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This article is about the Australian city, Gold Coast. For other uses, see Gold Coast.


The Gold Coast is a city in the southeast corner of Queenslandmarker, Australia. It is the second most populous city in the state and the sixth most populous city in the country. It is also the most populous non-capital city in the country. Gold Coast City is known for its sunny subtropical climate, surfing beaches, waterways and canal systems, a skyline dominated by high-rise apartment buildings, a rainforest hinterland in the west of the city, nightlife and its tourist attractions.

History

Captain James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in the HM Bark Endeavour.

Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Walesmarker, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Baymarker penal settlement hid in the region. The region remained largely uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beachmarker, which was named after his boat, a cutter named Mermaid.

The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid 1800s. The western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry. Later in 1875, Southportmarker was surveyed and established and quickly grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for the upper class Brisbanemarker residents.

In 1925, tourism to the area grew rapidly when Jim Cavill established the Surfers Paradise Hotel, which transformed to Circle on Cavillmarker neighbouring with Towers of Chevron Renaissancemarker shopping mall and resort apartment complex. The population grew steadily to support the tourism industry and by the 1940s, real estate speculators and journalists were referring to the area as the "Gold Coast." The true origin of the name is still debatable. The name was officially applied to the area in 1958, when the local government area covering Southportmarker and Coolangattamarker was renamed "Gold Coast", although the urban area and the local government area have never had the same boundaries.

During the 1970s, real-estate developers gained a dominant role in local politics, and high-rises began to dominate the area now known as Surfers Paradise and later in 1981 the airportmarker was established.

Geography

The Gold Coast can be reached from Brisbane by Pacific Motorway M1 (blue) and Pacific Highway (Highway 1) from Sydney and Newcastle.


Gold Coast City is situated in the southeast corner of Queenslandmarker, to the south of Brisbanemarker, the state capital. It is separated from Logan Citymarker, a suburban area of Brisbane by the Albert Rivermarker. There the Gold Coast City stretches from Yatalamarker and Russell Islandmarker to the border with New South Walesmarker approximately 56 km (35 miles) south, and extends west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Rangemarker in World Heritage listed Lamington National Parkmarker.

The southernmost town of Gold Coast City is Coolangattamarker which includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Headsmarker located directly across the border. At , this is the most easterly point on the Queensland mainland (Point Lookout on the offshore island of North Stradbrokemarker is slightly further east).

From Coolangatta, approximately forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, and then further on Stradbroke Island. The suburbs of Southportmarker and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre.

The major river in the area is the Nerang Rivermarker. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland was once wetlands drained by this river, but the swamps have been converted into man-made waterways (over 260 km, or over 9 times that of Venicemarker, Italymarker) and artificial islands covered in upmarket homes. The heavily developed coastal strip sits on a narrow barrier sandbar between these waterways and the sea.

To the west, the city is bordered by a part of the Great Dividing Rangemarker commonly referred to as the Gold Coast hinterland. A 206 km² section of the mountain range is protected by Lamington National Parkmarker and has been listed as a World Heritage area in recognition of its "outstanding geological features displayed around shield volcanic craters and the high number of rare and threatened rainforest species." The area is popular among bushwalkers and day-trippers.

Climate

Urban structure

The Gold Coast includes suburbs, localities, towns and rural districts.

Waterways

Waterfront homes
Waterfront canal living is a feature of the Gold Coast, and most canal frontage homes have pontoons. The Gold Coast Seaway, between The Spit and South Stradbroke Islandmarker, allows vessels direct access to the Pacific Oceanmarker from The Broadwater and many of the city's canal estates. Breakwaters on either side of the Seaway prevent longshore drift and the bar from silting up. A sand pumping operation on the Spit pipes sand under the Seaway to continue this natural process.

Residential canals were first built on the Gold Coast in 1950s and construction continues. Most canals are extensions to the Nerang River, but there are more to the south along Tallebudgera Creekmarker and Currumbin Creekmarker and to the north along the Gold Coast Broadwater, South Stradbroke Islandmarker, Coomera Rivermarker and southern Moreton Bay. Early canals included Florida Gardens, Isle of Capri which were under construction at the time of the 1954 flood. Recently constructed canals include Harbour Quays and Riverlinks completed in 2007. There is over 890 km of constructed residential waterfront land within the city that is home to over 80,000 residents.

