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Hélène is a poème lyrique or opera in one act by composer Camille Saint-Saëns. It is the first opera for which Saint-Saëns wrote his own French libretto which is based on the classic story of Helen of Troy and Paris from Greek mythology. The opera premiered at the Opéra de Monte-Carlo in Monacomarker on 18 February 1904. Moderately successful, the opera enjoyed a handful of revivals up through 1919, after which it fell out of the performance repertoire. The work was recently resurrected in 2008 for its first recording by the Australian music label Melba.

Performance history

Hélène is the first opera that Saint-Saëns composed for the opera house in Monte Carlomarker, which was led by enterprising director Raoul Gunsbourg at that time. At its premiere, the opera was presented in conjunction with Jules Massenet’s veristic La Navarraise. The role of Helen was sung by acclaimed soprano Nellie Melba who actually commissioned Saint-Saëns to write the opera specifically for her. The reviews of the premiere performance, though not stellar, were generally positive. The opera was subsequently revived at the Opéra-Comiquemarker on the 18 January 1905 with Mary Garden in the title role and in Monte Carlo again in 1909 and 1916. The Palais Garniermarker staged the work for the first time on the 20 June 1919 with Marcelle Demougeot in the title role. After this production the opera fell into obscurity until the work was recorded for the first time in 2008 by the Belle Époque Chorus and the Orchestra Victoria under conductor Guillaume Tourniaire.

Textual and musical analysis

150 px
Prior to composing Hélène, Saint-Saëns's had seen Offenbach’s operetta on the same story, La belle Hélène, which he criticized for its trivial portrayal of ancient Greece and its "lax moral tone". Saint-Saëns's wrote his own text in highly poetic rhyming verse, and divided the plot into seven scenes. Some of the opera's more colourful episodes include the second scene where Helen, at the precipice of a large cliff, first implores Zeus to relieve her of her dilemma by striking her with thunderbolts and then contemplates suicide by throwing herself off the cliff into the sea and Pallas's prophecy which is full of gruesome bloody images of the coming Trojan war. Critics such as Hugh Shirley have accused the work of being too sentimental, proposing that Saint-Saëns's deliberate desire to distance himself from the vogue of verismo opera and the dramatic sensibilities of Richard Wagner may have prevented him from any kind operatic psychoanalysis. The result, according to Shirley, is that while Saint-Saëns had intended to create a serious portrait of Helen of Troy, the music made it "sound at times like a parody of nineteenth-century sentimentality".


Role Voice type Premiere Cast, 18 February 1904
Hélène soprano Nellie Melba
Pâris tenor Albert Alvarez
Vénus soprano Henriette Blot
Pallas contralto Meyriane Héglon


Paris, a Trojanmarker prince, comes to Spartamarker to marry Helen, whom he had been promised by Venus after he had chosen her as the most beautiful of the goddesses, earning the wrath of Athena and Hera. Vénus tries to persuade Helen to abandon Menelaus for love. Meanwhile, Pallas warns Helen of the dreadful events that will ensue if she abandons Sparta for Troy. Helen heeds the words of Venus, not Pallas, and sets sail with Pâris in an ecstatic embrace.


Paris and Helena (1788) by J.L.
Year Cast
(Hélène, Pâris,
Vénus, Pallas)

Chorus and Orchestra
2008 Rosamund Illing
Steve Davislim
Leanne Kenneally
Zan McKendree-Wright

Guillaume Tourniaire
Belle Époque Chorus and the Orchestra Victoria
CD: Melba label
Cat: MR301114-2


  1. The Guardian, Friday 26 September 2008
  2. Performance history at
  3., Saint-Saëns: Hélène; Nuit persane, Hugo Shirley, 1 August 2008

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