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The Gospel of the Hebrews (see "About titles" below) is a lost gospel preserved only in a few quotations of the Church Fathers. It was written in Aramaic, and was the most widely known of the non canonical gospels. The Gospel of the Hebrews was the gospel in use among Hebrew Christian sects, which later separated from the Gentile Church. It enjoyed a good reputation but was later judged apocryphal.

As there is no text or a copy of a text, Biblical Scholars have not be able to ascertain many facts regarding authenticity or content. The only source of information to date has been the Church Fathers. The two central areas of controversy have to do with composition and titles.

It is important to note that scholars of the Early Church referred to it as the true Gospel of Matthew or "Matthaei Authenticum". If this were accurate, then this gospel would be important in understanding the Historical Jesus.

Composition

Traditionally, it is thought that the Gospel of Matthew found in the Bible is authentic. It is believed to be composed in Hebrew by Matthew and to be the first gospel written. Some modern biblical research attempt to show that this is not the case. Therefore the origins of Matthew's true gospel are contested by some of this research.

M Source

The Streeter's Four Document Hypothesis
The two-source hypothesis was the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem. It argued that Matthew borrowed from two Greek sources, the Gospel of Mark and a hypothetical sayings collection, known by scholars as Q. Therefore the Bible's Gospel of Matthew was composed in Greek at a later time than the Gospel of Mark. More importantly, scholars now believe it was not written by Matthew.

Streeter argued that a third source, referred to as M, and also hypothetical, lies behind the material in Matthew that has no parallel in Mark or Luke.[58928]

Through the remainder of the 20th century there were various challenges and refinements of Streeter's hypothesis. In 1953, Parker posited an early version of Matthew (Aramaic M) as the primary source of both Matthew and Mark, and Q source used by Matthew. The Church Fathers also wrote of an early version of Aramaic Matthew called the Gospel of the Hebrews

[58929]

Fathers of the Early Church

In the time of Jerome, most scholars believed that the Gospel of the Hebrews was the true Gospel of Matthew (or Mattheai Authenticum).[58930] Epiphanius confirms that Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews. In the Panarion in which Epiphanius discusses the gospel used by the followers of Cerinthus, Merinthus and the Ebionites he wrote: "They too accept Matthew's gospel and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews, for in truth, Matthew alone of the New Covenant writers expounded and declared the gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script."

Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minormarker during the first half of the second century, writes of the Gospel of the Hebrews. He starts by stating that Matthew composed the logia in the Hebrew tongue and each one interpreted them as he was able. He also notes that the story of the Sinful Woman was originally from the Gospel of the Hebrews.

Apart from Papias' comment, we do not hear about the author of the Gospel until Irenaeus around 185 who remarks that Matthew also issued a written Gospel of the Hebrews in their own language while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the Church.

Pantaenus, Origen and other Church Fathers also believed Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews. . Also, not one of the Church Fathers asserted that Matthew wrote the Greek Gospel found in the Bible.

Modern Critical Scholars

Scholars agree that there is a connection between the Gospel of the Hebrews and Matthew. A study of the external evidence regarding this gospel shows that there existed among the Nazarenes and Ebionites a gospel commonly called the Gospel of the Hebrews . It was written in Aramaic with Hebrew letters. Its authorship was attributed to St. Matthew.

Indeed the Fathers of the Church, while the Gospel of the Hebrews was still being circulated and read, referred to it always with respect, often with reverence: They accepted it as being the work of Matthew. This applies with tenfold to Jerome.

Matthew the Evangelist

After the Crucifixion, James the Just succeeded his brother Jesus of Nazareth as the leader of a small Jewish sect. [58931]

They were located in and about Jerusalemmarker and proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah. These early Jewish Christians were thought to have been called Nazerenes (Nazoreans). The term Nazarene was first applied to Jesus. After his death, it was the term used to identify the Jewish Sect that believed Jesus was the Messiah.

It is close to a historical certainty that Matthew belonged to this group as both the Gospels (pro-Christian) and the early Talmud (anti-Christian) affirm this to be true.

One account of the life and teachings of Jesus, dating from this time was written by a person named Matthew.

