The Full Wiki

Goa: Map

  
  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Goa ( ; ) is Indiamarker's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located on the west coast of India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtramarker to the north, and by Karnatakamarker to the east and south, while the Arabian Seamarker forms its western coast.

Panajimarker is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gamamarker is the largest city. The historic city of Margaomarker still exhibits the influence of Portuguesemarker culture, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants, and conquered it soon thereafter. The Portuguese overseas territory existed for about 450 years, until it was annexed by India in 1961.

Renowned for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture, Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year. It also has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot.

Etymology

The name Goa came to European languages from the Portuguese, but its precise origin is unclear. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names such as Gomanta, Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak. The Indian epic Mahabharata refers to the area now known as Goa, as Goparashtra or Govarashtra which means a nation of cowherds. Gopakapuri or Gopakapattanam were used in some ancient Sanskrit texts, and these names were also mentioned in other sacred Hindu texts such as the Harivansa and the Skanda Purana. In the latter, Goa is also known as Gomanchala. Parashurambhoomi is a name that the region is referred to in certain inscriptions and texts such as the Puranas. In the third century BCE, Goa was known as Aparantha, and is mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy. The Greeks referred to Goa as Nelkinda in the 13th century. Some other historical names for Goa are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.

History



Goa's known history stretches back to the third century BCE, when it formed part of the Mauryan Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the second century BCE and the sixth century CE, Goa was ruled by the Chutus of Karwarmarker as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapurmarker (second century BCE to the second century CE), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 CE), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtramarker, Bhojas of the Yadava clans of Gujaratmarker, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris. The rule later passed on to the Chalukyas of Badamimarker, who controlled it between 578 to 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhedmarker from 753 to 963. However from 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronized Jainism in Goa.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate. However, the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 they were forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbargamarker. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell to the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goamarker.

In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa).
Coat of Arms of Goa as a Portuguese possession (1675)


The Portuguese converted a large portion of their subjects in Goa to Christianity. The repeated wars of the Portuguese with the Marathas and the Deccan sultanate, along with the repressive religious policies of Portuguese led to large migrations of Goans to neighbouring areas. Goa was occupied by Britishmarker between 1812 and 1815 during the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjimmarker from Velha Goamarker. By mid-18th century the area under occupation had expanded to most of Goa's present day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesamarker, of which Goa was the largest territory.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to negotiate with India on the transfer of sovereignty of their Indian enclaves. On 12 December 1961, the Indian army commenced with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, Damman and Diu into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diumarker was made into a centrally administered Union Territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the Union Territory was split, and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining Union Territories.

Geography and climate

Goa coastline


Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km² (1,430 sq mile). It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateaumarker. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 meters (3,827 feet). Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 miles).

Goa's main rivers are the Mandovimarker, the Zuarimarker, the Terekholmarker, Chapora Rivermarker and the Sal. The Mormugao harbor on the mouth of the river Zuari is one of the best natural harbors in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157 miles). Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs.

Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterites which are rich in ferric aluminium oxides and reddish in color. Further inland and along the river banks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to plantation. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss estimated to be 3,600 million years old, dated by the Rubidium isotope dating method. A specimen of the rock is exhibited in the Goa University.

Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Seamarker, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.

Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February. These months are marked by nights of around 20 °C (68 °F) and days of around 29 °C (84 °F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the nights are a few degrees cooler.During March 2008 Goa was lashed with heavy rain and strong winds. This was the first time in 29 years that Goa had seen rain during March.

Subdivisions

The state is divided into two districts: North Goa and South Goa. Panajimarker is the headquarters of the north Goa district and Margaomarker of the south district. Each district is governed by a district collectormarker, an administrator appointed by the Indian government.

The districts are further divided into eleven talukas – Talukas of North Goa are Bardez, Bicholimmarker, Pernemmarker, Pondamarker, Sattari and Tiswadi, the talukas of South Goa are Canaconamarker, Mormugaomarker, Quepemmarker, Salcete and Sanguemmarker. Headquarters of the respective talukas are Mapusa, Bicholim, Pernem, Ponda, Valpoymarker, Panjim, Chaudi, Vasco, Quepem, Margao and Sanguem.

