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Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī?) is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is native to the Indianmarker state of Gujaratmarker, and is its chief language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diumarker and Dadra and Nagar Havelimarker.

There are about 46.1 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Along with Romany and Sindhi, it is among the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the "father of Pakistanmarker," and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the "iron man of India."


Gujarati (also having been variously spelled as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, Guujaratee, Gujrathi, and Gujerathi) is a modern Indo-Aryan language evolved from Sanskrit. The traditional practice is to differentiate the IA languages on the basis of three historical stages:
  1. Old IA (Vedic and Classical Sanskrit)
  2. Middle IA (various Prakrits and Apabhramshas)
  3. New IA (modern languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, etc.)
Another view accords successive family, tree splits, in which Gujarati is assumed to have separated from other IA languages in four stages:
  1. IA languages split into Northern, Eastern, and Western divisions based on the innovate characteristics such as stop becoming voiced in the Northern (Skt. danta "tooth" > Punj. dānd) and dental and retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal in the Eastern (Skt. sandhya "evening" > Beng. śājh).
  2. Western, into Central and Southern.
  3. Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, and Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the basis of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani.
  4. Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani through development of such characteristics as auxiliary ch- and the possessive marker -n- during the 15th century.

The principal changes from Sanskrit are the following:
English Sanskrit Prakrit Gujarati Ref
hand hasta hattha hāth
seven sapta satta sāt
eight aṣṭā aṭṭha āṭh
snake sarpa sappa sāp
Gujarati is then customarily divided into the following three historical stages:

Old Gujarati (AD 1100 — 1500), ancestor of Gujarati and Rajasthani, was spoken by the Gurjars in northern Gujarat and western Rajasthan. Texts of this era display characteristic Gujarati features such as direct/oblique noun forms, postpositions, and auxiliary verbs. It had 3 gender as Gujarati does today, and by around the time of 1300 CE a fairly standardized form of this language emerged. While generally known as Old Gujarati, some scholars prefer the name of Old Western Rajasthani, based on the argument that Gujarati and Rajasthani were not yet distinct at the time. Also factoring into this preference was the belief that modern Rajasthani sporadically expressed a neuter gender, based on the incorrect conclusion that the [ũ] that came to be pronounced in some areas for masculine [o] after a nasal consonant was analogous to Gujarati's neuter [ũ]. A formal grammar of the precursor to this language was written by Jain monk and eminent scholar Hemachandra Suri in the reign of Rajput king Siddharaj Jayasinh of Anhilwaramarker (Patan).

Major works were written in various genres, for the most part in verse form, such as:
  • rāsa, predominantly didactic narrative, of which the earliest known is Śālibhadrasūri's Bhārateśvarabāhubali (1185).
  • phāgu, in which spring time is celebrated, of which the earliest is Jinapadmasūri's Sirithūlibadda (ca. 1335). The most famous is the Vasantavilāsa, of unknown scholarship, which is undeterminedly dated to somewhere in fourteenth or fifteenth century, or possibly earlier.
  • bārmāsī, describing natural beauty during each of the twelve months.
  • ākhyāna, in which different sections are each in a single metre.

Narasimha Mehta (c. 1414 — 1480) is traditionally viewed as the father of modern Gujarati poetry. By virtue of its early age and good editing, an important prose work is the fourteenth-century commentary of Taruṇaprabha, the Ṣaḍāvaśyakabālabodhavr̥tti.

Middle Gujarati (AD 1500 — 1800), split off from Rajasthani, and developed the phonemes ɛ and ɔ, the auxiliary stem ch-, and the possessive marker -n-. Major phonological changes characteristic of the transition between Old and Middle Gujarati are:
  • i, u develop to ə in open syllables
  • dipthongs əi, əu change to ɛ and ɔ in initial syllables and to e and o elsewhere
  • əũ develops to ɔ̃ in initial syllables and to ű in final syllables

These developments would have grammatical consequences. For example, Old Gujarati's instrumental-locative singular in -i was leveled and eliminated, having become the same as Old Gujarati's nominative-accusative singular in -ə.

