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Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor as of the early 20th Century (William R.
Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911).
During World War I and its aftermath (1914-1923), the government of the Ottoman Empire instigated a violent campaign against the Greek population of the Empire. The campaign included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, and summary expulsions. According to various sources, several hundred thousand Ottoman Greeks died during this period. Some of the survivors and expelled, especially those in Eastern provinces, took refuge in the neighbouring Russian Empiremarker. However, after the end of the 1919-22 Greco-Turkish War most of the Greeks migrated or were transferred to Greece under the terms of the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.

The government of Turkeymarker, the successor state to the Ottoman Empire, maintains that the large-scale campaign was triggered by the perception that the Greek population was sympathetic to the enemies of the Ottoman state. The Allies of World War I took a different view, condemning the Ottoman government-sponsored massacres as crimes against humanity. More recently, the International Association of Genocide Scholars passed a resolution in 2007 affirming that the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire, including the Greeks, was genocide. Some other organisations have also passed resolutions recognising the campaign as a genocide, as have the parliaments of Greecemarker and Cyprusmarker.


1914 Ottoman Turkish Statistics record the Ottoman Greek population as numbering approx.
1.8 million

Anatoliamarker or Asia Minor is a peninsula that forms the westernmost region of Western Asia, comprising most of the modern Republic of Turkeymarker. It is bounded by the Black Seamarker to the north, the Caucasus and the Iranian plateau to the east, Greater Syria (Upper Mesopotamia) to the southeast, the Mediterranean Seamarker to the south, the Aegean Seamarker to the west and the Balkan peninsula to the northwest. At the outbreak of World War I, Anatolia was ethnically diverse, its population including Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Kurds, Assyrians, Jews, and Laz people.

Among the causes for the Turkish campaign against the Greek population was a fear that the population would aid the Ottoman Empire's enemies, and a belief among some Turks that to become a modern nation state it was necessary to purge from the territories of the state those national groups who could threaten the integrity of a modern Turkish nation state.

According to a Germanmarker military attaché, the Ottoman Turkish minister of war Ismail Enver had declared in October 1915 that he wanted to "solve the Greek problem during the war... in the same way he believe[d] he solved the Armenian problem."


In the summer of 1914 the Special Organization (Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa), assisted by government and army officials, conscripted Greek men of military age from Thrace and western Anatoliamarker into labor battalions in which hundreds of thousands died. Sent hundreds of miles into the Interior of Anatolia, these conscripts were employed in road-making, building, tunnel excavating and other field work but their numbers were heavily reduced through either privations and ill-treatment or by outright massacre by their Turkish guards. This program of forced conscription later expanded to other regions of the Empire including Pontus.

Conscription of Greek men was supplemented by massacres and by deportations involving death marches of the general population. Greek villages and towns would be surrounded by Turks and their inhabitants massacred. Such was the story in Phocaeamarker (Greek: Φώκαια), a town in western Anatoliamarker twenty-five miles northwest of Smyrnamarker, on 12 June 1914 where the slain bodies of men, women and children were thrown down a well.

In July 1915 the Greek chargé d'affaires explained that the deportations "can not be any other issue than an annihilation war against the Greek nation in Turkey and as measures hereof they have been implementing forced conversions to Islam, in obvious aim to, that if after the end of the war there again would be a question of European intervention for the protection of the Christians, there will be as few of them left as possible." According to George W. Rendel of the British Foreign Office, by 1918 "... over 500,000 Greeks were deported of whom comparatively few survived." In his memoirs, the United States ambassador to the Ottoman Empire between 1913 and 1916 wrote "Everywhere the Greeks were gathered in groups and, under the so-called protection of Turkish gendarmes, they were transported, the larger part on foot, into the interior. Just how many were scattered in this fashion is not definitely known, the estimates varying anywhere from 200,000 up to 1,000,000."