Goa's major cities include Vascomarker, Margaomarker , Mormugaomarker, Panajimarker and Mapusamarker. The region connecting the first four cities is considered a de facto conurbation, or a more or less continuous urban area.

Flora and fauna

Equatorial Forest cover in Goa stands at , most of which is owned by the government. Government owned forest is estimated at whilst private is given as . Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of the state. The Western Ghats, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue of National Geographic Magazine, Goa was compared with the Amazon and Congo basins for its rich tropical biodiversity.

Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles.

Rice is the main food crop with pulses, ragi and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconuts, cashewnuts, arecanuts, sugarcane and fruits like pineapples, mangos and bananas. The State has a rich forest cover of more than 1,424 km². Goa's state animal is the Gaur, the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul, which is a variation of Black-crested Bulbul, and the state tree is the Asan.
The important forests products are bamboo canes, Maratha barks, chillar barks and the bhirand. Coconut trees are ubiquitous and are present in almost all areas of Goa barring the elevated regions. A large number of deciduous vegetation consisting of teak, sal, cashew and mango trees are present. Fruits include jackfruits, mangos, pineapples and blackberries. Goa's Forest are rich with Medicinal plants.

Foxes, wild boars and migratory birds are found in the jungles of Goa. The avifauna includes kingfishers, mynas and parrots. Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. Crabs, lobsters, shrimps, jellyfish, oysters and catfish form some of the piscine catch. Goa also has a high snake population, which keeps the rodent population in control. Goa has many famous National Parks, including the renowned Salim Ali bird sanctuary. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Molem Wildlife Sanctuarymarker, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and the Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary located on the island of Chorao.

Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224.38 km²) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew, mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56.6% of the geographic area.

Economy

Gross State Domestic Product (in millions of Rupees)
Year GSDP
1980 3,980
1985 6,550
1990 12,570
1995 33,190
2000 76,980
Goa's gross state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at $3 billion in current prices. Goa is one of India's richest states with the highest GDP per capita and two and a half times that of the country as a whole, and one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000).
A famous hotel in Goa


Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it handles 12% of all foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the splendid climate. In the summer time (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across India come to spend the holidays. Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2004, there were more than 2 million tourists reported to have visited Goa, 400,000 of which were from abroad.

The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores and mining forms the second largest industry. Mining in Goa focuses on ores of iron, Bauxite, manganese, clays, limestone and silica. The Marmagaomarker Port handled 31.69 million tonnes of cargo last year, and accounts for over 39% of India's Iron Ore exports. The leaders in the Goan Iron Ore industry include Sesa Goa (now owned by Vedanta) and Dempo.Rampant mining in areas rich in Iron Ore and other minerals is now threatening the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Mining corporations are also indulging in illegal mining in some areas without proper permits.

Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizable portion of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca, cashew and coconut. The fishing industry provides employment for about forty thousand people, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, perhaps coupled with the fact that traditional fishing has given way to large-scale mechanised trawling.

Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilisers, tyres, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products.

Zuari Industries (2005 gross income Rs.36,302 million) and Sesa Goa (2005 gross income Rs.17,265 million) are two S&P CNX 500 conglomerates which have corporate offices in Goa. The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones (SEZs) in Goa. This is in stark contrast to policy followed by other states of India. SEZs are known to bring tax revenues for the government and employment option for local citizens since industries flock there for lower tax rates as compared to other areas. Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. This decision was taken by state government after strong opposition to SEZs by political parties and Goa Catholic Church.

Goa is also notable for its low liquor prices due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Another source of cash inflow into the state comes from many of its citizens who work abroad and remit money to their families.

Transport

Most of Goa is well connected by roads.


Goa's sole airport, the Dabolim Airportmarker, is both a military and civilian airport catering to domestic and international airlines that stop en route to other Indian destinations. The airport also handles a large number of chartered flights. Goa receives international flights from Dubai, Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East and from the United Kingdom, Germany and Russia during the charter flight tourist season. Dabolim airport is serviced by the following carriers – Air India, Indian Airlines, Kingfisher Airlines, Go Air, SpiceJet, Jet Airways besides Charter flights from the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany operated by Thomas Cook, Condor, Monarch Airlines etc.