Modern Gujarati (AD 1800 — ). A major phonological change was the deletion of final ə's, such that the modern language has consonant-final words. Grammatically, a new plural marker of -o developed. In literature, the third quarter of the 19th century saw a series of milestones for Gujarati, which previously had had verse as its dominant mode of literary composition.
  • 1840s, personal diary composition; Nityanondh, Durgaram Mahetaji.
  • 1851, first essay; Maniaḷī Maḷvāthi thātā Lābh, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.
  • 1866, first novel; Karaṇ Ghelo, Nandashankar Mehta.
  • 1866, first autobiography; Mārī Hakīkat, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.

Demographics and Distribution

Map of Gujarat
Of the approximately 46 million speakers of Gujarati, roughly 45.5 million reside in India, 150,000 in Uganda, 250,000 in Tanzania, 50,000 in Kenya and roughly 100,000 in Pakistan. There is also a large Gujarati community in Mumbaimarker, India.

The United Kingdommarker has 300,000 speakers, many of them situated in the Londonmarker areas of Wembleymarker, Harrowmarker and Newhammarker and in Leicestermarker, Coventrymarker and Bradfordmarker. A considerable population exists in North America as well. A portion of these numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, under increasing discrimination and policies of Africanisation in their newly-independent resident countries (especially Uganda, where Idi Amin expelled 50,000 Asians for not participating in the local cultures or allowing Asian women to marry African men though Asian men did marry African women), were left with uncertain futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports, settled in the UK.

Besides being spoken by the Gujarati people, non-Gujarati residents of and migrants to the state of Gujaratmarker also count as speakers, among them the Kutchis (as a literary language), the Parsis (adopted as a mother tongue), and Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistanmarker.

Official status

Gujarati is one of the twenty-two official languages and fourteen regional languages of Indiamarker. It is officially recognized in the state of Gujarat, India.


The accepted standard dialect is the speech of the area from Barodamarker to Ahmedabadmarker and north. Ethnologue lists the following dialects and subdivisions.

  • Standard Gujarati
    • Saurashtra Standard
    • Nagari
    • Bombay Gujarati
    • Patnuli
  • Gamadia
    • Gramya
    • Surti
    • Anavla
    • Bhathla
    • Machi
    • Eastern Broach Gujarati
    • Charotari
    • Patidari
    • Vadodari
    • Amdavadi

    • Patani
  • Parsi
  • Kathiyawadi
    • Jhalawadi
    • Sorathi
    • Holadi
    • Gohilwadi
    • Bhavnagari
    • Mer
  • Kharva
  • Khakari
  • Tarimukhi
    • Ghisadi

Closely related languages

Kutchi, also known as Khojki, is often referred to as a dialect of Gujarati, but most linguists consider it closer to Sindhi.


Front Central Back
Bilabial Labio-
Retroflex Post-alv./Palatal Velar Glottal
Tap or Flap

Writing system

Similar to other Nāgarī writing systems, the Gujarati script is an abugida. It is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of Devanāgarī script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a small number of modifications in the remaining characters.

Gujarati and closely related languages, including Kutchi, can be written in the Arabic or Persian scripts. This is traditionally done by many in Gujarat's Kutch district.


Categorization and Sources

These are the three general categories of words in modern Indo-Aryan: tatsam, tadbhav, and loanwords.