Beaches

Surfers Paradise skyline
The city consists of 57 kilometres of coastline with some of the most popular surf breaks in Australia and the world including, South Stradbroke Islandmarker, The Spit, Main Beach, Surfers Paradise, Broadbeach, Mermaid Beach, Nobby Beach, Miami, Burleigh Beach, Burleigh Heads, Tallebudgera Beach, Palm Beach, Currumbin Beach, Tugun, Bilinga, Kirra, Coolangattamarker, Greenmount, Rainbow Bay, Snapper Rocks and Froggies Beach. Duranbah beach is one of the world's best known surfing beaches and is often thought of as being part of Gold Coast City, but is actually just across the New South Walesmarker state border in Tweed Shiremarker. The official name for the beach is Flagstaff Beach. Duranbah is a small town located about 12 kilometres southwest of the beach, but the name Duranbah Beach has become its accepted (if not official) identity.

There are also beaches along many of the Gold Coast's 860 km of navigable tidal waterways. Popular inland beaches include Southportmarker, Budds Beach, Marine Stadium, Currumbin Alley, Tallebudgera Estuary, Jacobs Well, Jabiru Island, Paradise Point, Harley Park Labrador, Santa Barbara, Boykambil and Evandale Lake.

Beach safety and management

The Gold Coast has Australia’s largest professional surf lifesaving service to protect people on the beaches and to promote surf safety throughout the community.

The Queensland Department of Primary Industries carries out the Queensland Shark Control Program (SCP) to protect swimmers from sharks. No fatal shark attacks have occurred on protected ocean beaches, tidal waterways or canals on the Gold Coast since 1958 (however two fatal attacks have been recorded in inland lake areas that are separate from the tidal waterways network since 2000). Sharks are caught by using nets and baited drumlines off the major swimming beaches. Even with the SCP, sharks do range within sight of the patrolled beaches. Lifeguards will clear swimmers from the water if it is considered that there is a safety risk.

Gold Coast beaches have experienced periods of severe beach erosion. In 1967, a series of 11 cyclones removed most of the sand from Gold Coast beaches. The Government of Queensland engaged engineers from Delft Universitymarker in the Netherlandsmarker to advise what to do about the beach erosion. The Delft Report was published in 1971 and outlined a series of works for Gold Coast Beaches including Gold Coast Seaway, works at Narrowneck that resulted in the Northern Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy and works at the Tweed River that became the Tweed River Entrance Sand Bypassing Project. By 2005 most of the recommendations of the 1971 Delft Report had been implemented. The Gold Coast City commenced implementation of the Palm Beach, Protection Strategy but ran into considerable opposition from the community participating in a NO REEF protest campaign. The Gold Coast City Council then committed to completing a review of beach management practices to update the Delft Report. The Gold Coast Shoreline Management Plan will be delivered by organisations including the EPA, Gold Coast City and the Griffith Centre for Coastal Managementmarker.

Gold Coast City is also investing into the quality and capacity of the Gold Coast Oceanway that provides sustainable transport along Gold Coast beaches.



Governance

The city is governed at the local level by the Gold Coast City, the second largest local government in the country. Its origins lie in two local governments established at the 10 June 1949 elections: Town of the South Coast, which merged the Town of Coolangatta, Town of Southport and part of the Shire of Nerang; and the Shire of Albert, which took in a large surrounding region. On 23 October 1959, South Coast was renamed Gold Coast and on 16 May 1959 it was proclaimed as a City. The modern Gold Coast City was created in 1995 when the existing City and the Shire of Albert merged. The council has 14 councillors, each representing a division of the City. Former Olympian Ron Clarke was elected mayor of the city in 2004 Former mayors include Gary Baildon, Lex Bell, Ray Stevens, Ern Harley and Sir Bruce Small, who was responsible for the development of many of the canal estates that are now home to thousands of Gold Coast residents.

The Gold Coast is represented at the state level by ten members in the Queensland Legislative Assembly. The seats they hold are: Albert, Broadwater, Burleigh, Coomera, Currumbin, Gaven, Mudgeeraba, Robina, Southport and Surfers Paradise.