On 14 January 1917 Cosswa Anckarsvärd, Sweden’s Ambassador to Constantinople, sent a dispatch regarding the deportation decision of the Ottoman Greeks:

Methods of destruction which caused death indirectly - such as deportations involving death marches, starvation in labour camps, concentration camps etc. - were referred to as "white massacres".

The Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919-20 saw charges brought against a number of leading Turkish officials for their part in ordering massacres against both Greeks and Armenians..

In an October 1920 report a British officer describes the aftermath of the massacres at Iznikmarker in north-western Anatolia in which he estimated that at least 100 decomposed mutilated bodies of men, women and children were present in and around a large cave about 300 yards outside the city walls.

The systematic massacre and deportation of Greeks in Asia Minor, a program which had come into effect in 1914, was a precursor to the atrocities perpetrated by both the Hellenic and Turkish armies during the Greco-Turkish War, a conflict which followed the Hellenic occupation of SmyrnaToynbee, p. 270. in May 1919 and continued until the Great Fire of Smyrna in September 1922. Limited Massacres of Turks were also carried out by the Hellenic troops during their mandate over a region of western Anatolia in May 1919 through to September 1922.

For the massacres that occurred during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922, British historian Arnold J. Toynbee wrote that it was the Greek landings that created the Turkish National Movement led by Mustafa Kemal:Toynbee (1922), pp. 312-313. "...The Greeks of 'Pontus' and the Turks of the Greek occupied territories, were in some degree victims of Mr. Venizelos's and Mr. Lloyd George's original miscalculations at Paris."

Relief efforts

In 1917 a relief organization by the name of the Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor was formed in response to the deportations and massacres of Greeks in Turkey. The committee worked in cooperation with the Near East Relief in distributing aid to Ottoman Greeks in Thrace and Asia Minor. The organisation disbanded in the summer of 1921 but Greek relief work was continued by other aid organisations.

Contemporary accounts

German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, as well as the 1922 memorandum compiled by George W. Rendel on "Turkish Massacres and Persecutions", have provided evidence for series of systematic massacres of the Greeks in Asia Minor. Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies: the genocide and its aftermath The quotes have been attributed to various diplomats, notably the German ambassadors Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim and Richard von Kühlmann, the German vice-consul in Samsounmarker Kuchhoff, Austria's ambassador Pallavicini and Samsoun consul Ernst von Kwiatkowski, and the Italian unofficial agent in Angoramarker Signor Tuozzi. Other quotes are from clergymen and activists, notably the German missionary Johannes Lepsius, and Stanley Hopkins of the Near East Relief. It must be noted that Germany and Austria-Hungary were allies of the Ottoman Empire in World War I.

The accounts describe systematic massacres, rapes and burnings of Greek villages, and attribute intent to Turkish officials, namely the Turkish Prime Minister Mahmud Sevket Pasha, Rafet Bey, Talat Pasha and Enver Pasha.

Additionally, The New York Times and its correspondents have made extensive references to the events, recording massacres, deportations, individual killings, rapes, burning of entire Greek villages, destruction of Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries, drafts for "Labor Brigades", looting, terrorism and other "atrocities" for Greek, Armenian and also for British and American citizens and government officials.Alexander Westwood and Darren O'Brien, Selected bylines and letters from The New York Times, The Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2006 The newspaper was awarded its first Pulitzer Prize in 1918 "for the most disinterested and meritorious public service rendered by an American newspaper—complete and accurate coverage of the war". More media of the time reported the events with similar titles.

Henry Morgenthau, the United States ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1913 to 1916 accused the "Turkish government" of a campaign of "outrageous terrorizing, cruel torturing, driving of women into harems, debauchery of innocent girls, the sale of many of them at 80 cents each, the murdering of hundreds of thousands and the deportation to and starvation in the desert of other hundreds of thousands, [and] the destruction of hundreds of villages and many cities", all part of "the willful execution" of a "scheme to annihilate the Armenian, Greek and Syrian Christians of Turkey."