Goa's public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, links both major routes (like the Panjim–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state. In large towns such as Panjim and Margao, intra-city buses ply. However, public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transport, usually motorised two-wheelers. Goa has two National Highways passing through it. NH-17 runs along India's west coast and links Goa to Mumbaimarker in the north and Mangaloremarker to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panjim to Belgaummarker in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccanmarker. The NH-17A connects NH-17 to Mormugaomarker Harbour from Cortalim, and the new NH-17B, is a four lane highway connecting Mormugao Harbour to NH-17 at another location, Verna, via Dabolim airport. Goa has a total of of National highway, of state highway and 815 km of district highway.

Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis, and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws. A unique form of transport in Goa is the Motorcycle taxi, operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots". These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are usually negotiated. River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation departments. Goa has two rail lines—one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goamarker with Hublimarker,Karnatakamarker via Margaomarker. The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.

The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. Panjim, which is situated on the banks of the Mandovi, also has a minor port, which used to handle passenger steamers between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.

Demographics

Hindu-Christianity Unity Memorial at Miramar Beach.
A native of Goa is called a Goan in English, Goenkar in Konkani, Goês (male) or Goesa (female) in Portuguese, and a Govekar in Marathi. Goa has a population of 1.344 million residents, making it India's fourth smallest (after Sikkimmarker, Mizorammarker and Arunachal Pradeshmarker). The population has a growth rate of 14.9% per decade. There are 363 people for each square kilometre of the land. Goa is the State with highest proportion of Urban Population with 49.76% where of the population live in urban areas. The literacy rate of Goa is over 82%. The sex ratio is 960 females to 1000 males. The birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007. Goa also is the State with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes at 0.04 % in India.

According to the 2001 census out of a total population of 1,343,998. 886,551 (65%) were Hindus, 359,568 (26%) were Christians, 92,210 (6%) were Muslims, 970 (0.07%) were Sikhs, 649 (0.04%) were Buddhists, 820 (0.06%) were Jains and 3530 (0.24%) belonged other religious communities.

Languages

The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani in the Devanagari script the sole official language of Goa, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. However, whilst there have been demands for according Marathi and Konkani in Roman script co-equal status in the state, , Konkani remained the sole official language.

The most widely used languages are Konkani, Marathi and English. Konkani is the primary spoken language and official; Marathi and English are used for literary, educational and some official purposes. Other languages in wide use include Hindi, and Portuguese. Portuguese, the language of the colonial elite, is used by shrinking number of speakers, though a small number still prefer it as the medium for discourse at home, and a few Portuguese books have even been published in recent years.

Tourism

Goa Carnival is one of the main attractions of Goa.


Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2004 there were more than 2 million tourists reported to have visited Goa, 400,000 of whom were from abroad.

Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the splendid climate. In the summertime (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across India come to spend the holidays.

With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of Portuguese culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than other parts of the country. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples.The Bom Jesus cathedral is another famous attraction in Goa.The Fort Aguada too is a major tourist attraction. Recently a Wax Museum on Indian history, culture and heritage has also opened in Old Goa.

Calangute Beach.


Historic sites and neighbourhoods

Goa has two World Heritage Sites: the Bom Jesus Basilicamarkerand a few designated convents. The Basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier, regarded by many Catholics as the patron saint of Goa (the patron of the Archdiocese of Goamarker is actually the Blessed Joseph Vaz). Once every twelve years, the body is taken down for veneration and for public viewing. The last such event was conducted in 2004. The Velhas Conquistas regions are also known for its Goa-Portuguese style architecture. There are many forts in Goa such as Tiracol, Chaporamarker, Corjuem, Aguadamarker, Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama.

In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas in Panaji has been declared a cultural quarter, showcasing the life, architecture and culture of Goa. Some influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples, notably the Mangueshi Temple and the Mahalasa Temple, although after 1961, many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.

Museums and Science Center

Goa also has a few museums, the two important ones being Goa State Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum. The Aviation museum is the only one of its kind in the whole of India. Also, a place not well known to tourists is the Goa Science Center, which is located in Panjim.

