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Hadera's Great Synagogue
Hadera ( , ; , ) is a city located in the Haifa Districtmarker of Israelmarker approximately from the major cities of Tel Avivmarker and Haifamarker. The city is located along off the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain. The city has a population of 77,100 which includes a high proportion of immigrants since 1990, notably from Ethiopiamarker and the Soviet Unionmarker.

Hadera was established in 1891 as a farming colony by members of the Zionist group, Hovevei Zion, from Lithuania and Latvia. By 1948, it was a regional center with a population of 11,800. It was declared a city in 1952. With an area of jurisdiction of 53,000 dunams, Hadera is Israel's fourth largest city.

Several projects are under way to improve the quality of life in Hadera, including regenerating the city center, constructing a hi-tech business park, and building the world's largest desalination plant.

History

Early years

Hadera was founded in 1891, in the early days modern Zionism by Eastern European immigrants from Lithuaniamarker and Latviamarker on land purchased by Yehoshua Hankin, known as the Redeemer of the Valley. The land was purchased from Christian effendi Selim Khuri. This was the largest purchase of land in Palestine by a Zionist group, although the land was of low quality and mostly swampland. The only inhabitants prior to the purchase were a few families raising water buffaloes and selling reeds. The town may derive its name from the Arabic word khadra, meaning "green" in reference to the wild weeds which covered the marshes on which the town is built.

The first settlers lived in a house known as the Khan near Hadera's main synagogue. Initially, Hadera was a lonely outpost of 10 families and 4 guards. In its early years, however, the town had issues with land ownership, and having drained the swamps with the aid of Egyptian workers sent to them by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, and cultivating the area, Bedouin's continued to graze cattle in the fields and even cut some of the crops.

Old tombstones in the local cemetery reveal that out of a population of 540, 210 died of malaria. Relations between the residents of Hadera and Bedouins were poor and guarding of the field was designated to the HaShomer organisation. By the early twentieth century, the town had become a regional economic center. Land disputes in the area went away until the 1930s, by which time, the population had grown to 2,002 in 1931. Free schooling was introduced in the city in 1937 in all schools apart from the Histadrut school.

After 1948

Hadera's population began to grow dramatically after Israeli independence in 1948 as immigrants flocked to the country. Included in the immigrants to the city were not only Russian and other European immigrants but also 40 Yemenite families. In 1952, Hadera was declared a city, and in 1953, Israel's first paper mill opened in the city. Sponsored by investors from within Israel as well as from the United Statesmarker, Brazilmarker, and Australia, the mill was designed to meet all of Israel's paper needs. It was also at this time that the Givat Olga neighborhood was constructed on the coast, and Beit Eliezer in the east of the city.

From the 1990s

The city grew dramatically during the 1990s as it absorbed large numbers of Ethiopianmarker immigrants. Hadera, considered a relatively safe place by its citizens, was jolted by several acts of terrorism over the course of a few years, including a suicide bomber who blew himself up at a falafel stand on October 26, 2005, killing five civilians. However, since the construction of the nearby West Bank barrier, the frequency of such incidents has dropped drastically. On August 4, 2006, three rockets fired by Hezbollah hit Hadera. Hadera is 50 miles (80 km) south of the Lebanese border and marked the farthest point inside Israel that Hezbollah hit.

Geography

Hadera is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastal plain, 45 kilometers north of Tel Avivmarker. The city's jurisdiction covers , making it the fourth largest city in the country. Nahal Hadera Parkmarker, a eucalyptus forest covering and Hasharon Park are located on the outskirts of Hadera.

Transportation

Hadera lies along two main railway lines: the Coastal Line and the freight-only Eastern Line. The city's railway stationmarker is located in the west of the city and is on the Tel Aviv suburban line which runs between Binyaminamarker and Ashkelonmarker. The city center of Hadera is located near Israel's two main north-south highways; Highway 2, linking Tel Aviv to Haifa, and Highway 4. This made Hadera an important junction for all coastal bus transportation after 1948 and into the 1950s.

Economy

The towers at Orot Rabin
Hadera's importance as an economic center was first recognised when Israel's first paper mill was opened here in 1953. Hadera Paper continues to be a large employer in the city. Furthermore, the city is set to be the site of the world's largest desalination plant. Hadera is the location of the Orot Rabinmarker Power Plant, Israel's largest power station.

Demographics

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of December 2007, Hadera had a population of 77,100 which is growing at an annual rate of 1.2%. As of 2003, the city had a population density of 1,516.6 per km2. Of the city's population of 2003 of 74,900, approximately 22,400 were immigrants, many from Ethiopiamarker.

Hadera has grown steadily since 1948, when the city had a population of 11,800. In 1955, the population almost doubled to 22,500. In 1961 it rose to 25,600, 1972 to 32,200, and 1983, to 38,700.

The median age in Hadera is 32.8, with 23,200 people 19 years of age or younger, 12.1% between 20 and 29, 14,100 between 30 and 44, 17,600 from 45 to 64, and 9,700, 65 or older. As of 2007, there were 37,500 males and 39,200 females.

In 2001, the ethnic makeup was 99.2% Jewish and other non-Arab, with no significant Arab population. In 2000, there were 27,920 salaried workers and 1,819 self-employed. The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried worker was ILS 5,135, a real change of 8.0% over the course of 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of ILS 6,607 (a real change of 9.0%) compared with ILS 3,598 for females (a real change of 3.1%). The mean income for the self-employed was 6,584. A total of 1,752 people received unemployment benefits and 6,753 received income supplements.

Education

In 2001, there were 15,622 students studying at 42 schools (24 elementary schools with 7,933 students, and 21 high schools with 7,689 students. A total of 57.5% of 12th graders were entitled to a matriculation certificate.

The Democratic School of Haderamarker, which opened in 1987, was the first of its kind in Israel. The Technoda, an educational center for science and technology equipped with a state-of-the-art telescope and planetarium, is located in Hadera's Givat Olga neighborhood.

Medical facilities

The Hillel Yaffe Medical Center
Hadera is served by the Hillel Yaffe Medical Centermarker.

Neighborhoods



International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Hadera is twinned with:

References

External links




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