United States Consul-General George Horton reports that "[o]ne of the cleverest statements circulated by the Turkish propagandists is to the effect that the massacred Christians were as bad as their executioners, that it was '50-50.' " On this issue he clarifies that "[h]ad the Greeks, after the massacres in the Pon­tus and at Smyrna, massacred all the Turks in Greece, the record would have been 50-50—almost." As an eye-witness, he also praises Greeks for their "conduct [...] toward the thousands of Turks residing in Greece, while the ferocious massacres were going on...", which, according to his opinion, was "one of the most inspiring and beautiful chapters in all that country’s history."Horton Horton's account, however, is potentially not impartial due to his long tenure in Greece, his marriage to a Greek-American, and his overwhelming pro-Christian beliefs.


According to various sources the Greek death toll in the Pontus region of Anatolia ranges from 300,000 to 360,000. Estimates for the death toll of Anatolian Greeks as a whole are significantly higher.

According to the International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples, between 1916 and 1923, up to 350,000 Greek Pontians were reportedly killed in massacres, persecution and death marches. United Nations document E/CN.4/1998/NGO/24 (page 3) acknowledging receipt of a letter by the "International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples" titled "A people in continued exodus" (i.e., Pontian Greeks) and putting the letter into internal circulation (Dated 1998-02-24)
If above link doesn't work, search United Nations documents for "A people in continued exodus" Merrill D. Peterson cites the death toll of 360,000 for the Greeks of Pontus. According to George K. Valavanis "The loss of human life among the Pontian Greeks, since the Great War (World War I) until March 1924, can be estimated at 353,000, as a result of murders, hangings, and from punishment, disease, and other hardships."

Constantine G Hatzidimitriou writes that "loss of life among Anatolian Greeks during the WWI period and its aftermath was approximately 735,370." Edward Hale Bierstadt states that "According to official testimony, the Turks since 1914 have slaughtered in cold blood 1,500,000 Armenians, and 500,000 Greeks, men women and children, without the slightest provocation.". At the Lausanne conference in late 1922 the British Foreign Minister Lord Curzon is recorded as saying "a million Greeks have been killed, deported or have died."


Article 142 of the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres, prepared after the first World War, called the Turkish regime "terrorist" and contained provisions "to repair so far as possible the wrongs inflicted on individuals in the course of the massacres perpetrated in Turkey during the war." The Treaty of Sèvres was never ratified by the Turkish government and ultimately was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne. That treaty was accompanied by a "Declaration of Amnesty", without containing any provision in respect to punishment of war crimes.

In 1923, a population exchange between Greece and Turkey resulted in a near-complete elimination of the Greek ethnic presence in Turkey and a similar elimination of the Turkish ethnic presence in much of Greece. According to the Greek census of 1928, 1,104,216 Ottoman Greeks had reached Greece. It is impossible to know exactly how many Greek inhabitants of Turkey died between 1914 and 1923, and how many ethnic Greeks of Anatolia were expelled to Greece or fled to the Soviet Unionmarker.. Some of the survivors and expelled took refuge in the neighboring Russian Empiremarker (later, Soviet Unionmarker).

Genocide recognition


The word genocide was coined in the early 1940s by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer of Jewish descent. In his writings on genocide, Lemkin is known to have detailed the fate of Greeks in Turkey. In August 1946 the New York Times reported:

The 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1948 and came into force in January 1951. It defines genocide in legal terms. There are a number of other genocide definitions used by historians and genocide scholars which some consider better suited for academic use.

Before the word genocide came to exist in the 1940s, the destruction of Ottoman Greeks was known, by Greeks, as 'the Massacre' (Greek: η Σφαγή) or 'the Great Catastrophe' (Greek: η Μεγάλη Καταστροφή) or "the Great Tragedy" (Greek: η Μεγάλη Τραγωδία). Primary source accounts would use improvised terms, such as "annihilation", "systematic extermination", "persistent campaign of massacre" and "wholesale massacre".Horton