People and culture

The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the State. The festival of music and dance Shigmo Mel signifies unity in diversity. The Goan Carnival is known to attract a large number of tourists. Other prominent local festivals are Diwali, Christmas, Chavoth and Easter. Goa is also known for its New Year's celebrations.

Dance and music

Mando and dulpod are traditional goan musical forms. Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak, Bhajan and Kirtan. Many famous Indian Classical singers hail from Goa, such as Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Kishori Amonkar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra Abhisheki, Pandit Prabhakar Karekar. Some traditional Goan dance forms are dekhnni, fugdi, and corridinho. It is also the birthplace of Goa Trance.

Theatre

Natak,Tiatr and Zagor are the chief forms of Goa's traditional performance arts. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari, Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala. Stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance. The drummers, keyboard artists, and guitarists are part of the show and give the background score.

Food

Rice with fish curry (Xit kodi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut and coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers, spices and vinegar giving the food a unique flavour. Pork dishes such as Vindaloo, Xacuti and Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics. An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, Hindu and Christian alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas a variant of idli and Koilori a variant of dosa are native to Goa. A rich egg-based multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni; Cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms.

Architecture

Goan-Portuguese villa


The architecture of Goa is a combination of Indian, Mughal and Portuguesemarker styles. Since the Portuguese ruled for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture. Goa was also under the Mughal rule and thus one finds monuments built in the typical Mughal style complete with the domes. The typical Goan architecture is very simple and easy going and is visible in buildings like modern ones.

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in Goa and is embedded in Goan culture. Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part of a "Christian education". On 22 December 1959 the Associação de Futebol de Goa was formed, which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name, Goa Football Association. Goa, along with West Bengalmarker and Keralamarker. is the locus of football in the country and is home to many football club in India's I-League. The state's football powerhouses include Salgaocar, Dempo, Churchill Brothers, Vasco Sports Club and Sporting Clube de Goa. The state's main football stadium, Fatroda marker, is located at Margao and also hosts cricket matches.

A number of Goans have represented India in football, and four of them, namely Brahmanand Sankhwalkar, Bruno Coutinho, Mauricio Afonso, and Roberto Fernandes have all captained the national team at one time or another.

In recent decades, a growing influence of cricket is visible. Goa now has its own cricket team. Dilip Sardesai remains the only Goan till date to play international cricket for India.

Government and Politics

In the Parliament of India, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha.Goa's capital is Panajimarker, known as Panjim in English and earlier called Pangim in Portuguese times, and known in the local language as Ponnje is the administrative capital of Goa lying on the left bank of the Mandovi near Panaji. Goa's legislative assembly building is located in Porvorimmarker – the seat of the Goa assembly, which lies across the Mandovi River. The state's judicial hierarchy relates to Mumbaimarker (formerly known as Bombay, which is the capital of Goa's neighbouring Maharashtra state), as the state comes under the Bombay High Court. A bench of the High Court is present in Panaji. Unlike other states, which follow the British Indian model of civil laws framed for individual religions, the Portuguese Uniform Civil Code, based on the Napoleonic code, has been retained by the Goa government.Goa has a unicameral legislature consisting of a forty member Legislative Assembly, headed by a Chief Minister who wields the executive power. The present Chief Minister of Goa is Mr. Digambar Kamat and the Leader of Opposition is Mr. Manohar Parrikar. The ruling government consists of the party or coalition garnering the most seats in the state elections and enjoying the support of a simple majority of the House. The governor is appointed by the President of India. The governor's role is largely ceremonial, but plays a crucial role when it comes to deciding who should form the next government or in suspending the legislature as has happened in the recent past. After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990, Goa is now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005. In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the governor and President's Rule was declared, which suspended the legislature. A by-election in June 2005 saw the Congress coming back to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The Congress party and the BJP are the two largest parties in the state. In the assembly pole of 2007, Congress-led coalition won and started ruling the state. Other parties include the United Goans Democratic Party, the Nationalist Congress Party and the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party.

Media and Communication

Goa is served by almost all television channels available in India. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, has two free terrestrial channels on air.