Federally, the Gold Coast is represented by three members in the House of Representatives, whose seats are Fadden (northern), Moncrieff (central) and McPherson (southern). Some western areas are part of the Forde, which is centred in the Scenic Rim Region. Historically, the Gold Coast has been very safe for the conservative parties—only the areas around Labrador and Coolangatta lean Labor, and the three Gold Coast federal divisions have returned only Liberal Party representatives since 1986.

Southport Courthouse is the city's major courthouse and has jurisdiction to hear petty criminal offences and civil matters up to AU$250,000. Indictable offences, criminal sentencing and civil matters above AU$250,000 are heard in the higher Supreme Court of Queensland which is located in Brisbane. There are subsidiary Magistrates Courts, also located at the northern and southern suburbs of Beenleigh and Coolangattamarker.

Economy

In fifty years, Gold Coast City has grown from a small beachside holiday destination to Australia's sixth largest city. Situated within South East Queensland’s growth corridor, the city is now considered Australia’s fastest growing large city, with a 5 year annual average population growth rate of 3.4%, compared to 1.2% for Australia. Gross Regional Product has risen from A$9.7 billion in 2001, to A$15.6 billion in 2008, a rise of 61 percent. Tourism remains fundamental to Gold Coast City’s economy, with almost 10 million visitors a year to the area.

In the past the economy was driven by the population derived industries of construction, tourism and retail. Some diversification has taken place, with the city now having an industrial base formed of marine, education, information communication and technology, food, tourism, creative, environment and sports industries. These nine industries have been identified as the key industries by the Gold Coast City Council to deliver the city’s economic prosperity. Gold Coast City’s unemployment rate (5.6 per cent) is below the national level (5.9 per cent).

Tourism

A view from the QDeck, night
Around 10 million tourists visit the Gold Coast every year; comprising of 849,114 international visitors, 3,468,000 domestic overnight visitors and 5,366,000 daytrip visitors.

Tourism is the region’s biggest industry, directly contributing more than $4.4 billion into the city economy every year and directly accounting for one in four jobs in the city.

There are approximately 65,000 bed spaces, 60 kilometres of beach, 600 kilometres of canal, 100,000 hectares of nature reserve, 500 restaurants, 40 golf courses and 6 major theme parks in the city.

Gold Coast Airport provides connection across Australia with airlines including Jetstar, Virgin Blue and Tiger Airways. International services from Japan, New Zealand, Malaysia and Fiji also land at Gold Coast Airport with airlines including Jetstar, Air New Zealand, Pacific Blue, Airasia X and Air Pacific.

Brisbane Airport is less than one hour from the centre of the Gold Coast.

Film production

Gold Coast City is the major film production centre in Queensland and has accounted for 75% of all film production in Queensland since the 1990s, with an expenditure of around $150 million per year. Gold Coast is the third largest film production centre in Australia behind Sydneymarker and Melbournemarker. Warner Brothers have studios located just outside of the city, at Oxenford which have been the filming locations for films such as theScooby Doo films and House of Wax (2005). Many Bollywood films also use GC as a filming location, such as Singh Is Kinng.

Warner Roadshow Studios are adjacent to the Warner Bros Movie World Theme Park at Oxenford. The Studios consists of eight sound stages, production offices, editing rooms, wardrobe, construction workshops, water tanks and commissary.

These sounds stages vary in size and have an overall floor area of 10,844 sq metres, making Warner Roadshow Studio one of the largest studio lots in the Southern Hemisphere. Currently shooting there is the latest film in the award-winning Narnia series, The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, the largest production ever to be made on the Gold Coast.The Queensland Government actively supports the film and television production industry in Queensland and provides both non-financial and financial assistance through the Pacific Film and Television Commission.

The Gold Coast is also the filming site for the TV series, H2O: Just Add Water. Australia crime series The Strip is set on the Gold Coast. Big Brother Australiamarker was filmed at the Dreamworldmarker studios.