In December 2007 the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS), an organization of the world’s foremost experts on genocide, passed a resolution affirming that the 1914-1923 campaign against Ottoman Greeks constituted genocide. Employing the term "Greek Genocide", it affirmed that Ottoman Greeks were subject to genocide alongside other groups, namely Armenians and Assyrians. The resolution was adopted on 1 December 2007 and the press release issued by the organization on 16 December. Greek Genocide 1914-23 Resolution from an IAGS press release as issued on 16 December 2007 The IAGS resolution was passed with an "overwhelming" majority. However, a few members of the organisation argued that more scholarship should be completed before a genocide resolution was endorsed. They included scholars who had researched and published on the Armenian Genocide, namely Taner Akcam, Peter Balakian, Stephen Feinstein, Eric Weitz and Robert Melson.

Mark Levene has speculated that some historians avoid using the term genocide in order to prevent their magnification by comparison with the Armenian Genocide.. Historian Mark Mazower states that the deportation of Greeks by the Ottomans was on a "relatively small scale and do not appear to have been designed to end in their victims' deaths. What was to happen with the Armenians was of a different order.". On the other hand, and as per the IAGS resolution, Niall Ferguson, for instance, has drawn a comparison with the fate of the Armenians and believes the term genocide is fitting. Moreover, genocide scholars, such as Dominik J. Schaller and Jürgen Zimmerer, have stated that the "genocidal quality of the murderous campaigns against Greeks" is "obvious".

Seminars and courses in several western universities examine the events. These include the University of New Mexicomarker the College of Charlestonmarker, the University of Michigan Dearbornmarker and the University of New South Walesmarker which has a dedicated research unit.


The Greek Parliament has passed two laws on the fate of the Ottoman Greeks; the first in 1994 and the second in 1998. The decrees were published in the Greek Government Gazette on 8 March 1994 and 13 October 1998 respectively. The 1994 decree affirmed the genocide in the Pontus region of Asia Minor and designated 19 May a day of commemoration, while the 1998 decree affirmed the genocide of Greeks in Asia Minor as a whole and designated 14 September a day of commemoration..

The Republic of Cyprusmarker also officially recognizes the events as genocide.

In response to the 1998 law, the Turkish government released a statement which claimed that describing the events as genocide was "without any historical basis". "We condemn and protest this resolution" a Turkish Foreign Ministry statement said. "With this resolution the Greek Parliament, which in fact has to apologize to the Turkish people for the large-scale destruction and massacres Greece perpetrated in Anatoliamarker, not only sustains the traditional Greek policy of distorting history, but it also displays that the expansionist Greek mentality is still alive" the statement added. The law passed by the Greek government also met some opposition domestically. For example, incorrectly interpreting the decree as pertaining to the Smyrna 1922 events and believing it to be politically motivated, the late Greek historian Angelos Elefantis claimed the Greek parliament was acting "like an idiot".

In his book With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide, Colin Tatz argue that Turkey denies the genocide so not to jeopardize "its ninety-five-year-old dream of becoming the beacon of democracy in the Near East". In their book Negotiating the Sacred: Blasphemy and Sacrilege in a Multicultural Society, Elizabeth Burns Coleman and Kevin White present a list of reasons explaining Turkey's inability to admit the genocides committed by the Young Turks

International community

The incidents are also recognized as genocide in some states of the USA. The states of South Carolinamarker, New Jerseymarker, Floridamarker, Massachusettsmarker, Pennsylvaniamarker, and Illinoismarker have passed resolution recognizing it. In addition, George E. Pataki, governor of the New York Statemarker issued a proclamation designating 19 May 2002 as Pontian Greek Genocide Remembrance Day, although since states within the United States do not have foreign-policy authority those statements are not legally binding on a federal US level.

Armeniamarker mentions the "Greek Genocide", its commemoration, and a death toll of 600,000 Greeks in Anatolia, in its first report to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages of the Council of Europe. In addition, on 19 May 2004 an event commemorating the Pontian Greek victims of the Greek Genocide was held in Yerevan, Armenia and was attended by "Greek ambassador to Armenia, Antonios Vlavianos, other dignitaries, government officials and ordinary Armenians".

