Hamburg ( ; , local
pronunciation Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg ) is the
second-largest city in Germany (after
Berlin) and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The city is home to
approximately 1.8 million people, while the Hamburg
Metropolitan Region (including parts of the neighboring Federal States of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein) has more than 4.3 million inhabitants.
port of Hamburg
second-largest port in Europe (after that of Rotterdam
), and the ninth-largest in the
Hamburg's official name is the Free and Hanseatic City of
(German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
makes reference to Hamburg's
as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League
, as a free imperial city
of the Holy Roman Empire
, and also to the fact
that Hamburg is a city-state
and one of
the sixteen States of
Hamburg is a major transportation hub in Northern Germany
. It has become a media and
industrial center, with factories such as Airbus
, Blohm +
and Norddeutsche Affinerie
radio and television broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk
publishers such as Gruner +
and Spiegel-Verlag represent the important media
industry in Hamburg. In total there are more than 120,000
enterprises. The city is a major tourist destination both for
domestic and overseas visitors, receiving about 7.4 million
overnight stays in 2007.
Hamburg in 1800.
The city takes its name from the first permanent building on the
site, a castle ordered built by Emperor Charlemagne
in 808 AD. The castle
was built on rocky ground in a marsh between
the River Alster
and the River Elbe
as a defence against Slavic
incursion. The castle was named
, where burg
means castle. The
element remains uncertain, as does
the location of this castle.
In 834, Hamburg was designated the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric, whose first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two
years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the bishopric of
Hamburg-Bremen. In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and Hamburg subsequently received
Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France and, in the
17th century, Sephardi Jews from
Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, a fleet
of 600 Viking ships came up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a
town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, the city was burned down by King
Mieszko II Lambert of Poland.
Valdemar II of Denmark raided
and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. The Black Death killed at least 60% of Hamburg's
population in 1350. Hamburg had several great fires, the most
notable ones in 1284 and 1842. In 1842, about a quarter of the
inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". This fire started on
the night of the 4 May, 1842 and was extinguished on May 8. It
destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings,
killed 51 people, and left an estimated 20,000 homeless.
Reconstruction took more than 40 years.
Seal of 1245.
The charter in 1189 by Frederick I "Barbarossa"
granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City
and tax-free access up
the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, a putative forged
letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. This charter, along
with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic
Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance
with Lübeck in 1241
marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of
On November 8, 1266 a contract between
and Hamburg's traders
allowed them to establish a hanse
in London. This was the
first time in history the word hanse
was mentioned for the
trading guild Hanseatic League
first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city
in Germany in German language, the Ordeelbook
: sentence) was written by the solicitor of the
senate Jordan von Boitzenburg
in 1270. On August 10, 1410
civil commotion caused a compromise (German:Rezeß
literally meaning: withdrawal). It is considered the first constitution of Hamburg
At the unwinding of the Holy Roman
in 1806, the Free Imperial
of Hamburg was not mediatised
but became a sovereign
titled Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
. Hamburg was
briefly annexed by Napoleon I
to the First French Empire
(1810–14). Russian forces under General Bennigsen
freed the city in 1814. Hamburg reassumed its pre-1811 status as
city-state in 1814. The Vienna
Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became
one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–66).
In 1860, the state of Hamburg established a republican
constitution. Hamburg became a city-state in the North German
Confederation (1866–71), the German Empire (1871–1918) and during the period of the Weimar
(1919–33). Hamburg experienced its fastest growth during
the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than
quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's third-largest
With Albert Ballin
director, the Hamburg-America
became the world's largest transatlantic
shipping company at the turn of
the century. Hamburg was also home to shipping companies
to South America, Africa, India and East Asia. Hamburg was the departure port for most
Germans and Eastern Europeans to
emigrate to the United
States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
It became home to trading communities from all over the
In Nazi Germany
Hamburg was a
until 1945. During World War II
suffered a series of air raids
, which killed
42,000 civilians and devastated much of the inhabited city as well
as harbour areas. At least 55,000 people were murdered in the
concentration camp within the city.
