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Henry Benjamin "Hank" Greenberg (January 1, 1911–September 4, 1986), nicknamed "Hammerin' Hank," was an Americanmarker professional baseball player in the 1930s and 1940s.

A first baseman primarily for the Detroit Tigers, Greenberg was one of the premier power hitters of his generation. He hit 58 home runs in 1938, equalling Jimmie Foxx's mark for the most home runs in one season by any player between 1927 (when Babe Ruth set a record of 60) and 1961 (when Roger Maris surpassed it). Greenberg was a five-time All-Star, was twice named the American League's Most Valuable Player, and was elected to the Hall of Famemarker in 1956.

Greenberg was the first Jewish superstar in American professional sports. He attracted national attention in 1934 when he refused to play baseball on Yom Kippur, the Jewish day of atonement, even though the Tigers were in the middle of a pennant race.

Early life

Greenberg was born on January 1, 1911, in the Bronxmarker [1703], New York City to an Orthodox Jewish family. Greenberg lacked coordination as a youngster and flat feet prevented him from running fast.[1704] But he worked diligently to overcome his inadequacies. He attended James Monroe High School in the Bronxmarker, where he was an outstanding all-around athlete. His preferred sport was baseball, and his preferred position was first base. He became a basketball standout in high school, helping Monroe win the city championship.[1705]

In 1929, he was recruited by the New York Yankees, who already had a capable first baseman who was known for not sitting out games: Lou Gehrig. Greenberg turned them down and instead attended New York Universitymarker for a year, after which he signed with the Detroit Tigers for $9,000 ($ in current dollar terms).

Minor League career

Greenberg played minor league baseball for three years.

Greenberg played 17 games in 1930 for Hartfordmarker, then played at Raleigh, North Carolinamarker, where he hit .314 with 19 home runs.

In 1931, he played at Evansvillemarker in the Illinois-Indiana-Iowa League (.318, 15 homers, 85 RBIs).

In 1932, at Beaumontmarker in the Texas League, he hit 39 homers with 131 RBIs, won the MVP award, and led Beaumont to the Texas League title.

During the season, one of his teammates (Jo-Jo White) walked slowly around Greenberg, staring at him. Greenberg asked him what he was looking at. White said he was just looking, as he'd never seen a Jew before. "The way he said it," noted Greenberg, "he might as well have said, 'I've never seen a giraffe before.'" I let him keep looking for a while, and then I said, 'See anything interesting?'" Looking for horns and finding none, White said, "You're just like everyone else."

Early Major League career

In seven of the nine years in which he was active, Greenberg was one of the dominant players in the game. He has the seventh-highest slugging percentage lifetime of any ballplayer in major league history, at .605, ahead of such sluggers as Mark McGwire and Joe DiMaggio.

In 1930 he was the youngest player in the majors when he first broke in, at 19.

In 1933, he rejoined the Tigers and hit .301 while driving in 87 runs. At the same time, he was third in the league in strikeouts (78).

In 1934, his second major-league season, he hit .339 and helped the Tigers reach their first World Series in 25 years. He led the league in doubles, with 63, (the 4th highest all-time in a single season). He was 3rd in the AL in slugging percentage (.600) -- behind Jimmie Foxx and Lou Gehrig, but ahead of Babe Ruth, and in RBIs (139).

Late in the 1934 season, he announced that he would not play on Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, or the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur. Fans grumbled, "Rosh Hashanah comes every year but the Tigers haven't won the pennant since 1909." Greenberg did considerable soul-searching, and discussed the matter with his rabbi; finally he relented and agreed to play on Rosh Hashanah, but stuck with his decision not to play on Yom Kippur. Dramatically, Greenberg hit two home runs in a pennant-clinching 2-1 Tigers victory. The next day's Detroit Free Press ran the Hebrew lettering for "Happy New Year" across its front page. Columnist and poet Edgar A. Guest expressed the general opinion in a poem titled "Speaking of Greenberg," in which he used the Irish (and thus Catholic) names Murphy and Mulroney. The poem ends with the lines "We shall miss him on the infield and shall miss him at the bat / But he's true to his religion--and I honor him for that." The complete text of the poem is at the end of Greenberg's biography page at the website of the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.

In 1935 Greenberg led the league in RBIs (170) and total bases (389), tied Foxx for the AL title in home runs (36), was 2nd in the league in doubles (46), slugging percentage (.628), was 3rd in the league in triples (16), and in runs scored (121). He also led the Tigers to their first World Series title. (However, he broke his wrist in the second game.) He was unanimously voted the American League's Most Valuable Player. He set a record (still standing) of 103 RBIs at the All-Star break - but was not selected to the AL All-Star Game roster.[1706]

In 1936 Greenberg re-broke his wrist in a collision with Jake Powell of the Washington Senators in April of that year. He had accumulated 16 RBIs by April 17.