Culture

Sport and recreation

The Gold Coast is represented in four national competitions by the following teams:



Team name Competition Sport Years
Gold Coast Titans National Rugby League Rugby League 2007–Present
Gold Coast Blaze National Basketball League Basketball 2007–Present
Gold Coast Blue Tongues Australian Ice Hockey League Ice hockey 2007–Present
Gold Coast United FC A-League Football 2009–


Sporting facilities include the Carrara Stadiummarker, Carrara Indoor Sport Centre, Nerang Velodrome and the Sports Super Centre. Some of these facilities are being superseded by newer and larger capacity facilities. Two examples of these are the Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centremarker to play host to a Gold Coast Basketball team and Skilled Parkmarker to host NRL games.

Former World Wrestling Entertainment Superstar Nathan Jones comes from the Gold Coast, as does Olympic gold medal winning swimmer Grant Hackett.

Future teams in national competitions

Team name Current competition Future competition Sport Homeground Proposed admission
Gold Coast Football Club VFL Australian Football League Australian Rules Football Carrara Stadiummarker 2011


Former teams in national competitions

Team name Competition Sport Homeground Years
East Coast Aces Australian Rugby Championship Rugby Union Carrara Stadiummarker 2007

Gold Coast Chargers ARL Rugby League Carrara Stadiummarker 1995–1997
Gold Coast-Tweed Giants NSWRL Rugby League Seagulls Stadium 1988–1994


Events

The Gold Coast Indy 300marker (formerly known as Lexmark Indy 300) is a car racing event held annually, usually in October. The course runs through the streets of Surfers Paradise and Main Beach. The Indy 300 comprises many other events such as the Indy Undie Ball and the Miss Indy Competition. The V8 Supercars event also coincides with the Indy 300, using the same track route.

The Magic Millions carnival is the brainchild of entrepreneurs Gerry Harvey (of Harvey Normans) and John Singleton. There are plans to relocate and build a state of the art new racetrack at Palm Meadows which will incoporate the Magic Million sale with facilities for up to 4000 horses.

Each June, Coolangattamarker hosts the Wintersun Festival, a two-week 1950s and 1960s nostalgia festival with free entertainment and attractions, including hot rods, restored cars and revival bands playing music of the era.

Every July, more than 16,000 congregate on the Gold Coast from around the world to participate in the Gold Coast Marathon. It is also the largest annual community sporting event held on the Gold Coast.

Late November to early December sees thousands of school leavers across the country descend on the Gold Coast for Schoolies, a two week period of celebration and parties throughout Surfers Paradise, hosted by the Gold Coast City . The event is often criticised nationally and locally for its portrayal of drinking and acts of violence, however every effort by the Queensland Policemarker and State Government to ensure all school leavers have a good time are put into place, including locals volunteering by walking the streets and keeping an eye out for those in need of assistance.

Early each year the Gold Coast hosts one leg of the ASP World Tour of surfing, where some of the worlds best surfers compete in the Quiksilver Pro at Coolangatta.

The Gold Coast Arts Centre located in Evandale, features a fine art gallery featuring local and international works from painting to sculpture and new media. In addition, there is a theatre for live productions including musicals as well two arts cinemas showing foreign and independent films from Australia and abroad.

Media

The daily, local newspaper is The Gold Coast Bulletin which is published by News Corporation. The Gold Coast Sun and Gold Coast Mail are other local newspapers.

The Gold Coast is in the television broadcast licence areas of both Brisbane (metro) and Northern New South Wales (regional). The Brisbane networks are Seven, Nine and Ten. The regional affiliates are Prime Television, NBN Television and Southern Cross Ten. Both sets of commercial stations are available throughout the Gold Coast, as well as the ABCmarker and SBS television services. Subscription television services Foxtel (via cable) and Austar (via satellite) are also available.

Major FM radio stations include 92.5 Gold FM (a mix of 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and current hits), 90.9 SEA FM (Top 40, pop), 102.9 Hot Tomato (a mix of 80s 90s and Top 40), 99.4 Rebel FM (Rock), 100.6 Breeze FM (Classic Hits/Easy), 89.3 4CRB-FM (Christian), 91.7 ABC Coast FM (contemporary, ABC local news and information), 93.5 SBS (Brisbane), 94.1 Jazz Radio (jazz, blues and swing music), 97.7 JJJ Triple J (alternative and chart music), 104 4MBS Classic, 105.7 Radio Metro (dance, pop, R&B, and left field), 106 ABC Classic FM, and 107.3 LifeFM (Christian). Several Brisbane AM and FM radio stations can also be received.