Hamburg surrendered without a fight to British Forces
on May 3, 1945. After the Second World War, Hamburg was in the British Zone of
Occupation and became a state of the then still West German
Republic of Germany in
On February 16, 1962 the North Sea flood of that year
the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of
Hamburg and killing more than 300 people.
The inner German border
east of Hamburg—separated the city from most of its hinterland and
further reduced Hamburg's global trade. After German reunification
in 1990, and the
accession of some Eastern European
and Baltic States
into the EU
in 2004, Hamburg Harbour
and Hamburg have ambitions
for regaining their positions as the region's largest deep-sea port
for container shipping and its major commercial and trading
is located on the southern point of the Jutland
Peninsula, directly between Continental Europe to its south, Scandinavia to its north, the North Sea to its west, and the Baltic Sea to its east. Hamburg is located on the River Elbe at the confluence with the Alster and Bille.
central city area is situated around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and the Außenalster ("Outer Alster") both of which are originally the
river Alster but retained as lakes. The island of
Neuwerk and two other islands in the North Sea are also part of Hamburg, located in the Hamburg
Wadden Sea National Park.
The Altes Land
region (old land)
is the biggest contiguous fruit orchard
. It extends over .
76.8% of the trees are apples
, 12.7% are
. It includes the quarters of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and
Finkenwerder and parts of the state of Lower Saxony. In the quarter Neugraben-Fischbek is the highest rise of Hamburg, the
Hasselbrack is AMSL.
The warmest months in Hamburg are June, July, and August, with mean
temperatures of . The coldest are December, January, and February,
with mean temperatures of .
St. Michaelis Church on the €2 coin
Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range
of styles. There are only a few skyscrapers
. Churches like St.
Nicholas's church, the world's tallest building in the 19th century,
are important landmarks.The skyline of Hamburg features the high
spires of the principal churches (Hauptkirchen) Saint
Michael's Church (nicknamed “Michel"), Saint
Peter's Church, Saint James's Church and Saint Catherine's Church covered with copper plates.
canals in Hamburg are crossed by over 2300 bridges, more than those
of Amsterdam and Venice
Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits
than any other city in the world. The Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen
Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke dividing
Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important traffic
townhall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building
finished in 1897.
The tower is high. Its facade, long,
depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was,
as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor.
Chilehaus, a brick stone office building built in 1922 and
designed by architect Fritz
Höger is spectacularly shaped like an ocean liner.
completed around 2015, Europe's largest inner city development as
of 2008, the quarter HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000
Its ambitious planning and architecture (among other
designs by Rem Kolhaas and Renzo Piano will be realized) are slowly
coming into shape. By the end of 2010, the Elbe
Philharmonic Hall (Elbphilharmonie) is scheduled to house
its first concerts in a spectacular building designed by the Swiss
firm Herzog & de
Meuron on top of an old warehouse.
The many parks of Hamburg are distributed over the whole city,
which makes Hamburg a very green city. The biggest parks are
the Stadtpark, the Ohlsdorf Cemetery and Planten un Blomen.
, Hamburg's "Central
Park", has a great lawn and a huge watertower, which houses one of
Europe's biggest Planetariums. The park and its buildings were also
designed by Fritz
in the 1910s.
Hamburg is made up of 7 boroughs (German: Bezirke
subdivided into 105 quarters (German: Stadtteile
are also 180 localities (German: Ortsteile
). As of 2008,
the areal organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg
and several laws. In the constitution is determined that an area
could be created by law for administrative purposes. Most of the
quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed
into Hamburg proper. In 1938, the last large incorporation was
done through the Greater Hamburg
Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg.
Reich Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic
city of Hamburg
established Hamburg as a state and a
municipality. Some of the boroughs and quarters have been
rearranged several times over the years.
Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German:
), administrated by the Municipal Councilor
). The boroughs of Hamburg are
not independent municipalities. The power of borough governments is
limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg
municipal councilors is elected by the Diet of the Borough and
thereafter his admission needs to get appointed by Hamburgs's
senate. The quarters have no government bodies of their own.