According to the Church Fathers, he was the same person as the Apostle Matthew, and his account was written in Aramaic

Origen explains, "The very first account to be written was by Matthew, once a tax collector, but later an apostle of Jesus Christ. Matthew published it for the converts from Judaism and composed it in Hebrew letters." Eusebius adds insight by explaining that the apostles "were led to write only under the pressure of necessity. Matthew, who had first preached the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going to other nations, committed the gospel to writing in his native language. Therefore he supplied the written word to make up for the lack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent."

Irenaeus gives us further insight into the date and circumstances of this gospel by explaining, "Matthew also issued a written Gospel of the Hebrews in their own language while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the Church."

Matthew's gospel reflects his occupation as a tax collector for it refers to money more often than any other, and does so using specific monetary terms . A Roman tax collector such as Matthew would have been highly capable of writing accurate and detailed records. Matthew's humility is evident, as he refers to his feast for Jesus as a dinner, while Luke calls it as a great banquet. Instead of attempting to conceal his identity, which would be a sign of untrustworthiness, the Matthew admits that he was a tax collector, which was a highly unpopular job among first-century Jews, who often considered them as traitors and cronies of the Roman Empire.

[58932]

Matthew, the tax collector and later an Apostle, composed his gospel near Jerusalem forHebrew Christians. It was then translated into Greek but the Greek copy was lost. The Hebrew original was preserved at the Library of Caesarea, which Pamphilus diligently gathered. The Nazarenes transcribed a copy for Jerome which he used in his work.
 [58933]


Matthew's gospel was called the Gospel of the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles, and was written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script. It used by the Nazarene communities. [58934]

Readership

Jerome identifies the writer and readers of this gospel as observant Jews, distinct from the culturally assimilated and Hellenized Jews, for whom the Greek Septuagint had been translated from Hebrew. It was used extensively by the followers of Hegesippus, Merinthus and Cerinthus as well as by the Ebionites and the Nazarenes.According to Pantaenus, it was also in circulation in India, having been brought there by Bartholomew. Pantaenus became head of the School in Alexandria and was responsible for much of the Library in Caesarea. In this library was preserved a copy of the Gospel of the Hebrews. The Nazarenes of Beroea gave a copy to Jerome.

Nazarene Communities

Early Jewish Christians were thought to have been called Nazerenes (Nazoreans). The term Nazarene was first applied to Jesus.

After his death, it was the term used to identify the Jewish Sect that believed Jesus was the Messiah. When this group grew into the Gentile world, they became known as Christians. By the fourth century, Nazarenes were considered Orthodox Christians who embraced the Jewish Law, but rejected Hebrew Heresies.

The Nazarenes are generally accepted as being the first Christians who were led by James the Just who was said to be the brother of Jesus. He led the Church from Jerusalem and had a special experience of the Risen Lord.

The Fathers of the Church believed the Nazarenes used the Gospel of the Hebrews.

Ebionite Communities

Irenaeus wrote that they used only one Gospel -- Matthew's Gospel. But, Eusebius writes that the Ebionites use only the Gospel of the Hebrews.

This confusion is clarified by Epiphanius who explained that the Ebionites used the Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew. Although the Ebionites "edited it", they never composed a gospel of their own.

At the beginning of the Christian era, Jewish Christian communities flourished throughout the Holy Land. The Ebionites were thought to be an offshoot of the Nazarenes. Their center was located east of the Jordan river near where John the Baptist had preached.

The origin of the name Ebionite (or Ebionaean) Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies 7 . 22 is debated. Tertullian, Irenaeus, Hippolytus of Rome, Epiphanius, and Jerome ascribed the movement to a heretic named Ebion or Hebion.Tertullian The Prescription Against Heretics 33, On the Flesh of Christ 14.18.; Irenaeus Against Heretics 5.1.3.; Hippolytus of Rome Refutation of All Heresies 7.23. - Heresy of Theodotus; and Epiphanius Heresies 30. Others claim the name Ebionite means "poor one" and is not derived from a person, but rather the Beatitude from Matthew 5:3. While some note they rejected material wealth, Eusebius and Origen both claimed the Ebionites' appellation was a term of derision indicating a poverty in intellect, rather than material possessions.Eusebius Church History 3.27.; Origen Origen de Principiis 4.22. Conflict grew between them and other Christians when the Ebionites failed to embrace the Church doctrines of chastity or celibacy as well as the concept of the Virgin birth. They believed Jesus was begotten of God at his baptism.

