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Handley Page V/1500 illustrating its folding wing capability


The Handley Page V/1500 was a Britishmarker night-flying heavy bomber built by Handley Page towards the end of the First World War. It was a large four-engined biplane, which resembled a larger version of Handley Page's earlier O/100 and O/400 bombers, intended to bomb Berlinmarker from East Anglianmarker airfields. The end of the war stopped the V/1500 being used against Germany, but a single aircraft was used to carry out the first flight from England to India, and later carried out a bombing raid on Kabulmarker during the Third Anglo-Afghan War. It was colloquially known within the fledgling Royal Air Force as the "Super Handley".

Development and design

The V/1500 was produced to meet a British Air Board 1917 requirement for a large night bomber capable of reaching deeper into Germany than the Handley Page O/100 which had recently entered service, carrying a 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) bombload. This implied the ability to bomb Berlinmarker from bases in East Anglia.

While the V/1500 had a similar fuselage to that of the O/100, it had longer-span, four-bay biplane wings and was powered by four 375 hp (280 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII engines mounted in two nacelles, so two engines were pulling in the conventional manner and two pushing, rather than the two Eagles of the smaller bomber. Construction was of wood and fabric materials. A relatively novel design feature was the gunner's position at the extreme rear of the fuselage, between the four fins.

Owing to pressure of work at Handley Page's Cricklewoodmarker factory, and to ensure security, the first prototype was constructed by Harland and Wolffmarker at Belfastmarker, Northern Irelandmarker, being assembled at Cricklewood and first flying on 22 May 1918. Orders were placed with a number of companies (including Harland and Wolff, Beardmore, Handley Page, Grahame-White and Alliance Aircraft for a total of 210 V/1500s, although only 40 aircraft were completed, with a further 22 produced as spares.

Service

Three aircraft were delivered to No. 166 Squadron at RAF Bircham Newtonmarker (Norfolk) during October 1918. The squadron commander did not get clear orders for his mission until November 8, due to debate at high level. A mission was scheduled for that night (bomb Berlin, fly on to Praguemarker as the Austro-Hungarian forces had surrendered by then, refuel, re-arm, bomb Düsseldorfmarker on the way back). No mission was flown - a technical expert insisted that all the engines on one aircraft be changed. The same happened the following day (but with a different aircraft). The three aircraft were about to taxi out after the second set of engine changes when an excited ground crew member ran out to stop them — the Armistice had just been declared.

One of the original batch of aircraft (J1936, Old Carthusian) went on to record two significant 'firsts'. On 13 December 1918, the bomber, flown by Major A.C.S. Maclaren and Captain Robert Halley, accompanied by Brigadier General N.D.K. McEwan, made the first ever 'through-flight' from Englandmarker to Indiamarker. Taking off from Britain the aircraft flew via Romemarker, Maltamarker, Cairomarker, and Baghdadmarker, finally reaching Karachimarker on 15 January 1919.

The same aircraft played a pivotal role in ending the Third Anglo-Afghan War. On 24 May 1919, flying from Risalpurmarker piloted by Captain Halley and with Lt E. Villiers as observer, the V/1500 reached Kabulmarker in three hours. Of its payload of four 112 lb (51 kg) bombs on improvised bomb racks removed from B.E.2c and 16 20 lb (10 kg) bombs carried in the fuselage and dropped by hand, four bombs hit the royal palace. Although the bombing did little physical damage, it had a great psychological impact on the citizens - the ladies of the royal harem rushed onto the streets in terror, causing great scandal. A few days later King Amanullah sued for peace, bringing an end to the war after less than one month of hostilities. This could be said to be the first decisive use of strategic bombing. .

The Handley Page V/1500 aircraft Atlantic was shipped to Newfoundlandmarker in early 1919 to attempt the first non-stop Transatlantic flight. Unfortunately the prize was won by Alcock and Brown in a Vickers Vimy in June 1919. The crew departed for New Yorkmarker but was forced to land in Parrsboro, Nova Scotiamarker on 5 July 1919 where it was repaired over the course of the summer. The Atlantic continued to New Yorkmarker on 9 October 1919 carrying with it the first Airmail from Canadamarker to the United States of Americamarker.

Final production of the V/1500 totalled 60 aircraft. They were eventually replaced in service by the Vickers Vimy. J1936 ended its life being consumed by termites.

Operators



Specifications (V/1500)

See also

References

Notes

  1. Bowyer 1992, p.122.
  2. Mason 1994, p.108.
  3. Bowyer 1992, pp.122—123.
  4. Mason 1994, p.111.
  5. Bowyer 1992, pp135, 138.
  6. Bowyer 1992, p.142.
  7. http://www.kaisersbunker.com/rfc/rfc13.htm
  8. http://www.town.parrsboro.ns.ca/history.html


Bibliography

  • Barnes, C. H. Handley Page Aircraft Since 1907. London: Putnam & Company, Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-85177-803-8.
  • Bowyer, Chaz. Handley Page Bombers of the First World War. Bourne End, Bucks, UK:Aston Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-946627-68-1.
  • Clayton, Donald C. Handley Page, an Aircraft Album. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Ltd., 1969. ISBN 0-7110-0094-8.
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914. London:Putnam, 1994. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.


External links


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