In 2008 the boroughs of Hamburg were Altona, Bergedorf, Eimsbüttel,
Hamburg-Mitte, Hamburg-Nord, Harburg and Wandsbek.
Altona is the
westernmost urban borough on the right bank of the Elbe
Boroughs of Hamburg
From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration
of the Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937.
Politically, the following quarters are
subject to the Altona borough: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen,
In 2006 the population was 243,972.
Bergedorf was the largest of the seven boroughs and a
quarter within this borough.
As of 2006 the population was
118,942. The borough Bergedorf consists of the
quarters Allermöhe, Altengamme, Bergedorf—the city center of the former independent city,
Billwerder, Curslack, Kirchwerder, Lohbrügge, Moorfleet, Neuengamme, Ochsenwerder, Reitbrook, Spadenland and
the population of Eimsbüttel was 246,087.The borough
Eimsbüttel is split into nine quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt,
Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen.
this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel.
Hamburg-Mitte (Rough translation: Central Hamburg) covers
mostly the urban center of the city of Hamburg.
In 2006 the
population was 233,144. It consits of the quarters Billbrook,
Billstedt, Borgfelde, Finkenwerder, HafenCity, Hamm-Nord, Hamm-Mitte, Hamm-Süd, Hammerbrook, Horn, Kleiner
Grasbrook, Neuwerk, Rothenburgsort, St. Georg, St.
Pauli, Steinwerder, Veddel,
Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg.
The quarters Hamburg-Alstadt (Rough
translation: Hamburg old city) and Neustadt (Rough translation: new
city) are the historical origin of Hamburg.
the population of Hamburg-Nord (Rough translation: Northern Hamburg) was
280,229 in an area of .Hamburg-Nord consists of the quarters
Alsterdorf, Barmbek-Nord, Barmbek-Süd, Dulsberg, Eppendorf,
Fuhlsbüttel, Groß Borstel, Hoheluft-Ost, Hohenfelde, Langenhorn, Ohlsdorf, Uhlenhorst and Winterhude.
Harburg is a borough of the city and a quarter in this
The borough Harburg lies on the southern shores of
the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential
and rural areas and some research institutes. In 2006 the
population of the borough was 201,119, including the quarter with
21,193. In the borough Harburg are the quarters
Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf,
Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf,
Moorburg, Neuenfelde, Neugraben-Fischbek, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and
Wandsbek was the second-largest of seven boroughs that
make up the city of Hamburg.
The quarter Wandsbek, which was
the former independent city, is urban and, with the quarters Eilbek
and Marienthal, part of the city's economic and cultural core. Like
the other boroughs of Hamburg, Wandsbek is divided into quarters.
Bergstedt, Bramfeld, Duvenstedt, Eilbek,
Farmsen-Berne, Hummelsbüttel, Jenfeld, Lemsahl-Mellingstedt,
Marienthal, Poppenbüttel, Rahlstedt, Sasel, Steilshoop, Tonndorf, Volksdorf,
Wandsbek, Wellingsbüttel and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt.
2006 the population was 409,771.
Culture and contemporary life
Hamburg offers more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music
venues and clubs. In 2005, more than 18 million people visited
concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and other
performances of cultural achievement. More than 8,552 taxable
companies – the average size was 3.16 employees – were engaged in
culture like music, performing arts and literature. There are 5
companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (Berlin 3,
state-owned Deutsches Schauspielhaus, the Thalia Theater, and the Kampnagel are well-known
theatres in Germany and abroad.The English
near U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976
and is the oldest professional English speaking theatre in Germany
having exclusively English native speaking actors in its
and Gallery of Contemporary Arts is located near central station.In 2008 the Internationales Maritimes Museum
Hamburg opened in the HafenCity quarter.Two museum
ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to freight ship
(Cap San Diego) and cargo sailing ship (Rickmer
Museum BallinStadt Emigration City
reminds of the vast
streams of European people emigrating from those mass accommodation
halls between 1850 and 1939 to North and South America. Those
people from overseas stemming from emigrants may search in data
banks for their ancestors.