Conflict also grew over the issue of the Mosaic law which the Ebionites believed remained in full force. They believed that by fulfilling the law, they are able to become Christs.Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies 7.22. They are said to have rejected Paul's teachings and used only one Gospel, the Gospel of the Hebrews. They also have John the Baptist and Jesus being vegetarians, and rendering him in the adoptionist form. Many of these differences are found in subtle variants of Greek words, such as a meal of egkris (cake), rather than akris (locusts) as in the Synoptic Gospels

Epiphanius, whose writing is the main source for finding fragments of the Gospel of the Ebionites, emphasises that the Nazoraeans were considered part of the Christian orthodoxy, whereas the Ebionites were considered heretics, and so there may have been theological and doctrinal differences between the two gospels, possibly over the Virgin Birth which the Ebionites rejected.

Content

Although the Gospel of the Hebrews was not identical to the Greek Gospel of Matthew found in the Bible, they were similar.[58935]

The Gospel of the Hebrews was: 2200 lines, just 300 lines shorter than Greek Matthew.[58936]Scholars have been able to study much of the theological structure because of the Fathers of the Early Church.

No Virgin Birth or Genealogies

The Gospel of the Hebrews like Mark and John omits Virgin Birth and Genealogies,It commences as follows: '“In the days of King Herod of Judea, during the high-priesthood of Caiaphas, a certain man named John came baptizing with a baptism of repentance in the river Jordan. He was said to be of the family of Aaron the priest, son of Zechariah and Elizabeth, and all went out to him.” [58937]

Egypt

It should be noted that wherever Matthew (whether on his own account or in the person of Jesus) quotes the testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the language of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. Therefore these two forms exist, “Out of Egypt have I called my Son,” and, “For He will be called a Nazarene.” (See also margin of codex 1424 – This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophets, “Out of Egypt have I called my Son.”)[58938]

Jesus began his ministry at thirty years of age

In Matthew's Gospel that the Ebionites used called the Gospel of the Hebrews:
:There was a certain man named Jesus, about thirty years old, who chose us. Coming to Capernaum, He entered the house of Simon, who is called Peter, and said, "As I passed by the Sea of Galilee, I chose John and James, sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas Iscariot; and you Matthew, sitting at the tax office, I called and you followed me. You therefore, I want to be the Twelve, to symbolize Israel." And it so happened that John came baptizing, and Pharisees and all Jerusalem came out to him to get baptized. And John wore clothing made of camel hair and had a leather belt about his waist. His food, consisted of wild honey that tasted like manna, like sweet cake cooked in oil.”


[58939]

Baptism Of Jesus

In the Torah are different categories of sinful behavior. The sin of ignorance is a missing the mark, meaning that in order to learn from one's mistakes, one often misses the mark to the left or right hand through ignorance. When one has realized the mistake, one attempts to step back on the "way" or "path" of righteousness.

In the New Covenant this type of sin is often referred to as a "trespass". It is different than choosing evil or willful evil. In the Gospel of the Hebrews, The mother of Jesus and his brothers said to him that John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins; let us go and be baptized by him. Jesus replies "In what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless, perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance."

The Hebrew followers of Jesus believed that he was empowered by the Holy Spirit at his baptism, not at his birth. The important point in using the word "rest" above is that it refers to the Jewish belief that the Messiah's name will be called "Menachem", or "rest".

It should be noted that Greek Matthew does not include the idea of the "firstborn" son (implying that there will be others), while the Gospel of the Hebrews uses the second phrase as quoted in Psalm 2:7: "this day have I begotten you". In the Hebrew, as used in Zechariah 12:10, the word for "only" is yachid meaning "beloved" and implying the "firstborn" son, and as the Book of Hebrews states, that Yahvah would use Yahshua, His Firstborn, for "bringing many sons to glory" as an "elder brother".Finally it is also important to remember that the following was written in Hebrew, according to the Church Fathers:
:Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, "John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him." But Jesus said to them, "in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance" .After the people were baptized, Jesus also came and was baptized by John. And as Jesus came up from the water, Heaven was opened, and he saw the Holy Spirit descend in the form of a dove and enter into Him. And a voice from Heaven said, "You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased." And again, "Today I have begotten You. My Son, in all the prophets was I waiting for You that You should come and I might rest in You. For You are My rest. You are My first begotten Son that prevails forever" Immediately a great light shone around the place; and John, seeing it, said to him, ‘Who are you, Lord? And again a voice from Heaven said, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.’ Then John, falling down before him, said, ‘I beseech You, Lord, baptize me!’ But He forbade him saying, ‘Let it be so; for thus it is fitting that all things be fulfilled.
[58940][58941][58942][58943]