તદ્ભવ્ tadbhav, "of the nature of that". Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit (old Indo-Aryan), and this category pertains exactly to that: words of Sanskritic origin that have demonstratively undergone change over the ages, ending up characteristic of modern Indo-Aryan languages specifically as well as in general. Thus the "that" in "of the nature of that" refers to Sanskrit. They tend to be non-technical, everyday, crucial words; part of the spoken vernacular. Below is a table of a few Gujarati tadbhav words and their Old Indo-Aryan sources:

Old Indo-Aryan Gujarati Ref
I aham
falls, slips khasati khasvũ to move
causes to move arpayati āpvũ to give
school nayaśālā niśāḷ
attains to, obtains prāpnoti pāmvũ
tiger vyāghra vāgh
equal, alike, level sama samũ right, sound
all sarva sau


તત્સમ્ tatsam, "same as that". While Sanskrit eventually stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it changed into Middle Indo-Aryan, it was nonetheless standardized and retained as a literary and liturgical language for long after. This category consists of these borrowed words of (more or less) pure Sanskrit character. They serve to enrich Gujarati and modern Indo-Aryan in its formal, technical, and religious vocabulary. They are recognizable by their Sanskrit inflections and markings; they are thus often treated as a separate grammatical category unto themselves.
Tatsam English Gujarati
lekhak writer lakhnār
vijetā winner jītnār
vikǎsit developed vikǎselũ
jāgǎraṇ awakening jāgvānũ

Many old tatsam words have changed their meanings or have had their meanings adopted for modern times. પ્રસારણ prasāra means "spreading", but now it's used for "broadcasting". In addition to this are neologisms, often being calques. An example is telephone, which is Greek for "far talk", translated as દુરભાષ durbhā . Though most people just use ફોન phon and thus neo-Sanskrit has varying degrees of acceptance.

So, while having unique tadbhav sets, modern IA languages have a common, higher tatsam pool. Also, tatsams and their derived tadbhavs can also co-exist in a language; sometimes of no consequence: dharma-dharam, other times with differences in meaning, with the former holding a "higher" one:
Tatsam Tadbhav
karma Work — Dharmic religious concept of works or deeds whose divine consequences are experienced in this life or the next. kām work [without any religious connotations].
kṣetra Field — Abstract sense, such as a field of knowledge or activity; khāngī kṣetra → private sector. Physical sense, but of higher or special importance; raṇǎkṣetra → battlefield. khetar field [in agricultural sense].

What remains are words of foreign origin (videśī), as well as words of local origin that cannot be pegged as belonging to any of the three prior categories (deśaj). The former consists mainly of Persian, Arabic, and English, with trace elements of Portuguese and Turkish. While the phenomenon of English loanwords is relatively new, Perso-Arabic has a longer history behind it. Both English and Perso-Arabic influences are quite nation-wide phenomena, in a way paralleling tatsam as a common vocabulary set or bank. What's more is how, beyond a transposition into general Indo-Aryan, the Perso-Arabic set has also been assimilated in a manner characteristic and relevant to the specific Indo-Aryan language it's being used in, bringing to mind tadbhav.


India was ruled for many a century by Persian-speaking Muslims. As a consequence Indian languages were changed greatly, with the large scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One fundamental adoption was Persian's conjunction "that", ke. Also, while tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically continuous to Gujarati, it is essentially of a differing grammar (or language), and that in comparison while Perso-Arabic is etymologically foreign, it has been in certain instances and to varying degrees grammatically indigenized. Owing to centuries of situation and the end of Persian education and power, (1) Perso-Arabic loans are quite unlikely to be thought of or known as loans, and (2) more importantly, these loans have often been Gujarati-ized. dāvo - claim, fāydo - benefit, natījo - result, and humlo - attack, all carry Gujarati's masculine gender marker, o. khānũ - compartment, has the neuter ũ. Aside from easy slotting with the auxiliary karvũ, a few words have made a complete transition of verbification: kabūlvũ - to admit (fault), kharīdvũ - to buy, kharǎcvũ - to spend (money), gujarvũ - to pass. The last three are definite part and parcel.