In 1937 Greenberg was voted to the All-Star Team. On September 19, 1937, he hit the first-ever homer into the center field bleachers at Yankee Stadium. He led the AL by driving in 183 runs (3rd all-time, behind Hack Wilson in 1930 and Lou Gehrig in 1931), while batting .337 with 200 hits. He was 2nd in the league in home runs (40), doubles (49), total bases (397), slugging percentage (.668), and walks (102). Still, Greenberg came in only 3rd in the vote for MVP.

A prodigious home run hitter, Greenberg narrowly missed breaking Babe Ruth's single-season home run record in 1938, when he was again voted to the All-Star Team and hit 58 home runs, leading the league for the second time. That year, he set the major league record with 11 multi-homer games. Sammy Sosa tied Greenberg's mark in 1998. After having been passed over for the All-Star team in 1935 and being left on the bench for the 1937 game, Greenberg refused to participate in the 1938 contest. In 1938 he homered in four consecutive at-bats over two games. He matched what was then the single-season home run record by a right-handed batter, (Jimmy Foxx, 1932); the mark would stand for 66 years until it was broken by Sammy Sosa and Mark McGwire. Greenberg also had a 59th home run washed away in a rainout. It has been long speculated that Greenberg was intentionally walked late in the season to prevent him from breaking Ruth's record, but Greenberg dismissed this speculation, calling it "crazy stories."

In 1938, Greenberg led the league in runs scored (144) and at-bats per home run (9.6), tied for the AL lead in walks (119), was second in RBI (146), slugging percentage (.683), and total bases (380), and third in OBP (.438) and set a still-standing major league record of 39 homers in his home park, the newly reconfigured Briggs Stadium. However, he came in third in the vote for MVP.

In 1939 Greenberg was voted to the All-Star Team for the third year in a row. He was second in the American League in home runs (33) and strikeouts (95), and third in doubles (42) and slugging percentage (.622).

After the 1939 season ended, Greenberg was asked by general manager Jack Zeller to take a salary cut of $5,000 as a result of his off year in power and run production. To top it off, he was asked to move to left field to accommodate Rudy York, who was one of the best young hitters of his generation, but was tried at catcher, third base and the outfield and proved to be a defensive liability wherever they played him. Greenberg in turn demanded a $10,000 dollar bonus if he mastered the outfield, stating he was the one taking the risk in learning a new position. Greenberg received his bonus at the end of spring training. In 1940, Greenberg was voted to the All-Star team for the 4th year in a row. He led the league in home runs (41; for the third time in 6 years), RBIs (150), doubles (50), total bases (384), and slugging percentage (.670; 44 points ahead of Joe DiMaggio). He was second in the league behind Ted Williams in runs scored (129) and OBP (.433), all while batting .340 (5th best in the AL). He led the Tigers to a pennant, and won his 2nd American League MVP award, becoming the first player to win an MVP award at two different positions.

World War II service

The Detroit draft board initially classified Greenberg as 4F for "flat feet." Rumors that he had bribed the board and concern that he would be likened to Jack Dempsey, who had received negative publicity for failure to serve in World War I, led Greenberg to be reexamined, and he was found fit to serve.

Although drafted in 1940, he was honorably discharged after the United States Congress released men aged 28 years and older from service, being released on December 5, 1941, two days before Japanmarker bombed Pearl Harbormarker. Greenberg re-enlisted and volunteered for service in the United States Army Air Forces. He graduated from Officer Candidate School and was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the USAAF. He eventually served overseas in the China-Burma-India Theater, scouting locations for B-29 bomber bases.

Return to baseball

Greenberg remained in uniform until the summer of 1945. In Greenberg's first game back after being discharged on July 1, 1945, he homered. Without the benefit of spring training, he returned to the Tigers, was again voted to the All-Star Team, and helped lead them to a come-from-behind American League pennant, clinching it with a grand slam home run in the final game of the season.

In 1946, he returned to peak form, leading the league in home runs (44) and RBIs (127), both for the 4th time. He was 2nd in slugging percentage (.604) and total bases (316) behind Ted Williams.

In 1947, Greenberg and the Tigers had a lengthy salary dispute. When Greenberg decided to retire rather than play for less, Detroit sold his contract to the Pittsburgh Pirates. To persuade him not to retire, Pittsburgh made Greenberg the first baseball player to earn over $80,000 ($ in current dollar terms) in a season as pure salary (though the exact amount is a matter of some dispute). Team co-owner Bing Crosby recorded a song, "Goodbye, Mr. Ball, Goodbye" with Groucho Marx and Greenberg to celebrate Greenberg's arrival. The Pirates also reduced the size of Forbes Fieldmarker's cavernous left field, renaming the section "Greenberg Gardens" to accommodate Greenberg's pull-hitting style. Greenberg played first base for the Pirates in 1947 and was one of the few opposing players to publicly welcome Jackie Robinson to the majors.

