European Football
in 1972, 1980 and 1996. Germany has hosted the
FIFA World Cup in 1974
and the UEFA European Football
. Among the
most successful and renowned footballers areFranz Beckenbauer
, Gerd Müller
, Jürgen Klinsmann
, Lothar Matthäus
, and Oliver Kahn
. Other popular spectator sports
, and tennis
Germany is one of the leading motorsports countries in the world.
Race winning cars, teams and drivers have come from Germany. The
most successful Formula One
history, Michael Schumacher
set the most significant motorsport records during his career and
won more Formula One
races than any other driver since Formula One's debut season in
1946. He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history and became
a billionaire athlete. Constructors like BMW
are among the leading teams
in motorsport sponsorship. Porsche has won the
of Le Mans, a prestigious annual race held in France, 16
is a popular series in Germany.
Historically, German sportsmen have been some of the most
successful contenders in the Olympic
, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal
, combining East and West German medals. In the 2008 Summer Olympics
, Germany finished
fifth in the medal count, while in the 2006 Winter Olympics
first.Germany has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in Berlin in 1936 and in
Munich in 1972. The Winter Olympic Games took place in
Germany once in 1936 when they
were staged in the Bavarian twin towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen.
German cuisine varies from region to region. The southern regions
and Swabia, for
instance, share a culinary culture with Switzerland and Austria.
Pork, beef, and poultry are the main varieties of meat consumed in
Germany, with pork
being the most popular.
Throughout all regions, meat is often eaten in sausage form. More
than 1500 different types of sausage
produced in Germany. The most popular vegetables are potatoes,
cabbage, carrots, turnips, spinach, and beans.Organic food
has gained a market share of
around 3.0%, and is predicted to increase further.
A popular German saying has the meaning: "Breakfast like an
emperor, lunch like a king, and dine like a beggar." Breakfast is
usually a selection of breads and rolls with jam and honey or cold
meats and cheese, sometimes accompanied by a boiled egg. Cereals
or muesli with milk or yoghurt is less common
but widespread. More than 300 types of bread
are sold in bakery shops across the country.
As a country with many immigrants, Germany has adopted many
international dishes into its cuisine and daily eating habits.
dishes like Pizza
like Döner Kebab
are well established, especially in bigger
cities. International burger
well as Chinese
restaurants, are widespread. Indian
, and other Asian cuisines
have gained popularity in recent decades.Among nine high-profile
restaurants in Germany, the Michelin
has awarded three stars, the highest designation, while
15 more received two stars. German restaurants have become the
world's second most decorated after eateries in France.
is becoming more popular in many
parts of Germany, the national alcoholic drink is beer
. German beer consumption per person is declining
but—at 116 litres annually—it is still among the highest in the
world. Beer varieties include Alt
. Among 18 surveyed western
countries, Germany ranked 14th in the list of per capita
consumption of soft drinks in general, while it ranked third in the
consumption of fruit juices. Furthermore, carbonated mineral water
(its mixture with fruit juice) are very popular in Germany.
Since the 2006 World Cup celebrations the internal and external
perception of Germany's national image has changed. In annually
conducted global surveys known as Nation Brands Index
, Germany became
significantly and repeatedly higher ranked after the tournament.
People in 20 different states were asked to assess the country's
reputation in terms of culture, politics, exports, its people and
its attractiveness to tourists, immigrants and investments. Germany
has been named the world's most valued
among 50 countries in 2008. Another global opinion poll
based on 13,575 responses in 21 countries for the BBC
revealed that Germany is recognised for the most
positive influence in the world in 2009, leading 16 investigated
countries. A majority of 61% have a positive view of the country,
while 15% have a negative view.
Germany is a legally and socially tolerant country towards
homosexuals. Civil unions
permitted since 2001. Gays and lesbians can legally adopt their
partner's biological children (stepchild adoption). The mayors of
the two largest German cities, Berlin and Hamburg, are openly
During the last decade of the 20th century Germany has transformed
its attitude towards immigrants considerably. Until the
mid-nineties the opinion was widespread that Germany is not a
country of immigration, even though about 10% of the population
were of non-German origin. After the end of the influx of so-called
guest-workers), refugees were a tolerated exception to this point
of view. Today the government and German society are acknowledging
the opinion that controlled immigration should be allowed based on
the qualification of immigrants.
With an expenditure of €67 billion on international travel in 2008,
Germans invested more money in travel than any other country. The
most travelled foreign destinations were Spain, Italy and
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