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The Golden Hind (or Golden Hinde) ( ) was an Englishmarker galleon best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. She was originally known as the Pelican, but was later renamed by Drake mid-voyage in 1577, as he prepared to enter the Strait of Magellanmarker, calling it the Golden Hind to compliment his patron, Sir Christopher Hatton, whose armorial crest was a golden 'hind' (the heraldic term for a female deer). Hatton was one of the principal sponsors of Drake's world voyage.

History

In 1577 Sir Francis Drake was chosen as the leader of an expedition intended to pass around South America through the Strait of Magellanmarker and to explore the coast that lay beyond. The expedition was personally supported by Queen Elizabeth, which suited him well - he had official approval to benefit himself and the queen, as well as to cause the maximum damage to the Spaniards. This would eventually culminate into the Anglo–Spanish War. Before setting sail, Drake met the queen face-to-face for the first time and she said to him, "We would gladly be revenged on the King of Spain for divers injuries that we have received." The explicit object was to "find out places meet to have traffic." Drake, however, acted as a privateer, with unofficial support from Queen Elizabeth. He set sail in December with five small ships, manned by 164 men, and reached the Brazilianmarker coast in the spring of 1578. His flagship, the Pelican, which Drake later renamed the Golden Hind, displaced only about 100 tons.

On 1 March 1579, the Golden Hind took the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, which had the largest treasure captured to that date - over 360,000 Pesos. The six tons of treasure took six days to transship. Subsequently Drake sailed North, probably to around San Francisco Bay, claiming this land as 'Nova Albion', leaving on 23 July. He then came back across the Pacificmarker, reaching the Cape of Good Hopemarker on 18 June 1580 and Sierra Leonemarker on 22 July. On 26 September 1580, Francis Drake took his ship into Plymouth Harbour with only 56 of the original crew of 100 left aboard. Despite his piratical conduct on his voyages, Queen Elizabeth herself went aboard the Golden Hind, which was lying at Deptfordmarker in the Thames estuarymarker, and personally bestowed a knighthood on him; her share of the treasure came to almost £160,000 [...] enough to pay off her entire foreign debt and still have £40,000 left over to invest in a new trading company for the Levant. Her return and that of other investors came to £47 for every £1 invested, or a total return of 4,700%.

The table in the Middle Templemarker Hall (in the City of London) is reputed to have been made from the wood of the Golden Hind.

Replicas



A modern full size authentic replica of the ship, also called the Golden Hinde, was built by traditional handcraft in Appledore, North Devonmarker and launched in 1973. It has travelled more than 140,000 miles (225,000 km), a distance equal to more than five times around the globe. Like the original, it has circumnavigated the world. It first sailed, in 1973, to San Franciscomarker to commemorate Sir Francis Drake's claiming of Californiamarker for Queen Elizabeth I. In 1979-1980, it retraced Drake's around the world route. In 1981-1984, it berthed in Britain and was established as an educational museum. In 1984-1985, it circumnavigated the British Islesmarker and then sailed to the Caribbeanmarker. In 1986, it sailed through Panama Canalmarker to Canadamarker for the World's Fair in Vancouvermarker. In 1987, it began a US tour, visiting ports in Washingtonmarker, Oregonmarker, and Californiamarker. In 1988, it sailed back through the Panama Canal from California to Texasmarker. In 1989, it visited ports on the Gulf of Mexico. In 1990-1991, it visited ports on the east coast of the US. In 1992, it returned to tour the UK. It has been featured in three films, Swashbuckler (1976), Shogun (1979) and Drake's Venture (1980). Since 1996 it has been berthed at St Mary Overie Dock on Cathedral Street, in Banksidemarker, Southwarkmarker, Londonmarker, between Southwark Cathedralmarker and Clink Streetmarker ( ). It hosts visits from schools in which children can dress up as Tudor sailors and receive living history lessons about Elizabethan naval history.

A second replica has been permanently moored in the harbour of the sea port of Brixhammarker in Devon ( ) since 1963.