A Bodiless Demon

This very strange Gospel quotation found in the letter of Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans may be one of the oldest recorded sayings of Jesus. An Exegesis of the Sayings of the Lord by means of an in-depth analysis of the available Patristic evidence as well a comparison with the Hebrew Gospel tradition, leads to this conclusion.

The Gospel of the Hebrews states that when Jesus came to those with Peter, Jesus said to them, “Take hold of me, handle me, and see that I am not a bodiless demon.” Jerome also points out that the Apostles thought Jesus to be a to be spirit, for in the Gospel of the Hebrews Jesus says that he is not a “A bodiless demon”[58944]

Holy Spirit

Within Judaism, the Shekinah (or "visible" cloud of the Presence) is a feminine word, thought to be Yahvah's feminine aspect; therefore, they called the Spirit the "mother". You will note, likewise, that the Renewed City of Jerusalem that "descends from heaven" is also referred to as female, as the "mother" of us all. Jewish studies have shown that this Heavenly Jerusalem is a "palace of overcomers" (the Overcomer's Palace), and is called by the ancient Jewish kabbalists Binah ("Understanding"), a house with "many rooms" (in the New Covenant it is translated "many mansions"). The following verse, the motif in the book of Ezekiel where it is stated: "And he put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of mine head; and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem" , i.e. to a "holy mountain".

Thus in the Gospel the Hebrews we should not be surprised that after the temptation of Jesusit says, “Even so did my Mother, the Holy Spirit, took me by one of my hairs, and carried me to the great mountain Tabor." It should also be noted that “Spirit” in Hebrew is feminine, while in Latin itis masculine and in Greek it is neuter. In divinity there should be nogender. [58945][58946]

Brotherly Love

This is an important theme among Hebrews Christians. In Gospel of the Hebrews one of the greatest sins is "To grieve the spirit of one's brother." and we also read that the Lord spoke to his disciples saying "And never,be joyful, except when you look on your brother with love."

[58947][58948]

Seek and you will find

The Jews believed that when we seek ardently, we shall find, and when we find, we shall be in awe, and having come to an understanding, we shall be in the "house of understanding", reigning as priests and rulers with Yahshua, our Chief, and that will be our rest.

In the Gospel of the Hebrews this theology is summed up as follows:"He who seeks will not give up until he finds; and having found, he will marvel; and having marveled, he will reign; and having reigned, he will rest."

[58949][58950]

The Rich Young Man

I in the Gospel of the Hebrews:
The second rich youth said to him, “Rabbi, what good thing can I do and live?” Jesus replied, “Fulfill the law and the prophets.” “I have,” was the response Jesus said, “Go, sell all that you have and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me.” The youth began to fidget, for it did not please him. And the Lord said, “How can you say, I have fulfilled the law and the prophets, when it is written in the law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself and many of your brothers, sons of Abraham, are covered with filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, none of which goes out to them?” And he turned and said to Simon, his disciple, who was sitting by Him, “Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the Kingdom of Heaven.”
[58951][58952][58953]

The Sinful Women

Papias tells us that the Gospel of the Hebrews also gives story of a woman accused of many sins before the Lord. Scholars have noted the connection to the sinful woman in John's Gospel. There has been much debate but some believe this narrative is historical"[58954]

Levi

Didymus actually held The Gospel of the Hebrews to be more authortative than the Scriptures.He explains that there are many people with two names. Scripture calls Matthew “Levi” in the Gospel of Luke, but they are not the same person. Rather Matthias who replaced Judas, and Levi are the same man with a double name. This is obvious in the Gospel of the Hebrews.[58955][58956]

The Resurrection

This Gospel puts a particular emphasis on James the Just,[58957] as head of the Jerusalem church, and especially concentrates on arguing for obedience to Jewish law. James is portrayed in the Gospel as the first to have seen the Resurrection of Jesus.There was a belief among the Apostles that James, having been present at the Passover meal, did not believe his brother would be raised from the dead, but that Jesus visited him first after his resurrection.

