The Full Wiki

Government in exile: Map


Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their native country and regain power. They are distinguished from rump states in the sense that a rump state still controls at least part of its previous territory, whereas a government in exile has lost all its territory.

Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation. For example, during the German expansion of the Second World War, numerous European governments and monarchs were forced to seek refuge in the United Kingdommarker rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany.

Current governments in exile

Governments in exile often have little or no recognition from other powers. Governments in exile currently include:

Deposed governments of current states

The list below includes governments in exile that have been created by deposed governments/rulers who claim to still be the legitimate authority of a territory they once controlled (or were elected as the legitimate government of).

Name Exile since Country controlling its claimed territory Information References
Belarusian National Republic 1920 Republic of Belarusmarker It is currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Torontomarker, Canadamarker in a council of 14 called the Rada. See History of Belarus
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma 1990 Union of Myanmarmarker Currently led by Sein Win. It is composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office. It is based in Rockville, Marylandmarker, U.S.A.marker
Crown Council of Ethiopia 1993 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopiamarker The Crown Council of Ethiopia, led by H.I.H Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie and based in the Washington D.C.marker area, claims that the Emperor is still the legal head of Ethiopiamarker.
Monarchy of Iran 1979 Islamic Republic of Iranmarker The Monarchy of Iran, led by Reza Pahlavi and currently living in Potomac, Marylandmarker, U.S.A.marker
Monarchy of Lao 1975 Lao People's Democratic Republicmarker The Royal Lao Government in Exile, based in Parismarker, Francemarker

Alternative governments of current states

The list below consists of governments that have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties that aspire to become a territory’s actual governing authority, and have been created as alternatives to the government currently in control of the territory.

Name Year of claimed exile Note References
Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea 2003 Republic of Equatorial Guineamarker The Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea proclaimed Severo Moto "President of Equatorial Guinea" in Madridmarker, Spainmarker.
Government of Free Vietnam 1975 Socialist Republic of Vietnammarker Based in Garden Grove, Californiamarker and Missouri City, Texasmarker, USAmarker. Since 1995, has claimed to be a continuation of the Republic of Vietnam

Subnational governments

The list below refers to entities which currently function as independent states, but are claimed by the governments in exile to de jure form part of a different political entity.

Name Exile since Country controlling its claimed territory Information References
Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia 1993 Republic of Abkhazia A Georgianmarker provincial government whose territory is currently under the control of Abkhaz separatists. It is led by Malkhaz Akishbaia.
Provisional Administration of South Ossetia 2008 Republic of South Ossetia A Georgianmarker provincial administration whose territory is currently under the control of South Ossetian separatists. It is led by Dmitry Sanakoyev.

Territories occupied by a different state

The list below includes governments in exile of territories which are not fully independent today, but have been subsumed by a different political entity.

Name Exile since Country controlling its claimed territory Information References
Republic of Ambazonia 2004 Republic of Cameroonmarker Former British Mandate territory of Southern Cameroons. Declared independence on Dec 31 1999.
Biafran Government in Exile 2007 Federal Republic of Nigeriamarker Seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra. Declared independence on August 28, 2007. It is based in Washington, DCmarker.
Republic of Cabinda 1975 Republic of Angolamarker Based in Kinshasamarker, the Cabinda was invaded by Angolamarker in the year 1975. Cabinda had been a Portuguese protectorate, while Angolamarker had been a colony.
2000 Russian Federationmarker The government is largely based in Western Europe, Arab nations, and the United Statesmarker. Some members are fighting in the rebel movement against the Russian Army.
Republic of Serbian Krajina 2005 Republic of Croatiamarker Reconstituted on 26 February 2005 in Belgrademarker, Serbiamarker by the remains of the Government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence.
Interim Government of Federated Shan States 2005 Union of Myanmarmarker Aims to set up an independent state for the Shan ethnic group in territory currently controlled by Burma/Myanmar.
Republic of the South Moluccas 1950 Republic of Indonesiamarker The Republik Maluku Selatan, from the South Moluccas, Indonesiamarker, have been exiled in the Netherlandsmarker since 1950.
Central Tibetan Administration 1959 The Central Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama, a government in exile (based in Dharamsalamarker, Indiamarker), which claims to represent the people of Tibet.
The Government in Exile of East Turkestan Republic 2004 Seeking independence for East Turkestan from the People's Republic of China.
Western Kurdistan Government in Exile 2004 Syrian Arab Republicmarker Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria, currently based in Londonmarker, UKmarker.
1976 Kingdom of Moroccomarker Is headquartered in the Tindoufmarker region in Algeriamarker but controlling what it calls the "Free Zone" in the eastern part of Western Sahara. Claims de jure sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara.