Details

  • Crew in the 16th century: 20 officers and gentlemen, from 40 to 60 crew, including a Master, Mate, Cook and 10 to 12 deckhands. The average height was 5'4" but many of the crew selected were taller to make more effective fighters. Francis Drake was about 5'6" tall.
  • Masts: 3
    • Sails 6, 5 square sails and lateen
  • Hull: wooden
  • Hull dimensions:
    • Length:
      • Overall: 120 ft (36.5 m)
      • Hull: 102 ft (31 m)
      • Waterline: 75 ft (23 m)
    • Breadth: 22 ft (6.7 m)
    • Depth: 13.5 ft (4.1 m)
    • Displacement: 300 tons (305 tonnes)
  • Beam: 20 ft (6 m)
  • Height of mainmast: 92 ft (27 m)
  • Sail area: 4150 sq ft (386 m²)
  • Speed (sail):
  • Steering: Drake used a pole attached to the rudder called a "whip staff". For safety, a conventional wheel is used in the two replicas.
  • Capstan: used for hauling up the anchor, located in the armoury and gun deck
  • Crew complement: 80-85
  • Armaments: 22 guns
    • 2 Peteras (small guns) on poop deck
    • 2 Peteras on fore deck
    • 2 Falcons (long range guns using two pound shot) in forecastle
    • 2 Falcons in stern
    • 14 Minions (guns using four pound shot) on gun deck
  • Load: ca. 100-150 tons (100-150 tonnes)


Other modern ships of the same name

For many years, a Great Lakesmarker dry bulk carrier was named Golden Hind, in honour of the original ship. She was a steam turbine powered tanker built in Collingwood, Ontariomarker, during 1951-1952. She sailed as the Imperial Woodbend under the Canadian flag for Imperial Oil. Transformed during the winter of 1954-1955 when Imperial's need for her ended, she was converted to a 601.50' dry bulk carrier at Port Weller, Ontariomarker. She resumed sailing for the Mohawk Navigation Company. Carrying primarily iron ore and grain cargoes, she sailed the Great Lakesmarker and the Saint Lawrence Seaway for many years until the downturn in the North American steel industry and changing patterns in the grain trade spelled her end. Laid up throughout much of the early half of the 1980s due to lack of cargoes, the veteran ore carrier was finally sold for scrap in 1986 after making a handful of trips for the Groupe Desgagnes fleet.

In popular culture

The onscreen symbol of Westward Television was a silver model of the Golden Hind.

On Firesign Theatre's album Everything You Know Is Wrong, a character named Bob Hind hosts a travel program called "The Golden Hind."

In the episode Hidden Valley of The Cisco Kid, the Golden Hind was the name of the ship captained by George Challis.

The train operating company First Great Western operate 2 services a day named after the Golden Hind. One being a service in the morning from Penzancemarker to London Paddingtonmarker and the other being a return journey in the evening.

See also



References

  1. "Sir Francis Drake" by Lord Simon Fitz Tomas
  2. Kelsey, Harry, Sir Francis Drake; The Queen's Pirate, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1998, ISBN 0-300-07182-5
  3. Cummins, John, Francis Drake: The Lives of a Hero, 1996, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312163657
  4. To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (2004) Herman, A. Harper Collins, New York ISBN 0-06-053424-9 p.88
  5. To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (2004) Herman, A. Harper Collins, New York ISBN 0-06-053424-9 p.89
  6. To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (2004) Herman, A. Harper Collins, New York ISBN 0-06-053424-9 p.90
  7. To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (2004) Herman, A. Harper Collins, New York ISBN 0-06-053424-9 p.94
  8. Turner, Michael. (2005). In Drake's Wake - The Early Voyages, Paul Mould Publishing. ISBN 978-1904959212
  9. John Sugden, "Sir Francis Drake" Simon Schuster New York, ISBN 0671758632
  10. Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea; A Naval History of Britain 660-1649. (London, 1997).


External links




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