The Canonical Gospels seem to evidence the fact that neither James nor his brothers were followers of Yahshua prior to the Resurrection and actually believed that he might be demented . At the Feast of Weeks, however, Judas the brother of James, is at least listed among the group of believers see . Jude, in his own epistle, claims verifies that he is the same "brother of James" . Paul would seem to provide the evidence that Jesus did, in fact, visit James after the resurrection but after Cephas and the twelve, then more than five hundred "brethren" who were still alive at the time of Paul's writing: "After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles". During the beginning of Lord's ministry, James did not believe Jesus was the Messiah; however, there was some great catalyst that changed his mind, for he became the leader of the Nazaraean community in Jerusalem and produced the Epistle of James written before 61 C.E. When he was stoned by the Sanhedrin under the authority of Ananus, the son or grandson of Annas who had been responsible for bringing Jesus to trial;

Eusebius quotes Hegesippus, who states: "This apostle was consecrated from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor fermented liquors, and abstained from anima food. A razor never came upon his head, he never anointed with oil, and never used a bath. He alone was allowed to enter the sanctuary. He never word woollen, but linen garments [i.e. as the priests did]...And indeed, on account of his exceeding great piety, he was called the Just, and Oblias (or Zaddick and Ozleam) which signifies justice and protection of the people. Some of the seven sects [of Judaism], therefore, of the people, mentioned by me above in my Commentaries, asked him what was the door to Jesus? And he answered, 'that he was the Saviour.'. From which, some believed that Jesus is the Christ..." .In the Gospel of the Hebrews it is written as follows:
:Now the Lord, when he had given the linen cloth to the servant of the priest, went to James and appeared to him, for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he had drunk the Lord's cup until he should see him risen from among them that sleep. And Lord says, "Bring a table and bread." And it is added, "He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, "My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of man is risen from among them that sleep."
[58958][58959]

About Titles

The name Gospel of the Hebrews appears to have also been a generic term, which has led to much confusion. The following is but a short list of its different names.

List of Names

  • Gospel of the Hebrews
  • Aramaic Matthew
  • The Authentic Gospel of Matthew
  • Gospel of the Apostles
  • The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles
  • The Hebrew Gospel
  • Aramic M (Modern Hypothetical title not found in the Early Church)
  • Gospel of the Nazarenes (Modern Hypothetical title not found in the Early Church)
  • Gospel of the Ebionites (Modern Hypothetical title not found in the Early Church)


The Early Church Fathers

According to the Church Fathers, there was only one Hebrew gospel in circulation during the time of the Early Church. In the Catalog of Eusebius, only one Hebrew gospel is listed: "And among these some have placed also the Gospel of the Hebrews with which those of the Hebrews that have accepted Christ are especially delighted."

Epiphanius confirms that there was only one Hebrew gospel: "They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews for, in truth, Matthew alone in the New Covenant expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script."More importantly, no Church Father ever contended that there were several Hebrew gospels in circulation. [58960]

Modern Historical Scholarship

However, modern scholars have called this into question. After explaining in great detail why the Church Fathers such as Epiphanius and Jerome were in error, Wilhelm Schneemelcher reaches the following conclusion: there are three distinct Jewish Gospels.
:1) The Gospel of the Nazarenes, which was read in Semitic speech and used among the Nazarenes and was similar to canonical Matthew.
:2) The Gospel of the Ebionites, which was used by heretical Jewish Christians.
:3) The Gospel of the Hebrews, which has no special relationship to any one of the canonical gospels, but contains syncretistic elements, and shows the heretical character of the Jewish Christian.


Although there is still ongoing debate about the Hebrew Gospel(s) and "only the very daring, nowadays, venture on speculations in regard to the Gospel of the Hebrews ", [58961] most scholars agree with Schneemelcher when he says, "Thus the number of Jewish Gospels -- whether there be one, two or three such gospels -- is uncertain, the identification of the several fragments is also uncertain and, finally the character and the relationship to one another of the several Jewish gospels is uncertain."[58962]

Non Canonical Status

One of the ongoing debates is why the Gospel of the Hebrews was left out of the Canon when the Church Fathers wrote that it was composed by Matthew.