In Australia, the issue was raised in the Parliament of Victoriamarker on 4 May 2006, by the Minister for Justice Jenny Mikakos. On 30 April 2009 the House of Assembly of the Parliament of South Australia passed a motion recognising "the genocide by the Ottoman state between 1915-1923" of Armenians, Greeks, Syrian and other minorities in Asia Minor.

On 7 June 2006 Stephen Pound, member of the British House of Commonsmarker linked the case of the Ottoman Greeks with the Armenians and Assyrians claiming that "3.5 million of the historic Christian population of Assyrians, Armenians and Greeks then living in the Ottoman empire had been murdered—starved to death or slaughtered—or exiled by 1923."

In Serbia, an event commemorating the Pontian Greek victims of the Greek Genocide was held in the Chapel of the Belgrade Theology School in 1998.

Nongovernmental organizations

In Germanymarker, organizations such as Verein der Völkermordgegner e.V (i.e. "Union against Genocide") or the initiative Mit einer Stimme sprechen (i.e. "Speaking with One Voice") aim at the official recognition of the genocide of Christian minorities, such as Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians in the late Ottoman Empire.

On 19 May 2007, the Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) issued a press release stating that the organization "joins with Pontian Greeks - and all Hellenes around the world - in commemorating 19 May, the international day of remembrance for the genocide initiated by the Ottoman Empire and continued by Kemalist Turkey against the historic Greek population of Pontus" and reaffirms its "determination to work together with all the victims of Turkey's atrocities to secure full recognition and justice for these crimes".

Reasons for limited recognition

The United Nations, the European Parliamentmarker, and the Council of Europe have not made any related statements. According to Constantine Fotiadis, professor of Modern Greek History at the Aristotle University of Thessalonikimarker, some of the reasons for the lack of wider recognition and delay in seeking acknowledgment of these events are as follows:Fotiadis,

  • The Greek Genocide was overshadowed by a larger Armenian Genocide, a view also shared by the historian Mark Levene.
  • In contrast to the Treaty of Sèvres, the superseding Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 dealt with these events by making no reference or mention, and thus sealed the end of the Asia Minor Catastrophe.
  • A subsequent peace treaty (Greco-Turkish Treaty of Friendship in June 1930) between Greece and Turkey. Greece made several concessions to settle all open issues between the two countries in return for peace in the region.
  • The Second World War, the Civil War, and the political turmoil in Greece that followed forced Greece to focus on its survival and other problems rather than seek recognition of these events.


Memorials commemorating the plight of Ottoman Greeks have been erected throughout Greece, as well as in a number of other countries including Germany, Canada, the United States and, more recently, Australia. Greek Genocide memorials and the act of commemoration in Greece have been subject to study by Michel Bruneau. Memorials become a place of focus on days of commemoration.