State Opera is a leading opera company.
Its orchestra is
the Philharmoniker Hamburg
The city's other well-known orchestra is the North German Radio
. The main concert venue is the Laeiszhalle, Musikhalle Hamburg, pending completion of
the new Elbe
The Laeiszhalle is also home to a third
orchestra, the Hamburger
Ligeti and Alfred Schnittke
taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater
Since the German premiere of Cats
in 1985, there have always been
running in the city. Among
them have been Phantom of
, The Lion
, Dirty Dancing, and Dance of the Vampires
density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical
production company Stage
being based in the city.
Hamburg is home to German hip hop acts, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe
, Samy Deluxe
. There is also a quite
big alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatted former theatre
located in the quarter Sternschanze.
Hamburg is also famous
for an original kind of German alternative music
called Hamburger Schule
("Hamburg School"), a
term used for bands like Tocotronic
, and Tomte
The Lion King theatre in
The city was a major center of the heavy metal music world in the
1980s. Bands such as Helloween
, Running Wild
and Grave Digger
started their careers in
Hamburg. The influences of these and other bands from the area were
critical to establishing the subgenre of power metal
Hamburg is also a global center for psychedelic trance music. It is
home to record labels such as Spirit
, mushroom magazine, the world's best known and longest
well as parties and club nights.
Parks and gardens
Alter Botanischer Garten
Hamburg is a historic botanical garden, located in the
Blomen park, which now exists primarily in greenhouses.The Botanischer Garten Hamburg is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University
Tourists play a significant role in the city's economy. In 2007,
Hamburg attracted more than 3,985,105 visitors (+3.7% to 2006)
with 7,402,423 overnight accommodations (+3.1%). More than
700,000 people from abroad were visiting for an average duration of
stay of 2.1 days. More than 175,000 full-time employees and a
of €9.3 billion make the tourism
industry a major economic factor in the Hamburg Metropolitan
Region. Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries
in Germany. From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in
the city grew about 55.2% (Berlin +52.7%, Mecklenburg-Western
Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church
Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old
warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken).
connect these points of interest. As Hamburg is one of the world's
largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal
boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt
which start from the Landungsbrücken
. Major destinations
also include museums
visitors take a walk in the evening around the area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. Pauli, considered Europe's largest red light district and
home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs.
singer and actor Hans Albers
associated with St. Pauli, providing in the 1940s the
neighborhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um
Halb Eins." The song explains in a polite way how a sailor enjoys
his last day with a trollop before going aboard. It was in the
Reeperbahn that The Beatles began their
career with a 48-night residency at the Indra
Club, followed by another 58 nights at the Kaiserkeller, in 1960; the Top Ten
Club (1961); and the Star-Club (1962).
Others prefer the laidback
with its street cafés or a barbecue on
one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo,
Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated,
People may visit Hamburg because of a specific interest, notably
one of the musicals, a sports event, a congress or fair. In 2005
the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg.
From a total of 8 million overnight stays the majority of visitors
(6 Million overnight stays) came from Germany. Most foreigners are
European, especially from the United Kingdom (171000 overnight stays), Switzerland (about 143000 overnight stays) and Austria (about 137000 overnight stays), and the largest
group from outside Europe comes from the United States (129000 overnight stays).Concerning the number
of visitors Hamburg holds the third position in Europe after
Vienna and Munich.
In addition about 111 million daily visitors pour in to visit
fairs, exhibitions, performances, meetings, congresses and last but
not least to buy extraordinary and luxury goods. Further daily
visitors use the Cruise Terminal. Ship Queen Mary 2
e.g. visits Hamburgs' harbour
regularly and at least once a year.
Festivals and regular events
Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events.
them are street festivals, such as the gay
pride Christopher Street
Day festival or the Alster fair, held at the Binnenalster.The Hamburger DOM is a northern Germany's biggest fun fair held
three times a year.Hafengeburtstag
is a funfair to
honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg with a party and a ship
parade. The biker's divine service in Saint
Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of bikers.Christmas markets in December were held
among other locations at the Hamburg Rathaus square.
