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The State of Guerrero is a state in the southern meridional region of Mexicomarker. With an area of , it occupies about 3.3% of Mexican territory. It borders the Pacific Oceanmarker to the south (500 km), Michoacánmarker to the west (524 km), Oaxacamarker to the east (241 km), and Mexico Statemarker (216 km), Morelosmarker (88 km), and Pueblamarker to the north (128 km). Guerrero is named in honor of the second president of the republic, General Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 10, 1782February 14, 1831), a hero of the Mexican War of Independence. In 2003, the population was estimated at 3,167,400 people.

The state capital is Chilpancingo de los Bravomarker. Other important cities include Acapulcomarker, Petatlanmarker, Taxcomarker, Igualamarker, and Zihuatanejomarker.

Guerrero is an important tourist destination. There are three main areas of tourism, known as the Triángulo del Sol (T0riangle of the Sun). The first is Acapulcomarker. The second is Taxcomarker, a colonial town noted for its silverware. The third is Ixtapamarker/Zihuatanejomarker. Ixtapa was a destination created by the federal government during the slow economy of the 1980s to increase tourism.

History

During the 14th and 15th centuries, the mountain and coastal regions of Guerrero were occupied by Nahuatl-speaking people who practiced slash and burn farming in the tropical forests and cultivated small irrigated fields along the numerous river valleys. The Spanish conquest brought dramatic declines in the native population. However, unlike many other portions of Mexico, this decline was not offset by significant Spanish settlement. Rough topography, the low potential for economic development, and perceived health hazards were disincentives to settlement. As a result, agriculture and cattle raising were not common in the region until well into the 19th century. While Guerrero has experienced significant population growth and economic development during the last 60 years, the geographic pattern and character of this growth remain strongly influenced by the state's rugged physiography and limitations on transportation.

Geography

In most of Guerrero, a hot and humid climate with a summer rainy season prevails, although it has a complex geographical morphology that allows a more temperate climate in the central and northern regions.

The Sierra Madre del Sur range runs east and west through the state. The area north of the range lies in the basin of the Balsas River, which forms northwestern and western border of the state. South of the range, a number of short rivers drain towards the Pacific.

Flora and fauna

Five terrestrial ecoregions extend across the state.

The Southern Pacific dry forests lie on the southern slopes of the Sierra Madre del Sur, extending from the coast up to 1400 meters elevation. The forests are predominantly deciduous during the long dry season. The Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests occupy the higher slopes of the Sierra Madre del Sur. These forests harbor a great diversity of species, including many endemic orchids, butterflies, and birds. The Balsas dry forests lie in the basin of the Balsas River, north of the Sierra Madre del Sur, and are notable for the diversity of mammal species, including jaguarundi, coati, ocelot, and collared peccary. The northernmost part of the state includes portions of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests, which occupy the mountainous northern rim of the Balsas basin. The Mexican South Pacific mangroves are found in coastal lagoons along the coast of Michoacanmarker, Guerrero, and Oaxacamarker.

There are a variety of species of vegetation and wildlife in Guerrero. Notably this is an original location of the domestication of the Wild turkey and also the southern extent of the range of the subspecies of the Wild turkey that occurs in this region. Other birdlife native to Guerrero include the Broad-billed Hummingbird.

Demography

The state of Guerrero reports a population of 3´115,202 inhabitants, which represents only 3% of the nations total, and has had a birth rate of as little as 0,2% annually for the past five years.

14% of those over 5 years speak a native tongue, being the Nahuatl, Mixteco and Tlapaneco the most common ones, and 80% of the same segment speak no Spanish at all.

Regarding other statistics, 58% of the population lives in urban areas, being Acapulco de Juarezmarker de region with the highest concentration of people as it is the permanent home to 24% of the state population; also worth mentioning the facts that 73,215 persons or 2,4% of the states citizens migrated to the United States during 2005; that life expectancy in the state reaches 73 years in average; and that 89% of locals follow the catholic faith.

Demonym: Guererriense

Education

The state is lagging behind the national average, as 20% of the population over 15 years of age are illiterate, while one municipality, Cochoapa El Grande reports a disturbing 96% rate of illiteracy.

Institutions of higher education include:



Government and politics

The Constitution of the State of Guerrero provides that the government of Guerrero, like that of every other state in Mexico, consists of three powers: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary.

Executive power rests in the governor of Guerrero, who is directly elected by the citizens, using a secret ballot, to a 6-year term, with no possibility of reelection. Legislative power rests in the Congress of Guerrero, which is a unicameral. Judicial power is invested in the Superior Court of Justice of Guerrero.

Municipalities

Regions and municipalities of Guerrero


The State of Guerrero is divided into 7 regions (regiones): Acapulco, Centro, Costa Chica, Costa Grande, Montaña, Norte, and Tierra Caliente.These are subdivided into 81 municipalities, each headed by a municipal president (mayor). Most municipalities are named after the city that serves as municipal seat; e.g., the municipal seat of the Municipality of Chilpancingo is the City of Chilpancingo de los Bravosmarker.

Major communities



Municipalities

Acapulco de Juarezmarker,Ahuacuotzingo,Ajuchitlan del Progreso,Alcozauca de Guerrero,Alpoyeca,Apaxtla,Arcelia,Atenango del Rio,Atlamajalcingo del Monte,Atlixtac,Atoyac de Alvarez,Ayutla de Los Libres,Azoyu,Benito Juarez,Buenavista de Cuellar,Coahuayutla de Jose Maria IzazagaCocula,Copala,Copalillo,Copanatoyac,Coyuca de Benitez,Coyuca de Catalan,Cuajinicuilapa,Cualac,Cuautepec,Cuetzala del Progreso,Cutzamala de Pinzon,Chilapa de Alvarez,Chilpancingo marker,Florencio Villarreal,General Canuto A. Neri,General Heliodoro Castillomarker,Huamuxtitlan,Huitzuco de los Figueroa,Iguala de la Independenciamarker,Igualapa,Ixcateopan de Cuauhtemoc,Jose Azueta,Juan R. Escudero,Leonardo Bravo,Malinaltepec,Martir de Cuilapan,Metlatonoc,Mochitlan,Olinala,Ometepec,Pedro Ascencio Alquisiras,Petatlanmarker,Pilcayamarker,Pungarabato,Quechultenango,San Luis Acatlan,San Marcos,San Miguel Totolapan,Taxco de Alarconmarker,Tecoanapa,Tecpan de Galeana,Teloloapan,Tepecoacuilco de Trujano,Tetipac,Tixtlamarker de Guerrero,Tlacoachistlahuaca,Tlacoapa,Tlalchapa,Tlalixtaquilla de Maldonado,Tlapa de Comonfortmarker,Tlapehuala,La Union de Isidoro Montes de Oca,Xalpatlahuac,Xochihuehuetlan,Xochistlahuaca,ZacapocstepecZapotitlan Tablas,Zirandaro,Zitlala,Eduardo Neri,

Notes

  1. C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  2. Carl Eduard Hellmayr, Boardman Conover, Charles Barney Cory. Catalogue of birds of the Americas, Part 2, Issue 1, Field Museum of Natural History


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