National surfing magazine Australia's Surfing Life is published in the Gold Coast suburb of Burleigh Heads, by Morrison Media.

Tourism and landmarks



Tourism is Gold Coast City's main industry, generating total revenue of $2.5 billion per annum. Gold Coast is the most popular Queensland tourism location. It is Australia's 5th most visited destination in Australia by international tourists. It has over 13,000 available guest rooms contributing over $335 million to the local economy each year. Accommodation options available range from backpacker hostels to five star resorts and hotels. The most common style of accommodation is three and four star self-contained apartments.

Tourist attractions include surf beaches, and theme parks including, Dreamworldmarker, Sea Worldmarker, Wet'n'Wild Water Worldmarker, Warner Bros.marker Movie Worldmarker, WhiteWater Worldmarker, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary, David Fleay Wildlife Park, Australian Outback Spectacular and Paradise Country.

Q1

Since the opening of the worlds highest residential tower in 2005, the Q1 buildingmarker has been a destination for tourists and locals alike. It is the second highest public vantage point in the southern hemispheremarker after the Eureka Towermarker in Melbournemarker. The observation deck at level 77 is the highest of its kind in Queenslandmarker and offers views in all directions, from Brisbanemarker to Byron Baymarker. It towers over the Surfers Paradise skyline, with the observation deck 230 metres high, and the spire extending nearly another hundred metres up. In total, the Q1 is 322.5 metres high.

Meter maids

Bikini-clad meter maids were introduced in Surfers Paradise in 1965 in an attempt to put a positive spin on new parking regulations. To avoid tickets being issued for expired parking, the Meter Maids dispense coins into the meter and leave a calling card under the windscreen wiper of the vehicle. The Maids are still a part of the Surfers Paradise culture but the scheme is now run by private enterprise.

Education

The Gold Coast's education infrastructure includes:

Infrastructure

Health

The Gold Coast Hospitalmarker at Southportmarker is the city’s major teaching and referral hospital and the third largest in Queensland, attending to over 58,000 cases a year, and overseeing other services of the Gold Coast Health Service District as its head office. There is a second public hospital situated in Robina but this second campus is smaller and mainly comprises rehabilitation, psychiatric and palliative wards along with recently opened Emergency and Intensive Care Departments.

Private hospitals in the city include Allamanda Private Hospital located at Southportmarker, Pindara Hospital at Benowamarker and John Flynn Gold Coast Private Hospital at Tugun in the city's south.

Gold Coast University hospital

Late 2008, Gold Coast University hospital project has been begun, opening in 2012. It is located in Southport adjacent to Griffith Universitymarker Gold Coast campus.

Transport



Transport modes in the Gold Coast include cars, taxis, buses, ferries, rail and monorail, for commuting to work, visiting attractions, and travelling to other destinations, both domestically and internationally.

The car is the most dominant mode of transport in the Gold Coast, with over 70% of people using the car as their sole mode of travelling to work. A number of major roads connect the Gold Coast with Brisbane, New South Wales, and the surrounding areas. The Pacific Motorway (M1) is the main motorway in the area. Beginning at the Logan Motorway (M6) in Brisbane, it travels through the inland Gold Coast region and links with the Pacific Highway at the New South Wales/Queensland border near Tweed Headsmarker. Before the Tugun Bypass was completed in 2008, the motorway ended at Tugun. The Gold Coast Highway services the coastal suburbs of the Gold Coast, including Surfers Paradise, Southport, and Burleigh Heads. Starting at the Pacific Motorway at Tweed Heads, it runs parallel to the coast until it reaches Labrador, where it turns inland to meet the Pacific Motorway again at Helensvale. Other arterial roads include the Smith St Motorway, Reedy Creek Road, Nerang-Broadbeach Road and Bermuda St.

The Gold Coast's main provider of public bus services is Surfside Buslines. It is a part of the TransLink initiative by the Queensland Government, designed to coordinate the public transport providers in Brisbane and the surrounding areas. The majority of the bus routes that Surfside operates run along the Gold Coast Highway. Services are frequent during the day, with intervals being as little as 5 minutes between Southport and Burleigh Heads.