For art and culture the long
night of museums
offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums
until midnight. In 2008 the 6th festival of cultures
held in September, to celebrate the multi cultural life. The
—a film festival originated from the 1950s
(German: Film Tage
) and others—presents
a wide range of films. The Hamburg Messe and
offers a location for several trade fairs, such
, an international boat show, or Du und deine
, a large consumer exhibition. Regular sports
events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling
Cyclassics, Hamburg Marathon,
the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin, the tennis tournament
Masters and equestrian events like Deutsches Derby.
Since 2007 Hamburg
has a music and art festival called Dockville
. It takes place every year in summer in the
Original Hamburg dishes are Birnen, Bohnen und Speck
Saxon Birn, Bohn un Speck
, green runner beans cooked with
pears and bacon), Aalsuppe
(Low Saxon Oolsupp
often mistaken to be German for “eel soup“
translated ‘eel’), however the name
probably comes from the Low Saxon allns
“all”, “everything and the kitchen sink”, not necessarily eel.
is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting
diners.), Bratkartoffeln (Low Saxon
Brootkartüffeln, pan-fried potato slices),
Finkenwerder Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder
Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried
fish), Rote Grütze (Low
Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a
type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served
with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde) and
Labskaus (a mixture of corned
beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian
lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all
offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main
component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high
Munich is the birthplace of Radler, which is
called Alsterwasser in Hamburg (a reference to the city's
river Alster with two lake-like bodies in the city center thanks to
damming), both a type of shandy, a concoction
of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade
(Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the
Hamburg is also home to a curious regional dessert
pastry called Franzbrötchen
. Looking rather like a
flattened croissant, the Franzbrötchen
is somewhat similar
in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often
with raisins or brown sugar streusel
may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – franz appears
to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which
would make a Franzbrötchen a “French roll.” Being a
Hamburg regional food, the Franzbrötchen becomes quite
scarce outside the borders of the city; as near as Lunenburg (Lüneburg) it can only be found as a Hamburger
and is not available in Bremen at all.
Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread
variety. The local name is Rundstück
(“round piece” rather
than mainstream German Brötchen
, diminutive form of
“bread”), a relative of Denmark's rundstykke
In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and
Denmark, especially of Copenhagen have a lot in common. This also
includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts,
especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish. The American
seems to have developed from
: a pan-fried patty (usually larger
and thicker than the American counterpart) made from a mixture of
ground beef, soaked stale bread
chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and
vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. Many
Hamburgers consider their Frikadelle
and the American
hamburger different, virtually unrelated. The Oxford Dictionary
defined a Hamburger steak
in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and
-salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from
Hamburg to America.
Hamburg is sometimes called Germany's capital of sport since no
other city is home to more first league teams and international
, one of the most
successful teams in Germany, is a football
team in the Bundesliga
. The HSV is the oldest
team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning
in 1963. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup
winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in
the group stages of the Champions
twice: in 2000/2001 and in 2006/2007. They play at the
Nordbank Arena (average attendance in the 06/07 season was 56
In addition, FC St. Pauli
a second division
club. In the past the team was several times in the Bundesliga.
at the Millerntor-Stadion.
The Hamburg Freezers
Hamburg in the DEL
highest ice hockey
league in Germany. The
represents Hamburg in the
German handball league
2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. Both teams play in
the ultra-modern Color
Hamburg City Man 2007 at the
Hamburg is the nation's field
capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's
. There are also several minority sports clubs;
Hamburg has four cricket
clubs and also the
team Hamburg Warriors
the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club
. Hamburg is also home to the Hamburg
, an Australian
club. The FC St.Pauli
Rugby in Germany. Other first league teams include VT Aurubis
(Volleyball), Hamburger Polo Club, Blue Devils
Center Court of the Tennis Am Rothenbaum venue with a capacity of 13,200 people is the
largest in Germany.In 2008 the German Tennis Federation and the
ATP were divided
about the status of the Hamburg Masters tournament as event of the ATP Masters Series.
also hosts equestrian events at
Reitstadion Klein Flottbek (Deutsches Derby in jumping and
dressage) and Horner
Derby flat racing).
