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Ghosts (original Norwegianmarker title: Gengangere) is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It was written in 1881 and first staged in 1882.

Like many of Ibsen's better-known plays, Ghosts is a scathing commentary on 19th century morality.

Ghosts was written during the autumn of 1881 and was published in December of the same year. It was not performed in the theatre until May 1882, when a Danishmarker touring company produced it in the Aurora Turner Hall in Chicagomarker. Ibsen disliked the translator William Archer's use of the word 'Ghosts' as the play's title, whereas the Norwegian "Gengangere" would be more accurately translated as "The Revenants" , which literally means "The Ones who Return".

Note - This play was originally written in Danish and the word "Gengangere" is not Norwegian, the Norwegian word is "Gjengangere" but the translation is reasonable, literally translated it means "again walkers". On the other hand Norwegians also use the term about people who frequently show up in the same places, be they pubs, parties or first nights or other places or occasions.

The play achieved a single private Londonmarker performance on 13 March 1891 at the Royalty Theatremarker. The Lord Chamberlain's Office censorship was avoided by the formation of a subscription-only Independent Theatre Society, which included George Bernard Shaw, Thomas Hardy and Henry James among its members.


Helene Alving is about to dedicate an orphanage she has built in the memory of her dead husband, Captain Alving. She reveals to her spiritual advisor, Pastor Manders, that she has hidden the evils of her marriage, and has built the orphanage to deplete her husband's wealth so that their son, Osvald, might not inherit anything from him. Pastor Manders had previously advised her to return to her husband despite his philandering, and she followed his advice in the belief that her love for her husband would eventually reform him. However her husband's philandering continued until his death, and Mrs. Alving was unable to leave him prior for fear of being shunned by the community. During the action of the play she discovers that her son Osvald (whom she had sent away so that he would not be corrupted by his father) is suffering from congenital syphilis, and (worse) has fallen in love with Regina Engstrand, Mrs. Alving's maid, who is revealed to be an illegitimate daughter of Captain Alving, and thereby Osvald's own half-sister.

The play concludes with Mrs. Alving having to decide whether or not to euthanize her son Osvald in his developing syphillitic madness in accordance with his wishes. Her choice is left unknown.


  • Mrs. Helene Alving, a widow.
  • Oswald Alving, her son, a painter.
  • Pastor Manders.
  • Jacob Engstrand, a carpenter.
  • Regina Engstrand believes she is the daughter of Jacob Engstrand, but is actually Captain Alving's child. She is also Mrs. Alving's maid.


Much like A Doll's House, Ghosts was deliberately sensational. What most offended Ibsen's contemporaries was what they regarded as its shocking indecency, its more than frank treatment of a forbidden topic. An Englishmarker critic was later to describe it as "a dirty deed done in public," and to many it must have seemed simply shocking rather than in any profound intellectual sense revolutionary.

At the time, the mere mention of venereal disease was scandalous, but to show that even a person who followed society's ideals of morality had no protection against it was beyond the pale. Mrs. Alving's is not the noble life which Victorians believed would result from fulfilling one's duty rather than following one's desires. Those idealized beliefs are only the "ghosts" of the past, haunting the present.

The production of Ghosts scandalised Norwegian society of the day and Ibsen was strongly criticised. In 1898 when Ibsen was presented to King Oscar II of Swedenmarker, at a dinner in Ibsen's honour, the King told Ibsen that Ghosts was not a good play. After a pause, Ibsen exploded "Your Majesty, I had to write Ghosts!"

The following quotes are a collection of remarks regarding the play from a variety of newspapers and sources, written at the time that the play had its debut.

"Ibsen's positively abominable play entitled Ghosts....An open drain: a loathsome sore unbandaged; a dirty act done publicly....Gross, almost putrid indecorum....Literary carrion.... Crapulous stuff" - Daily Telegraph

"Revoltingly suggestive and blasphemous ....Characters either contradictory in themselves, uninteresting or abhorrent." - Daily Chronicle

"Morbid, unhealthy and disgusting story....A piece to bring the stage into disrepute and dishonour with every right-thinking man and woman." – Lloyd's

"Lugubrious diagnosis of sordid impropriety....Characters are prigs, pedants and profligates....Morbid caricatures.... Maunderings of nookshotten Norwegians" – Black and White

"As foul and filthy a concoction as has ever been allowed to disgrace the boards of an English theatre....dull and disgusting....Nastiness and malodorousness laid on thickly as with a trowel." – Era

"Ninety-seven percent of the people who go to see Ghosts are nasty-minded people who find the discussion of nasty subjects to their taste, in exact proportion to their nastiness" – Sporting and Dramatic News

"Ugly, nasty, discordant, and downright dull.... A gloomy sort of ghoul, bent on groping for horrors by night, and blinking like a stupid old owl when the warm sunlight of the best of life dances into his wrinkled eyes" – Gentlewoman

"The socialistic and the sexless....The unwomanly women, the unsexed females, the whole army of unprepossessing cranks in petticoats....Educated and muck-ferreting dogs.... Effeminate men and male women..... They all of them–men and women alike–know that they are doing not only a nasty but an illegal thing.... The Lord Chamberlain [the censor] left them alone to wallow in Ghosts.... Outside a silly clique, there is not the slightest interest in the Scandinavian humbug or all his works.... A wave of human folly" – Truth


  • Book Background, Penguins Classics, Henrik Ibsen: Ghosts and Other Plays ISBN 0-140-44135-2


  2. Theatreland Timeline (London Metropolitan Archives) accessed 11 Oct 2007
  3. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Modernism" in Modern Drama: A Definition and an Estimate. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1953. Page 9.

External links

  • (translated by R. Farquharson Sharp)
  • (translated by William Archer)
  • Ghosts study guide, themes, quotes, teacher resources
  • "Ghosts" audio drama version by the McCroskey Memorial Internet Playhouse
2009 play

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