Queensland Rail operates rail services from Brisbane to the Gold Coast along the Gold Coast railway line. The line follows the same route as the Beenleigh railway line, continuing on after reaching Beenleigh. It then follows a route similar to that of the Pacific Motorway, passing stations at Coomera, Helensvale and Nerang, before terminating at Robina. An extension to Varsity Lakes is under construction, and a further extension to Coolangatta is proposed.

Gold Coast Airportmarker is located at Coolangattamarker, approximately 22 kilometres south of Surfers Paradise. Services are provided to interstate capitals and major cities as well as to major New Zealandmarker cities, Kuala Lumpur International Airportmarker, Malaysiamarker and Japanmarker.

The increasing population has resulted in an increase in traffic congestion. This has led to the Queensland State Government and Gold Coast City placing more effort into investing into sustainable transport. Examples include public transport including a new ferry service and the proposed rapid transit system and infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists such as the Gold Coast Oceanway.



Utilities

Electricity

Electricity for the Gold Coast is sourced from Powerlink Queensland at bulk supply substations which is provided via the National Electricity Market from an interconnected multi-State power system. The Government-owned electricity corporation Energex distributes and retails electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and value-added products and services to residential, industrial and commercial customers in South-East Queensland.

Water supplyThe Hinze Dammarker 15 km southwest of Nerang is the population's main water supply. The Little Nerang Dammarker which feeds into Hinze Dam can supplement part of the city area's water needs, and both are managed by the city council directorate Gold Coast Water. Reforms of the way in which the water industry is structured have been announced by the State Government, with transfer of ownership and management of water services from local government to the state occurring in 2008–09. Gold Coast City also sources water from Wivenhoe Dammarker, west of Brisbane for northern suburbs when the Hinze Dam, at one-tenth of Wivenhoe's capacity, becomes low. Water shortage and water restrictions have been current local issues, and a few new Gold Coast residential areas have recently included dual reticulation in their planning and development to supply water from a new water recycling plant being built concurrently. This will make available highly treated recycled water for use around the home in addition to potable water. The Gold Coast has received world recognition for this scheme in its Pimpama-Coomera suburbs. Gold Coast Water has also been recognised for its world leading HACCP water quality management system by the World Health Organisation which published Gold Coast Water's system as a good model for managing water quality and safety from catchment to tap. The Gold Coast desalination plant, which opened in February 2009, has the capacity to supply up to 133 megalitres of desalinated water per day.

Projects

Water
  • Raising Hinze Dammarker
  • The Gold Coast has been also debating a controversial cruise ship terminal.


Public transport

  • Gold Coast Rapid Transit System a light rail or bus rapid transport system running mainly along Smith Street and Gold Coast highway from Southport down to Coolangatta.




  • The Metropolis Rapid Transit, located at Movie World will be undergoing extensions.


Sister cities

According to the Gold Coast City Council Website, Gold Coast is twinned with:

See also



References

  1. Gold Coast City Council - Boating
  2. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves
  3. Gold Coast Lifeguard Services
  4. Queensland Shark Control Program
  5. Gold Coast Shark Attacks
  6. Delft Report
  7. Gold Coast Seaway
  8. Northern Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy
  9. Tweed River Entrance Sand Bypassign Project
  10. Palm Beach Protection Strategy
  11. No Reef Campaign
  12. Gold Coast Shoreline Management Plan
  13. Australian Bureau of Statistics, June 2008 Cat No. 3218.0 – Population estimates by Statistical Local Area 2001 – 2008
  14. National Institute of Employment and Industry Research (NIEIR) November 2007
  15. Tourism Research Australia Domestic and International Visitor Surveys
  16. ABS Regional Labour Force Survey February 2009
  17. GC Film Info
  18. Pacific Film and Television Commission
  19. Key Gold Coast Industries Report
  20. Gold Coast Hospital Profile
  21. Surfside Bus Services
  22. Gold Coast Rapid Transit
  23. Gold Coast City Council - Pimpama Coomera Master Plan Frequently Asked Questions
  24. WHO | Water safety plans: Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer


External links




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