Hamburg Marathon is the biggest marathon
Germany after Berlin. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered.
Worldcups in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition Vattenfall Cyclassics
, and the
worldcup Hamburg City
are also held in Hamburg.
The HSH Nordbank Arena (formerly the AOL Arena
) was used a site for the
2006 World Cup
. In 2010 UEFA
will hold the final of the UEFA Cup
As elsewhere in Northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg
is Low German
, usually referred to as
(German Hamburger Platt
. It is still in use,
albeit by a minority and rarely in public, probably due to a
hostile climate between World War II and the early 1980s. Since
large-scale Germanization beginning in earnest within the 18th
century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed
(contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally,
there was a range of such Missingsch
varieties, the best-known being the
low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more
(Hanseatic German), although the
term is used in appreciation. All of these are now moribund due to
the influences of “proper” German propagated by education and
media. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by
several songs, such as the famous sea
written in the 19th century when Low German was used more
There are several English-speaking communities in Hamburg, e. g.
Caledonian Society of Hamburg, British Club Hamburg, British and
Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Professional Women's Forum. American
and international English-speaking organisations are The American
Club of Hamburg e.V.
Women's Club, The English-Speaking Union of Commonwealth and The
German-American Women's Club.
Memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley
, who reorganized from 1842
on the drinking water and sewerage system of Hamburg and thus
helped to fight against cholera is located near Baumwall train
station in the street "Vorsetzen".
In 2009, more than 2,500 stumbling blocks (Stolpersteine)
were laid with the names of
deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front
of their former houses, the blocks are supposed to draw attention
to the victims, who were persecuted by the Nazis.
The town hall (front view)
The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states
, therefore the First
Mayor of Hamburg
corresponds more to the role of a minister-president
than to the one of a
city mayor. In Hamburg, the government as a German state government
responsible for public education, correctional institutions and
public safety, but also as a municipality for libraries,
recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare
1897 seat of the government is the Hamburg Rathaus with the office for the First Mayor, the meeting
room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament.
As of 2008 the
First Mayor of Hamburg was Ole von
, who governed in Germany's first state-wide "black-green"
coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU
and the alternative
The gross domestic product
Hamburg is total €88.9 billion.The city has the highest GDP in
Germany – €50,000 per capita – and a relatively high employment
rate, with 88 percent of the working-age population. The city is
home to over 120,000 enterprises. In 2007, the average income of
employees was €30,937.
significant economic unit for Hamburg is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks 2nd
only to Rotterdam in Europe and 9th worldwide with
transshipments of of cargo and 134 million tons of goods in
After German reunification, Hamburg recovered the
eastern portion of its hinterland, becoming by far the
fastest-growing port in Europe. International trade is also the
reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although
situated up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its
ability to handle large ocean-going vessels.
along with Seattle and Toulouse, is an important location of the civil aerospace industry.Airbus
, which has an assembly plant in Hamburg,
employs over 13,000 people in the Finkenwerder quarter.
Heavy industry includes the making of steel, aluminum, copper and a
number of shipyards such as Blohm +
Other important industries are media businesses with over 70,000
employees. The section Norddeutscher Rundfunk
television and radio network ARD
television station NDR Fernsehen
based in Hamburg; as well as the commercial television stations
and Tide TV
. Most of the commercial German
television networks have offices for their local stations.
some regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg.
Some of Germany's largest publishing
companies, Axel Springer AG
Gruner + Jahr
, Bauer Media Group
are located in the city.
Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel
are produced in Hamburg, as well as some
special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times
and Hamburger Morgenpost
regional newspapers with having a large circulation. There is also
a number of music companies (the largest being Warner Bros.Records
Germany) and Internet businesses
Germany, and also
companies like Qype
). Jimdo GmbH
, a German web
hosting provider, is headquartered in Hamburg.