DTH (Direct To Home) TV services are available from Dish TV, Tata Sky & DD Direct Plus. The All India Radio is the only radio channel in the state, broadcasting in both FM and AM bands. Two AM channels are broadcast, the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel at 1539 kHz. AIR's FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105.4 MHz. Private FM radio channels available are Big FM at 92.7 MHz, Radio Mirchi at 98.3 MHz, and Radio Indigo at 91.9 MHz. There is also an educational radio channel, Gyan Vani, run by IGNOUmarker broadcast from Panaji at 107.8 MHz. In 2006, St Xavier's College, Mapusa, became the first college in the state to launch a campus community radio station 'Voice of Xavier's'.

Major cellular service operators include Reliance Infocomm, Tata Indicom, Vodafone , Bharti Airtel, BSNLmarker and Idea cellular.

Local newspaper publications include the English language The Herald (Goa's oldest, once a Portuguese language paper known as O Heraldo), the Gomantak Times and the Navhind Times. In addition to these, The Times of India and the Indian Express are also received from Bombay and Bangalore in the urban areas. The Times of India has recently started publication from Goa itself serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Among the list of officially-accredited newspapers are Sunaparant in Konkani(Devanagari script), The Navhind Times, The Herald Times and The Gomantak Times in English; and Gomantak, Tarun Bharat, Navprabha, Goa Times, Sanatan Prabhat, Govadoot (all in Marathi). All are dailies. Other publications in the state include Goa Today (English-language, monthly), Goan Observer (English, weekly), Vavraddeancho Ixtt (Roman-script Konkani, weekly) Goa Messenger, Gulab (Konkani, monthly), Bimb (Devanagiri-script Konkani) .

Education

According to the 2001 census, Goa has a literacy rate of 82% with 89% of males and 76% of females being literate. Each taluka is made up of villages, each having a school run by the government. Due to the low levels of corruption and the quality of the government schools, private schools are less in demand, compared to the rest of the country. All schools come under the state SSC whose syllabus is prescribed by the state Education department. There are also a few schools run by the all-India ICSE board or NIOS board. Most students in Goa complete their high school using English as the medium of instruction. Primary schools, on the other hand are largely run in Konkani and marathi (in private, but government-aided schools). As is the case in most of India, enrollment for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education. As per a report published in the times of India, 84 % of Goan schools run without an administrative head.

After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary school, which offers courses in popular streams such as Science, Arts, Law and Commerce.A student may also opt for a course in vocational studies. Additionally, many join three year diploma courses. Two years of college is followed by a professional degree. Goa University is the sole university in the state located in Taleigao and all Goan colleges are affiliated to it. There are four engineering colleges and one medical college in the state. The Goa Engineering Collegemarker and Goa Medical Collegemarker are run by the state whereas the other three engineering colleges are run by private organisations.

Among the best known schools in Goa include Vidya Prabhodini at Porvorim, K.B. Hedgewar High School, the Progress high school, Don Bosco High School, People's high school, Mushtifund high school in panaji, A. J. De Almeida high school in ponda, Vidya Bharati Mahila Nutan, Manovikas in Margao etc.

Among the best known colleges in Goa include G.V.M's S.N.J.A higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M's college,St Xavier's College, Carmel College, Chowgule College, Dhempe College, Damodar College, MES College, etc.

The private engineering colleges are Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering and Information Technology, Shiroda, and Padre Conceicao College of Engineeringmarker, Verna. There are also colleges offering pharmacy, architecture and dentistry along with numerous private colleges offering law, arts, commerce and science. There is also two National Oceanographic Science related centres, NCAOR and the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in Vasco and Panjim. In 2004, BITS Pilanimarker university started its first Indian satellite, BITS Pilani Goa Campusmarker near Dabolim.

In addition to the Engineering colleges, there are quite a few polytechnic institutions such as the Father Agnel Polytechnic, Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology, Vasco da gama which impart technical and vocational training.

Many residents, however, choose to take up courses in other states as the demand for a course in Goa is more than that available. Goa is also well-known in India for courses in marine engineering, fisheries, hotel management and cuisine. The State also hosts one of the best business school in the country – the Goa Institute of Management which is autonomous and was founded in 1993 by Romuald D'Souza. Portuguese is taught as a part of the school curriculum, often as a third language in some schools. The Goa University also offers Bachelors and Masters degrees in Portuguese.

See also



Citations

References



External links




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message