See also


  1. Hulse (NYT 2007)
  2. Bloxham. p. 150
  3. Levene (1998)
  4. Ferguson (2006), p. 180
  5. Hull (2005), p. 273.
  6. King, William C. (1922), p. 437
  7. Staff, The Atlanta Constitution, 17 June 1914, p. 1.
  8. Avedian, Vahagn, The Armenian Genocide 1915: From a Neutral Small State's Perspective: Sweden, p. 40
  9. Rendel G. W. (20 March 1922)
  10. Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
  11. p. 185.
  12. Rummel (Chapter 5)
  13. Taner Akcam, A Shameful Act, p. 322
  14. Nikolaos Hlamides, ‘‘The Greek Relief Committee: America’s Response to the Greek Genocide,’’ Genocide Studies and Prevention 3, 3 (December 2008): 375–383.
  15. Halo pp. 26, 27, & 28
  16. The New York Times Advanced search engine for article and headline archives (subscription necessary for viewing article content).
  17. Our Company, Awards, New York Times. See also Pulitzer Prizes awarded to the New York Times' staff.
  18. Kateb, Vahe Georges (2003). Australian Press Coverage of the Armenian Genocide 1915-1923, University of Wollongong, Graduate School of Journalism
  19. Morgenthau Calls for Check on Turks, New York Times, 5 September 1922, pg. 3
  20. Peterson
  21. Valavanis, p.24.
  22. Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G., American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces: September 1922, New Rochelle, New York: Caratzas, 2005, p. 2.
  23. Bierstadt
  24. "Turks Proclaim Banishment Edict to 1,000,000 Greeks", The New York Times, 2 December 1922, p.1.
  25. Treaty of Sevres
  26. Bassioun, pp. 62-63
  27. Geniki Statistiki Ypiresia tis Ellados (Statistical Annual of Greece), Statistika apotelesmata tis apografis sou plithysmou tis Ellados tis 15-16 Maiou 1928, pg.41. Athens: National Printing Office, 1930. Quoted in
  28. Ascherson p. 185
  29. MA Mcdonnell, AD Moses, "Raphael Lemkin as historian of genocide in the Americas", Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2005, pp. 501-529
  30. Karin Solveig Björnson, Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations in Comparative Perspective: In Comparative Perspective, Transaction Publishers, 1998 ISBN 0765804174, 9780765804174. p 133
  31. See e.g. Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G., American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces: September 1922, New Rochelle, New York: Caratzas, 2005, p. 1
  32. Morgenthau, p.153
  33. Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian, Greek Genocides
  36. Ferguson (2007) p.182
  37. Schaller, Dominik J.; Zimmerer, Jurgen, "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies", Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 10, Issue 1, March 2008, pp. 7-14.
  38. The University of New Mexico University Honors Program, The Holocaust, Genocide, and Intolerance (.pdf), p.28 Archived on December 21, 2006, from
  39. College of Charleston, New Carolina, Managing Diversity Syllabus, Migration Patterns. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  40. Before the Silence,The Armenian and Greek Genocides
  41. The Pontian Genocide and Asia Minor Holocaust Research Unit
  42. Issue 2645/98 & 2193/94, Government Gazette of the Hellenic Republic
  43. Cyprus Press Office, New York City
  44. Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information: Turkey Denounces Greek 'Genocide' Resolution (1998-09-30). Retrieved on 2007-02-05
  46. Tatz
  47. Negotiating the Sacred: Blasphemy and Sacrilege in a Multicultural Society, Elizabeth Burns Coleman, Kevin White, p.82
  48. South Carolina Recognition
  49. New Jersey Recognition
  50. Florida Recognition: HR 9161 - Pontian Greek Genocide of 1914-1922
  51. Massachusetts Recognition
  52. Pennsylvania Recognition
  53. Illinois recognition
  54. Proclamation by George E. Pataki, governor of the New York State
  55. Council of Europe, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, The First Report of the Republic of Armenia According to Paragraph 1 of Article 15 of European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Strasbourg, 2003-09-03, p.39. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  56. Victims of Pontian Greeks Genocide Commemorated in Armenia, ArmenPress, 19 May 2004 (Reproduction of article can be read here
  57. Victoria Parliament of Australia Raises the Genocide of the Greeks
  58. Hansard page 2517 House of Assembly, Parliament of South Australia. See also: Greeks divided as South Australia passes Genocide & South Australia 'yes' to genocide motion
  59. House of Commons Hansard Debates for 7 June 2006
  60. Event Commemorating the Genocide of the Greeks in Pontos Was Held in Belgrade, Macedonian Press Agency, 26 May 1998. failed retrieval 19 August 2008. ( alternative URL)
  61. Verein der Völkermordgegner e.V
  62. Mit einer Stimme sprechen
  63. ANCA Marks Pontian Greek Genocide Remembrance Day, 19 May 2007
  64. The Greek Genocide 1914-23: Memorials Accessed on 2008-09-18