Conspiracy Theories

Most of these theories revolve around the belief that the Roman Emperor Constantine conspired to deify Jesus Christ. Constantine personally selected the books of the New Testament. Other works such as the Gospel of the Hebrews were destroyed. He failed in his plan because of the extensive writings of the Church Fathers which preserved the "lost" gospels. [58963][58964]

Limited Hebrew Sphere

It is true that this gospel should not to be classed with the heretical gospels such as Marcion, nor with apocryphal Gospels of James and Nicodemus. It differs from the former in that it does not deviate from any major mainstream Christian beliefs about Jesus. It differed from the latter in that it narrated particulars mostly relating to the public ministry of Jesus.The Gospel of the Hebrews differs from the Biblical accounts only in that it is florid in style, diffuse in the relation of incidents, and inclined to sectional views of doctrine. Its sayings and incidents may have come from the oral tradition or from Matthew. There is still much uncertainty among scholars.

However it is a stretch to say it belongs in the canon but for some "conspiracy". The language the Gospel of the Hebrews confined it to a very limited Hebrew sphere, and its sectional character probably discouraged it from attaining a place in the Canon of the Church.[58965]

References

  • Adeney, W.F. (1904-1905) The Gospel According to the Hebrews. The Hibbert Journal 3.
  • Barnes, A.S. (1905) The Gospel According to the Hebrews. JTS 6.
  • Beatrice, P.F. (2006) Novum Testamentum, Volume 48, Number 2,Brill Pub.
  • Brock, S. (1971-1972) A New Testimonium to the 'Gospel according to the Hebrews' , NTS 18.
  • Cameron, R. (1982) The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts, Westminster John Knox Press
  • Cross, F.L. and E.A. Livingston (1988-92) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.
  • Crump, F.J. (1939) The Gospel according to the Hebrews Catholic University of America.
  • Dodd, J. (1933) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, Search publishing company,.
  • Epiphanius, Panarion.
  • Ehrman, B. (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press.
  • Eusebius' Church History.
  • Fisher, G.P. (1866) Essays on the Supernatural Origin of Christianity. Scribner & co.
  • Flournoy, P.P. (1903) The Gospel according to the Hebrews, Whittet & Shepperson Pub.
  • Irenaeus, Against Heresies.
  • Jerome, Against Pelagius.
  • Lillie, A. (2005) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, Kessinger Publishing.
  • Nicholson, E.B. (2009) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, BiblioBazaar, LLC.
  • Parker, P. (1933) Ancient citations of the gospel according to the Hebrews: a critical study, Pacific School of Religion.
  • Parker, P. (1934) A partial reconstruction of the Gospel according to the Hebrews, Pacific School of Religion.
  • Parker, P. (1953) The Gospel Before Mark, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Pick, B. (2005) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, Kessinger Publishing.
  • Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (1991) New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1, James Clarke & Co. Ltd.
  • Schonfield, H.J. (1984) According to the Hebrews, Georg Olms Verlag Pub.
  • Streeter, B.H. (1924) The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins Treating the Manuscript Tradition, MacMillian and Co., Ltd.