Below is a table displaying a number of these loans. Currently some of the etymologies are being referenced to an Urdu dictionary, so it should be noted that Gujarati's singular masculine o corresponds to Urdu ā, neuter ũ groups into ā as Urdu has no neuter gender, and Urdu's Persian z is not upheld in Gujarati and corresponds to j or jh. In contrast to modern Persian, the pronunciation of these loans into Gujarati and other Indo-Aryan languages, as well as that of Indian-recited Persian, seems to be in line with Persian spoken in Afghanistanmarker and Central Asia, perhaps 500 years ago.

fāydo gain, advantage, benefit A khānũ compartment P kharīdī purchase(s), shopping P tājũ fresh P
humlo attack A makān house, building A śardī Common cold P judũ different, separate P
dāvo claim A nasīb luck A bāju side P najīk near P
natījo result, outcome A śaher city P cījh thing P kharāb bad A
gusso anger P medān plain P jindgī life P lāl red P

Lastly, Persian, being part of the Indo-Iranian language family as Sanskrit and Gujarati are, met up in some instances with its cognates:

Persian INDO-ARYAN English
marǎd martya man, mortal
stān sthān place, land
ī īya
band bandh closed, fastened

Zoroastrian Persian refugees known as Parsis also speak an accordingly Persianized form of Gujarati.


With the end of Perso-Arabic inflow, English became the current foreign source of new vocabulary. English had and continues to have a considerable influence over Indian languages. Loanwords include new innovations and concepts, first introduced directly through British colonialism, and then streaming in on the basis of continued Anglosphere dominance in the post-colonial period. Besides the category of new ideas is the category of English words that already have Gujarati counterparts which end up replaced or existed alongside with. The major driving force behind this latter category has to be the continuing role of English in modern India as a language of education, prestige, and mobility. In this way, Indian speech can be sprinkled with English words and expressions, even switches to whole sentences. See Hinglish, Code-switching.

In matters of sound, English alveolar consonants map as retroflexes rather than dentals. Two new characters were created in Gujarati to represent English /æ/'s and /ɔ/'s. Levels of Gujarati-ization in sound vary. Some words don't go far beyond this basic transpositional rule, and sound much like their English source, while others differ in ways, one of those ways being the carrying of dentals. See Indian English.

As English loanwards are a relatively new phenomenon, they adhere to English grammar, as tatsam words adhere to Sanskrit. Though that isn't to say that the most basic changes have been underway: many English words are pluralized with Gujarati o over English "s". Also, with Gujarati having 3 genders, genderless English words must take one. Though often inexplicable, gender assignment may follow the same basis as it is expressed in Gujarati: vowel type, and the nature of word meaning.

bâṅk bank phon phone ṭebal table bas bus rabbar eraser ṭorc flashlight dôkṭar doctor rasīd receipt

hello hôspiṭal

hospital sṭeśan
station sāykal cycle rum room āis krīm ice cream rôbaṭ robot ṭāym time
aṅkal1 uncle āṇṭī1 auntie pākīṭ wallet kavar envelope noṭ banknote skūl school ṭyuśan tuitoring esī AC
minute ṭikiṭ
ticket sleṭ slate hoṭal hotel pārṭī party ṭren train kalekṭar collectormarker reḍīyo radio

  • 1 These English forms are often used (prominently by NRI) for those family friends and elders that aren't actually uncles and aunts but are of the age.


The smaller foothold the Portuguese had in wider India had linguistic effects. Gujarati took up a number of words, while elsewhere the influence was great enough to the extent that creole languages came to be (see Portuguese Indiamarker, Portuguese-based creole languages#India and Sri Lanka). Comparatively, the impact of Portuguese has been greater on coastal languages and their loans tend to be closer to the Portuguese originals. The source dialect of these loans imparts an earlier pronunciation of ch as an affricate instead of the current standard of [ʃ].

Gujarati Meaning Portuguese
istrī iron estirar1
mistrī ² carpenter mestre³
sābu soap sabão
cāvī key chave
tamāku tobacco tabaco
kobī cabbage couve
kāju cashew caju
pāũ bread pão
baṭāko potato batata
anānas pineapple ananás
pādrī 'father' padre
aṅgrej(ī) English inglês
nātāl christmas natal

1 "Lengthen".
2 Common occupational surname.
3 "Master".