Hamburg was one of the locations for the film Tomorrow Never Dies
of the James Bond series
. Filming the final
leap of the car chase, and the exterior of Bond's hotel, the
Atlantic Hotel Kempinski at the Binnenalster.The Reeperbahn street was location for many sets, among other
the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat.
On December 31, 2006 there were 1,754,182 registered people living
in Hamburg (up from 1,652,363 in 1990) in an area of . The population density
was . The metropolitan area
of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to about 4.3 million in an area of
There were 856,132 males and 898,050 females in Hamburg. For every
1,000 males there were 1,049 females. In 2006 there were 16,089
births in Hamburg, of which 33.1% were given by unmarried women,
6,921 marriages and 4,583 divorces. In the city, the population was
spread out with 15.7% under the age of 18, and 18.8% were 65 years
of age or older. 257,060 resident aliens were living in Hamburg
(14.8% of the population). The largest group are people with only
Turkish citizenship with 58,154 (22.6% of the resident aliens),
followed by 20,743 with only Polish citizenship. 4,046 people were
from the United
Kingdom and 4,369 were from the United
States.According to GTZ,
22,000 immigrants living in Hamburg are from Afghanistan, thus forming the largest Afghan community in
Germany and Europe.
In 1999, there were 910,304 households, out of which 18.9% had
children under the age of 18 living with them, and 47.9% of all
households were made up of individuals. The average household size
About 31.7% of Hamburg's population belongs to the Lutheran
, and 10.2% to the Roman Catholic Church
. There are more
than 70,000 people of Muslim faith living in Hamburg, making Islam
the next-largest religion in the city. The remainder of the
population consists of members of smaller Christian churches,
, and those
unaffiliated with any faith. Hamburg is seat of one of the three
bishops of the LutheranNorth Elbian
and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese
. There are several mosques, including the
Centre Hamburg and a growing Jewish community.
Hamburg is home to 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center
Hamburg-Eppendorf with about 1300 beds is a large medical
There are also smaller private hospitals with 40
beds. On December 31, 2007 there were about 12,600 hospital beds in
Hamburg proper. In 2006 1,061 day-care centers for children, 3,841
physicians in private practice and 462 pharmacies were counted in
Hamburg is a major transportation hub in Germany. Hamburg is
connected to four Autobahnen
is the most important railway junction on the route to
and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city,
such as the old
Elbe Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel) now a major tourist
sight, and the Elbe
Tunnel (Elbtunnel) the crossing of a motorway.
Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in
operation.There is also the smaller Hamburg
Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus.Some airlines market Lübeck
Airport in Lübeck as serving
prefix is HH (Hansestadt Hamburg, English: Hanseatic city
of Hamburg), rather than just the single-letter normally used for
large cities such as B for Berlin or M for Munich. The prefix "H" is
used in Hanover instead.
by rail, bus and
ships is organized by a fare-collection joint venture between
transportation companies. Tickets sold by one company in this
(Hamburg traffic group) (HVV) are valid on
all other HVV companies' services. The HVV was the first
organization of this kind worldwide.
Nine mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of
Hamburg public transportation. The Hamburg S-Bahn
system comprises six lines and
the Hamburg U-Bahn
is short for Untergrundbahn
railway). Approximately of of the subway is underground; most of
the tracks are on embankments, viaducts or at ground level. Older
residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn
railway), also due to the fact that the operating company of the
subway is the Hamburger
. A light rail system, the AKN railway
, connects to satellite towns in
Schleswig-Holstein to the city. Regional trains of Germany's major
railway company Deutsche Bahn AG
the regional metronom
trains may be
used with a HVV public transport ticket, too. Except at the three
bigger stations in the center of Hamburg, like Hamburg
central station, Hamburg Dammtor station, or Hamburg-Altona station, the regional trains hardly stop inside the
area of the city.
shut down in 1978.