Notes

  1. G.P. Fisher, (1866) Essays on the Supernatural Origin of Christianity, Scribner & co., p 167
  2. Ron Cameron, (1982) The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts, Westminster John Knox Press, pp 83-86
  3. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew2.
  4. Bart Ehrman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p 40-45
  5. Bart Erhman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, pp. 43, 78-83
  6. Burnett H. Streeter (1924) The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins Treating the Manuscript, MacMillian and Co., Ltd.
  7. Pierson Parker (1953) The Gospel Before Mark, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  8. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 2 . 12
  9. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30 . 3 . 7
  10. Bart Ehrman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.43
  11. Eusebius, Church History 3 . 39 . 16
  12. Irenaeus Against Heresies 3 . 1 . 1
  13. Eusebius, Church History 5 10 3
  14. Eusebius, Church History 6 . 25 . 4
  15. Bart Ehrman (1999) Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.43
  16. Nicholson (2009) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, BiblioBazaar, LLC, pp 1 - 26
  17. Nicholson (2009) The Gospel According to the Hebrews, BiblioBazaar, LLC, p 82
  18. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (1988-92)The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, p 597&722.
  19. Gospel of Matthew 2:23
  20. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (1988-92)The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, p 597&722.
  21. Bernhard Pick (2006) The Talmud: What It Is and What It Knows of Jesus and His Followers, Kessinger Publishing, p 116
  22. Bernhard Pick, (2006)The Talmud: What It Is and What It Knows of Jesus and His Followers, Kessinger Publishing, pp 122, 125-129
  23. Eusebius Church History 3 . 39 . 14.
  24. Eusebius Church History, 6 . 25 . 4
  25. Eusebius Church History, 3 . 24 . 6
  26. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 3 . i . 1
  27. Werner G. Marx, (1979) Money Matters in Matthew, Bibliotheca Sacra 136 . 542 April-June 148 p 57
  28. Gospel of Mathew 9:9-10
  29. Gospel of Luke 5:29
  30. Thomas L. Constable (2000) Notes on Matthew, Garland, TX: Sonic Light, pp 3 - 5
  31. Eusebius of Caesarea who was born in Palestine in 275, and became Bishop of Caesarea. He was an important early historian of the Christian faith and is best known for his Church History in which he chronicles what he believed were important events starting with the birth of Jesus up to his own era. At the time of Eusebius there existed several different gospels recording the life of Jesus. Eusebius cataloged these writings and it is because of this catalog that we know of those early works (many of which were subsequently lost). His catalog consisted of three sections: *The Spurious Works (rejected books):These were gospels that the Church unanimously rejected as heretical. They were Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Matthias]] *The Homologoumena (accepted books):These works were accepted as authentic. Eventually they would be included in what would be called the New Testament Gospels. They were, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of John *The Controversial Works (disputed books): At the time of Eusebius there were also works that were controversial in the church. Although accepted by many, some early church leaders voiced concerns: The Didache, Diatessaron, Epistle to the Hebrews, Epistle of James, 2 Peter, 2 John , 3 John, Epistle of Jude, Revelation and the Gospel of the Hebrews
  32. Jerome, On Illustrious Men 3
  33. Jerome, Against Pelagius 3 .2
  34. Eusebius, Church History 5 . 10 . 3
  35. Jerome, On Illustrious Men 3
  36. Gospel of Matthew 2 . 23
  37. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (1988-92)The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press p 597&722.
  38. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  39. Epiphanius, Panarion 30
  40. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 1 . 26 . 2
  41. Eusebius, Church History, 3 . 27 . 4
  42. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30
  43. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston (editors), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 1990 p.438
  44. EpiphaniusPanarion 30 . 13
  45. Jerome, On Illustrious Men 3
  46. Epiphanius, Panarion 30 . 13 . 2
  47. Hebrews 2:10
  48. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 4
  49. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 11.2
  50. Jerome, Against Pelagius 3.2
  51. P.F. Beatrice, P.F. (2006) Novum Testamentum, Volume 48, Number 2, Brill Pub pp. 147-195
  52. Ignatius, Epistle to the Smyrnaeans
  53. P.F. Beatrice, P.F. (2006) Novum Testamentum, Volume 48, Number 2, Brill Pub pp. 147-195
  54. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah.
  55. Ezekiel 8 . 3
  56. Origen's Commentary on John 2:12
  57. Origen’s Homily on Jeremiah 15.4
  58. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 40 . 9
  59. Jerome Commentary on Ezekiel 18.7
  60. Jerome's Commentary on Ephesians 5.4
  61. Jerome's Commentary on Ephesians 3
  62. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 5 . 14 . 96
  63. Clement, Stromateis 2 . 9 . 45
  64. Origen, Commentary on Matthew 15 . 14
  65. Eusebius, Church History 3 . 39 . 16
  66. Didymus the Blind, Psalm Commentary 3
  67. see Mark 3:21; Luke 8:19-20; Matthew 12:46-50; John 7:1-9, especially verse 5
  68. Acts 1:14
  69. Jude 1
  70. 1 Corinthians 15:7
  71. Josephus, Antiquities 20 . 9 . 200
  72. Eusebius, Church History, 2 . 23
  73. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  74. Eusebius, Church History, Eusebius, 3 . 25 . 5
  75. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30 . 3 . 7
  76. Wilhelm Schneemelcher, (1991) New Testament Apocrypha, . Vol. 1, James Clarke & Co. Ltd. p 135


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