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Grudziądz ( , , ) is a city in northern Polandmarker on the Vistula River, with 99,090 inhabitants (2007). Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker (since 1999), the city was previously in the Toruń Voivodeship (1975-1998).

History



In 1291, the town (as Graudenz) received German Kulm law city rights from the monastic state of the Teutonic Knightsmarker it was located in. In 1440, the town joined the Prussian Confederation, and between 1466 and 1772, the city belonged to Polish province of Royal Prussia. Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the city (then called Graudenz) was annexed by the King Frederick II of Prussia and made part of the German Kingdom of Prussiamarker. In 1871, during the unification of Germany, it became part of the Prussian-led German Empiremarker.

City walls of Grudziądz, the southern side, 14th/15th century


After the construction of a railroad bridge across the Vistula in 1878, Graudenz became a rapidly growing industrialized city as well as a district centre in 1900. In the 1912 Reichstag elections, 21% of the votes were given to Polish candidates, while the National Liberal Party of Germany received 53% of all votes. On January 23, 1920, in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles, Grudziądz became part of the newly created Polish republicmarker. At the time, 84% of the population of the town and 58% of the county were German.

In the 20 years between the world wars, Grudziądz served as an important centre of culture and education with one of the biggest Polish military garrisons and several military schools located both within the confines of the city and around it. A large economic potential, and the existence of important institutions like the Pomeranian Tax Office and the Pomeranian Chamber of Industry and Trade, helped Grudziądz become the economic capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeshipmarker in the interwar period. Grudziądz's economic potential was featured at the First Pomeranian Exhibition of Agriculture and Industry in 1925, officially opened by Stanisław Wojciechowski, the President of the Second Polish Republicmarker.

The 64th and 65th Infantry Regiments and the 16th Light Artillery Regiment of the Polish Army were stationed in Grudziądz during the 19 years of interwar period. They were part of the 16th Infantry Division, which had its headquarters in the city, as did the cavalry's famous 18th Pomeranian Uhlans Regiment. The Grudziądz Centre of Cavalry Training educated many notable army commanders. Military education in Grudziądz was also provided by the Centre of the Gendarmerie, the Air School of Shooting and Bombarding, and the N.C.O. Professional School, which offered courses for infantry reserve officer cadets.

Historical population

of Grudziądz
1880 17,321
1905 35,958
1980 90,000
1990 102,300
1995 102,900
1999 102,434
2000 100,787
2006 99 578
2007 99 090


On September 3, 1939 military troops of Nazi Germany entered Grudziądz and, as Graudenz, annexed the city into the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, starting a five-year long occupation lasting till the end of World War II. Graudenz was the location of the German concentration camp Graudenz, a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration campmarker. As the result of heavy fighting in 1945, over 60% of the city was destroyed. Soviet Major Lev Kopelev is reporting those battles and the final surrender of the German garrison in his book "To Be Preserved Forever". At war's end, the German-speaking population of the city left or was expelled and replaced with Poles from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.

Notable residents



Education

  • Nicolaus Copernicus University
  • Grudziądzka Szkoła Wyższa


International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities



Gallery

File:Grudziadznoca.jpg|Night-time landscapeFile:Grudziadz kolegium jez.jpg|Former Jesuit college, today City CouncilFile:Grudziąc ulica st.jpg|Spichrzowa StreetFile:Graudenz Rynek.jpg|Memorial to a Polish soldier in the main squareFile:Grudziadz Kosciol Niepokalanego Serca NMP.JPG|St. Mary's ChurchFile:Graudenz Kirche.jpg|Church of St. Francis XavierFile:Grudziadz kosciol sw Mikolaja.jpg|St. Mikołaj (Nicholas) churchFile:Parkb cg hdr.jpg|Miejski Park

Notes

External links




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