Gaps in the rail network are filled by bus routes, plied by
single-deck, two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg has
no trams or trolley-buses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses operating
pilot services. A 24-hour bus network operates as frequently as
every 2 minutes on busy routes (30 minutes in suburban
There are six ferry lines along the river Elbe, operated by the
While mainly used by Hamburg citizens and dock workers, they can
also be used for sightseeing tours.
international airport Hamburg Fuhlsbüttel, official name "Hamburg
Airport" (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) is
the fifth biggest airport in germany and the oldest airport in
germany foundet in 1912.
It's about 5 miles away from the
city center. Aproximate 60 Airlines provide 125 destination
airports including some long distance destiantions like New York,
Dubai, Toronto and Tehran. Lufthansa is the homecarrier with the most flights
followed from Air
Berlin.At the Hamburg airport Lufthansa operate one of their biggest Lufthansa Technik Plant.
second airport in Hamburg is Hamburg-Finkenwerder (IATA: XFW, ICAO:
It's about 6 miles away from the city center and a non
public airport for the Airbus Operations
plant. It's the second biggest airbus plant after Tolouse
and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle
and Tolouse. In Hamburg airbus operate the final assembly lines for
Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is provided by
state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke
. Vattenfall Europe
owns nuclear power plants near Hamburg, Brokdorf
Nuclear Power Plant, Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power
Plant and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant.
All scheduled to be taken out of
service. There are also the coal-fired Wedel
Power Station and Moorburg
Power Station and the fuel cell power plant in the HafenCity
biosolids of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant, the
is a pump storage power plant
and a biomass power station is Müllverwertung
The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and
Vocational Training (Behörde für Schule und
). In 2006 about 160,000 pupils were taught in
245 primary schools
, 195 secondary schools
. There are 33 public
libraries in Hamburg proper.
17 universities are located in Hamburg. There are about 70,000
university students, including 9,000 resident aliens. Six universities are
public, like the largest, the University of Hamburg with the University Medical Center
Hamburg-Eppendorf, the University of Music and
Theatre, the Hamburg
University of Applied Sciences and the Hamburg
University of Technology.Seven universities are private, like the
Law School.The city has also smaller private colleges
and universities, including many religious and special-purpose
institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University (Former: University of the Federal Armed Forces
Twin towns—Sister cities
Hamburg is twinned
with eight cities.
In 1994 Chicago became the newest sister city of Hamburg.
are several other partnerships with cities, in 2007 Hamburg and
Salaam, Tanzania signed a
Memorandum of Understanding to develop a
People from Hamburg
- Hamburg guide for residents and visitors. Hamburg
Führer Verlag GmbH, Hamburg, published 12 times p. a.
- Constitution of Hamburg
- Verg , p.15
- Verg , p. 26
- Verg , p. 30
- Verg , p. 39
- Hamburg in your pocket, September – October 2008, page 6:
- Ortwin Pelc, Kriegsende in Hamburg, Hamburg 2005
- Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park Act
- Borough Administration Act
- Greater Hamburg Act
- Reich Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic
city of Hamburg
- Hamburg Act of Areal Organization
- Ulrich Gaßdorf: Engländer wollen in den Hafen, Amerikaner in
gute Restaurants. In: Hamburger Abendblatt from October, 24 2009,
- Hamburg Guide, July 2009, page 40: Hamburg's Cruise Ship
Calendar. Queen Mary 2 on August, 7th and 15th.
- Hamburg Führer Verlag GmbH: Hamburg Guide, May 2009,
- M. Ramesh: Making Hamburg Europe's preferred port December
25, 2000 http://www.hinduonnet.com Accessed August 11, 2008
- " United Internet AG acquires a minority stake in
Jimdo GmbH." Thomson Reuters. July 8, 2008.
Retrieved on May 1, 2009.
- GTZ – Migration and development: Afghans in Germany
- Selectable data base:
- Selectable data base:
The Speicherstadt at night.
Jewish mourning hall at Ohlsdorf
Deutsches Schauspielhaus in the
quarter St. Georg.
The English Theatre
Warehouse district 1890
Freedom of the Seas behind the
Neue and Freihafen-Elbbrücke.