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The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. V c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdommarker. It was passed to expand participation of the natives in the government of India. The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Sir Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. This retraction of British imperialism was a result of India's enthusiastic participation in World War I.

The Act provided a dual form of government (a "dyarchy") for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the "transferred list", were given to a Government of minister answerable to the Provincial Council. The 'transferred list' included Agriculture, Health and Education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged.

At the same time, all other areas of government (the 'reserved list') remained under the control of the Viceroy. The 'reserved list' included Defence (the military), Foreign Affairs, and Communications.

The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged and reformed. It became a bicameral legislature for all India. The lower house was the Legislative Assembly of 144 members, of which 104 were elected and 40 were nominated. The upper house was the Council of States consisting of 34 elected and 26 nominated members. This structure allowed Britain to use the Princely States (who were directly represented in the Council of States) to offset the growing power of the native political parties.

The Act also provided for a High Commissioner who resided in Londonmarker, representing India in Great Britain.

The Indian National Congress was unhappy at these reforms and termed them as 'disappointing.' A special session was held in Mumbaimarker under Hasan Imam and the reforms were condemned. However, leaders such as Surendranath Banerjea were inclined to accept the reforms, so they left the Congress and formed the Indian Liberal Federation, which played a minor role in subsequent affairs.

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