Actions of governments in exile

International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
  • becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
  • amending or revising its own constitution
  • maintaining military forces
  • retaining (or "newly obtaining") diplomatic recognition by sovereign states
  • issuing identity cards
  • allowing the formation of new political parties
  • instituting democratic reforms
  • holding elections
  • allowing for direct (or more broadly-based) elections of its government officers, etc.

However, none of these actions can serve to legitimatize a government in exile to become the internationally recognized legal government of its current locality. By definition, a government in exile is spoken of in terms of its native country, hence it must return to its native country and regain power there in order to obtain legitimacy as the legal government of that geographic area.

Past governments in exile

Name Exiled/

Created(*) since


Integrated(°) since
Country controlling its claimed territory Information References
1795 1814° between 1795 and 1814 the Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile lived in Londonmarker following a French Invasion led by William V, Prince of Orange. Ultimately they returned to create the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.
Provisional Government of the Republic of Koreamarker 1919* 1948° Provisional Government of the Republic of Koreamarker, based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqingmarker. It was created in 1919 after March 1st Movement. After Japan’s defeat in World War II President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea
Revolutionary Government of Angola 1962* 1992° Republic of Angolamarker The Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile, founded in 1962 and based in Kinshasamarker, Congo-Kinshasamarker. The military branch known as the National Liberation Front of Angola was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament.
Estonian Government in Exile 1953* 1992° The Estonian Government in Exile was formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estoniamarker in exile, existing from 1953 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1992. It traced its legitimacy through constitutional succession to the last Estonian government in power prior to the Soviet invasion in 1940.
Second Spanish Republic 1939 1977 Spanish Statemarker Spanish Republican government in Exile after Francisco Franco's coup d'état. Based in Mexico Citymarker from 1939 to 1946 when it was moved to Parismarker where it lasted until Franco's death.
Democratic Republic of Georgiamarker 1921 1954 Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921 and based in Leuville-sur-Orgemarker, France.
Ukrainian National Republicmarker 1920 1992 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

 Second Polish Republicmarker

Czechoslovak Republicmarker

Kingdom of Romania
Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic in Exilemarker after the Soviet invasion of Ukraine in 1920.
Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front 1976* 2005 Republic of Indonesiamarker The Free Aceh Movement, a government in exile for the Acehmarker special territory of Indonesiamarker, is headquartered in Swedenmarker, which had surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian Government.
Bongo Doit Partir Late 1990s 2009 Gabonmarker Translated name: "Bongo must go". Founded by Daniel Mengara, this organization proclaimed itself the legitimate government of Gabon in opposition to president Omar Bongo. After Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections.
Missourimarker 1861 1865 United States of Americamarker (Union) Missouri had both Union and Confederate Governments, but the Confederate Government of Missouri was an exiled government, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texasmarker.

World War II and Cold war

Many countries established a government in exile after loss of sovereignty in connection with World War II:

The Provisional Government of Free India (1942–45) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war.

Other exiled leaders in Britain included King Zog of Albania and Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia.

Notable examples of occupied countries which retained partial sovereignty through their overseas territories included Belgiummarker, Vichy France and Free France.

The Danish exception

The Occupation of Denmark (9 April, 1940) was administered by the German Foreign Officemarker, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military administration. Denmarkmarker did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently for the first three years of German occupation. Meanwhile, Icelandmarker, Greenlandmarker and the Faroe Islandsmarker were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II)

Persian Gulf War

Following the Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwaitmarker on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabiamarker, where they set up a government-in-exile operating out of a luxury hotel in Dhahranmarker. The Kuwaiti government-in-exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks - of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Iraqi occupation and mobilising public opinion in the West in favor of war with Iraq. In March 1991, following the American victory in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.


See also


  1. Official website of the Belarusian National Republic
  2. NW World News Prayer Network: # 2577
  3. BBC "Timeline: Equatorial Guinea" # 2577
  4. Website of the Government of Free Vietnam
  5. Biafraland
  6. [1]
  7. [2]
  8. [3]
  11. [4]

Embed code:

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address