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The Grand Duchy of Würzburg ( ) was a grand duchy of the Confederation of the Rhinemarker. Its capital was Würzburgmarker, now in Bavariamarker, Germanymarker.

As a consequence of the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, the Bishopric of Würzburgmarker was secularized in 1803 and granted to Bavaria. In the same year Ferdinand III, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, was compensated with the Electorate of Salzburg. In the Peace of Pressburg of 26 December 1805, Ferdinand lost Salzburg to the Austrian Empiremarker, but was compensated with the Würzburg territory, Bavaria having relinquished it in return for the Tyrol.

Ferdinand's state was briefly known as the Electorate of Würzburg (Kurfürstentum Würzburg), but it ceased to be an electorate with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire on 6 August 1806. As the Grand Duchy of Würzburg, it joined the Confederation of the Rhine on 30 September 1806. In 1810 it acquired Schweinfurtmarker.

After Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzigmarker, Ferdinand dissolved his alliance with the First French Empire on 26 October 1813. Through an Austrian-Bavarian treaty of 3 June 1814, Ferdinand lost his possessions to the Kingdom of Bavaria and the grand duchy was dissolved. Ferdinand was restored to a reconstituted Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the Congress of Vienna. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Würzburg was reestablished in 1821 without temporal power.

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