Loans into English





Gujarati is a head-final, or left-branching language. Adjectives precede nouns, direct objects come before verbs, and there are postpositions. The word order of Gujarati is SOV, and there are three genders and two numbers. There are no definite or indefinite articles. A verb is expressed with its verbal root followed by suffixes marking aspect and agreement in what is called a main form, with a possible proceeding auxiliary form derived from to be, marking tense and mood, and also showing agreement. Causatives (up to double) and passives have morphological basis'.

Sample Text

Gujarati script

ગાંધીજીની ઝૂંપડી-કરાડી

જગ પ્રસિદ્ધ દાંડી કૂચ પછી ગાંધીજીએ અહીં આંબાના વૃક્ષ નીચે ખજૂરીનાં છટિયાંની એક ઝૂંપડીમાં તા.૧૪-૪-૧૯૩૦થી તા.૪-૫-૧૯૩૦ સુધી નિવાસ કર્યો હતો. દાંડીમાં છઠ્ઠી એપ્રિલે શરૂ કરેલી નિમક કાનૂન ભંગની લડતને તેમણે અહીંથી વેગ આપી દેશ વ્યાપી બનાવી હતી. અહીંથીજ તેમણે ધરાસણાના મીઠાના અગરો તરફ કૂચ કરવાનો પોતાનો સંકલ્પ બ્રિટિશ વાઈસરૉયને પત્ર લખીને જણાવ્યો હતો.

તા.૪થી મે ૧૯૩૦ની રાતના બાર વાગ્યા પછી આ સ્થળેથી બ્રિટિશ સરકારે તેમની ધરપકડ કરી હતી.


gāndhījīnī jhū̃pṛī-Karāṛī

jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījīe ahī̃ āmbānā vr̥kṣ nīce khajūrīnā̃ chaṭiyā̃nī ek jhū̃pṛīmā̃ tā.14-4-1930thī tā.4-5-1930 sudhī nivās karyo hato. dāṇḍīmā̃ chaṭhṭhī eprile śarū karelī nimak kānūn bhaṅgnī laṛatne temṇe ahī̃thī veg āpī deś vyāpī banāvī hatī. ahī̃thīj temṇe dharāsaṇānā mīṭhānā agaro taraph kūc karvāno potāno saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôyne patra lakhīne jaṇāvyo hato.

tā.4thī me 1930nī rātnā bār vāgyā pachī ā sthaḷethī briṭiś sarkāre temnī dharpakaṛ karī hatī.

Transcription (IPA) —

Simple gloss

gandhiji's hut-karadi

world famous dandi march after gandhiji here mango's tree under palm date's bark's one hut-in date.14-4-1930-from date.4-5-1930 until residence done was. dandi-in sixth april-at started done salt law break's fight(-to) he here-from speed gave country wide made was. here-from he dharasana's salt's mounds towards march doing's self's resolve british viceroy-to letter written-having notified was.

date.4-from may 1930's night's twelve struck after this place-at-from british government his arrest done was.

Transliteration and detailed gloss
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Translation(by Wikipedia) —

Gandhiji's hut-Karadi

After the world-famous Dandi March Gandhiji resided here in a date palm bark hut underneath a/the mango tree, from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930. From here he gave speed to and spread country-wide the anti-Salt Law struggle, started in Dandi on April the 6th. From here, writing in a letter, he notified the British Viceroy of his resolve of marching towards the salt mounds of Dharasana.

The British government arrested him at this location, after twelve o'clock on the night of the 4th of May, 1930.

Translation(provided at location) —

Gandhiji's hut-Karadi

Here under the mango tree in the hut made of palm leaves (khajoori) Gandhiji stayed from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930 after the world famous Dandi march. From here he gave impetus to the civil disobedience movement for breaking the salt act started on April 6 at Dandi and turned it into a nation wide movement. It was also from this place that he wrote a letter to the British viceroy expressing his firm resolve to march to the salt works at Dharasana.