  • Ascherson, Neal (1995). Black Sea, New York: Hill and Wang, ISBN 0-8090-3043-8.
  • Avedian, Vahagn, The Armenian Genocide 1915: From a Neutral Small State's Perspective: Sweden, Unpublished Master Thesis Paper, Uppsala University, 2009
  • Bassioun, M. Cherif (1999). Crimes Against Humanity in International Criminal Law, The Hague: Kluwer Law International, ISBN 90-411-1222-7.
  • Bierstadt, Edward Hale (1924). The Great Betrayal; A Survey of the Near East Problem, New York: R. M. McBride & Co.
  • Bloxham, Donald (2005). The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West, New York: Penguin Press, ISBN 1-5942-0100-5.
  • Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: Twentieth-century Conflict And the Descent of the West, Penguin Press.
  • Fotiadis, Constantinos Emm. (2004 ed.). The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks by the Turks: Volume 13, Thessaloniki: Herodotus.
  • Hull, Isabel V. (2005). Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Hulse, Carl (2007). U.S. and Turkey Thwart Armenian Genocide Bill, New York Times, 26 October 2007
  • King, Charles (2005). The Black Sea: A History, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • King, William C. (1922). King's Complete History of the World War: Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 1914-1918, The History Associates, Massachusetts.
  • Koromila, Marianna (2002). The Greeks and the Black Sea, Panorama Cultural Society.
  • Levene, Mark (1998). Creating a Modern "Zone of Genocide": The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 12, Number 3 Winter 1998, pp. 393-433. ( abstract).
  • Lieberman, Benjamin (2006). Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of Modern Europe, Ivan R. Dee.
  • Mildrasky, Manus I. (2005). The Killing Trap, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Morgenthau, Henry (1918). Morgenthau's Story, Garden City New York Doubleday, Page & Company.
  • Naimark, Norman M. (2001). Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe, Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.
  • Peterson, Merrill D. (2004). Starving Armenians: America and the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1930 and After, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press
  • Rendel, G. W. (20 March 1922). Foreign Office Memorandum on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice
  • Staff " Massacre of Greeks Charged to the Turks",The Atlanta Constitution, 17 June 1914.
  • Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw. "History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey", Cambridge University.
  • Taner, Akcam (2006). A Shameful Act
  • Halo, Thea (2001). Not Even My Name, New York: Picador USA.
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. (1922). The Western question in Greece and Turkey: a study in the contact of civilisations, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Valavanis, G.K. (1925). Contemporary General History of Pontus (Σύγχρονος Γενική Ιστορία του Πόντου), Athens.

Further reading

  • Akcam, Taner. From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide, New York: Zed Books, 2004.
  • Andreadis, George, Tamama: The Missing Girl of Pontos, Athens: Gordios, 1993.
  • Barton, James L. The Near East Relief, 1915-1930, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1943.
  • Barton, James L., Ara Sarafian, "Turkish Atrocities": Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915–1917, December 1998
  • Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh, New Rochelle, N.Y.: Aristide D. Caratzas, 1986.
  • Karayinnides, Ioannis. Ο γολγοθάς του Πόντου (The Golgotha of Pontus), Salonica: 1978.
  • Henry Morgenthau, Sr.. The Murder of a Nation, New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974, 1918.
  • —. I Was Sent to Athens, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.
  • —. An International Drama, London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930
  • Hofmann, Tessa (ed.), Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922, Münster: LIT, 2004. ISBN 3-8258-7823-6. (pp. 177-221 on Greeks)
  • Housepian Dobkin, Marjorie. Smyrna 1922: the Destruction of a City, New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
  • Murat, Jean De. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: the historic and systematic deception of world opinion concerning the hideous Christianity’s uprooting of 1922, Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens Greece: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
  • Oeconomos, Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom; a file of overwhelming evidence, denouncing the misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and showing their responsibility for the horrors of Smyrna, London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.
  • Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: on the basis of official documents, New York: Oxford University Press, American branch, 1919.
  • Pavlides, Ioannis. Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor, Salonica, Greece, 1980.
  • Tsirkinidis, Harry. At last we uprooted them…The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French archives, Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.
  • Ward, Mark H. The Deportations in Asia Minor 1921-1922, London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.


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