This is the place from where he was arrested by the British government after midnight on May 4, 1930.

See also


  1. Smith, J.D. (2001) "Rajasthani." Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates. pp. 591-593.
  2. Yashaschandra, S. (1995) "Towards Hind Svaraj: An Interpretation of the Rise of Prose in Nineteenth-Century Gujarati Literature." Social Scientist. Vol. 23, No. 10/12. pp. 41-55.
  3. Snell, R. (2000) Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 83-86.



  • Belsare, M.B. (1904) An etymological Gujarati-English Dictionary.
  • Deshpande, P.G. (1974) Gujarati-English Dictionary. Ahmadabad: University Granth Nirman Board.
  • Deshpande, P.G. (1982) Modern English-Gujarati Dictionary. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Deshpande, P.G. & Parnwell, E.C. (1977) Oxford Picture Dictionary. English-Gujarati. Oxford University Press.
  • Deshpande, P.G. (1988) Universal English-Gujarati Dictionary. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
  • Mehta, B.N. & Mehta, B.B. (1925) The Modern Gujarati-English Dictionary.
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  • Suthar, B. (2003) Gujarati-English Learner's Dictionary (1 Mb)
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Old Gujarati

  • Bender, E. (1992) The Salibhadra-Dhanna-Carita: A Work in Old Gujarati Critically Edited and Translated, with a Grammatical Analysis and Glossary. American Oriental Society: New Haven, Conn. ISBN 0-940490-73-0
  • .
  • Dave, T.N. (1935) A Study of the Gujarati Language in the XVth Century. The Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 0947593306
  • Tessitori, L.P. (1914-1916) "Notes on the Grammar of Old Western Rajasthani." Indian Antiquary. 43-45.


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External links

Linguistic resources


gāndhījī-n-ī jhū̃pṛ-ī-Ø Karāṛī
gandhiji–GEN–FEM hut–FEM–SG karadi
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījī-e ahī̃ āmb-ā-Ø-n-ā vṛkṣ nīce
world famous dandi march after gandhiji–ERG here mango–MASC.OBL–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL tree under
khajūr-ī-Ø-n-ā̃ chaṭiy-ā̃-n-ī ek jhū̃pṛ-ī-Ø-mā̃ tā. 14 4 1930thī tā. 4 5 1930 sudhī
hut–FEM–SG–in date 14 4 1930from date until
nivās kar-y-o ha-t-o . dāṇḍī-mā̃ chaṭhṭhī epril-e śarū kar-el-ī nimak
be–PAST–MASC.SG dandi–in sixth April–at started
kānūn bhaṅg-n-ī laṛat-Ø-ne te-m-ṇe ahī̃-thī veg āp-ī deś vyāpī
law break–GEN–FEM.OBL fight.FEM.OBJ–SG–ACC
3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG here–from speed–OBJ
give–CONJUNCTIVE country wide
ban-āv-Ø-ī ha-t-ī . ahī̃-thī-j te-m-ṇe dharāsaṇā-n-ā
mīṭh-ā-n-ā agar-o taraph kūc kar-v-ā-n-o potā-n-o
salt–NEUT.SG.OBL–GEN–MASC.PL mound.MASC–PL towards
saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôy-Ø-ne patra lakh-īne jaṇ-āv-y-o ha-t-o . tā.
resolve.MASC.SG.OBJ.ACC British viceroy.OBJ–SG–DAT
be–PAST–MASC.SG date
4-thī me 1930-n-ī rāt-Ø-n-ā bār vāg-y-ā pachī ā sthaḷ-e-thī briṭiś
4-from may 1930–GEN–FEM.OBL night.FEM–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL
twelve strike–PERF–OBL after 3.PROX
place–at–from British
sarkār-e te-m-n-ī dharpakaṛ kar-Ø-ī ha-t-ī .

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