That year he also had a chance to mentor a young future Hall-of-Famer, the 24-year-old Ralph Kiner. Said Greenberg, "Ralph had a natural home run swing. All he needed was somebody to teach him the value of hard work and self-discipline. Early in the morning on off-days, every chance we got, we worked on hitting." Kiner would go on to hit 51 home runs that year to lead the National League.

In his final season of 1947, Greenberg tied for the league lead in walks with 104. He earned a .408 on-base percentage and was also 8th in the league in home runs and 10th in slugging percentage. Greenberg became the first major league player to hit 25 or more home runs in a season in each league. Johnny Mize became the second in 1950. Nevertheless, Greenberg retired as a player to take a front-office post with the Cleveland Indians. No player had ever retired after a final season in which they hit so many home runs. Since then, only Ted Williams (1960, 29), Dave Kingman (1986; 35), Mark McGwire (2001; 29), and Barry Bonds (2007; 28) have hit as many or more homers in their final season.


As a fielder, the 193 cm (6'4") Greenberg was awkward and unsure of himself early in his career but he mastered his first-base position through countless hours of practice. Over the course of his career, he demonstrated a higher-than-average fielding percentage and range at first base. When asked to move to left field in 1940 to make room for Rudy York, he worked tirelessly to master that position as well and reduced his errors in the outfield from 15 in 1940 to 0 in 1945.

Baseball style

Greenberg felt that runs batted in were more important than home runs. He would tell his teammates, "just get on base," or "just get the runner to third," and he would do the rest.

Abbreviated career

Starring as a first baseman and outfielder with the Detroit Tigers (1930, 1933-46) and doing duty only briefly with the Pittsburgh Pirates (1947), Hank Greenberg played only 9 full seasons. He missed three full seasons and most of two others to World War II military service and missed most of another season with a broken wrist.Had he played in another era uninterrupted by war, it has often been said that Greenberg would have hit between 500 and 600 home runs and driven in 1800 to 2000 runs. As it is, his totals of 331 home runs and 1,276 RBI are remarkable for a 1,394-game career. Greenberg also hit for average, earning a lifetime batting average of .313.

Coaching & ownership

The following year, Greenberg retired from the field to become the Cleveland Indians' farm system director and two years later, their general manager and part-owner along with Bill Veeck. During his tenure, he sponsored more African American players than any other major league executive. Greenberg's contributions to the Cleveland farm system led to the team's successes throughout the 1950s, although Bill Jamesonce wrote that the Indians' late 1950s collapse should also be attributed to him. When Veeck sold his interest, Greenberg remained as general manager and part-owner until 1957. He was the mastermind behind a potential move of the club to Minneapolismarker that was vetoed by the rest of ownership at the last minute. Greenberg was furious and sold his share soon afterwards.

In 1961, the American League announced plans to put a team in Los Angelesmarker. Greenberg immediately became the favorite to become the new team's first owner and persuaded Veeck, who had sold off his majority interest in the White Sox due to poor health, to join him as his partner. However, when Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley got wind of these developments, he threatened to scuttle the whole deal by invoking his exclusive rights to operate a major league team in southern California. In truth, O'Malley wanted no part of competing against an expansion team owned by a master promoter such as Veeck, even if he was only a minority partner. Greenberg wouldn't budge and pulled out of the running for what became the Los Angeles Angels (now the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim). Greenberg later became a successful investment banker, briefly returning to baseball as a minority partner with Veeck when the latter repurchased the Chicago White Sox in 1975.

Personal life

He married Carol Gimbel (of the New York department store family) on February 18, 1946, three days after signing a $60,000 ($ in current dollar terms) contract with the Tigers. Their other son, Stephen, played five years in the Washington Senators/Texas Rangers organization. In 1995, Steve Greenberg co-founded Classic Sports Network with Brian Bedol, which was purchased by ESPN and became ESPN Classic. He was also the chairman of CSTV, the first cable network devoted exclusively to college sports, purchased by CBS in 2006.



Examples of the anti-Semitism Greenberg faced included having players stare at him and having coarse racial epithets thrown at him. Examples of these imprecations were: "Hey Mo!" (referring to the Hebrew patriarch Moses) and "Throw a pork chop--he can't hit that!"[1707] referring to laws of Kashrut. Particularly abusive were the St. Louis Cardinals during the 1934 World Series.[1708]
Greenberg sometimes retaliated against the ethnic attacks, once going into the Chicago White Sox clubhouse to challenge manager Jimmy Dykes and at another time calling out the entire Yankee team.[1709]

Jewish fans in Detroit—-and around the American League for that matter—-took to Greenberg almost at once, offering him everything from free meals to free cars, all of which he refused.[1710]
In 23 World Series games, he hit .318, with five homers and 22 RBI.

Greenberg was one of the few baseball people to testify on behalf of Curt Flood in 1970 when the outfielder challenged the reserve clause.[1711]

Greenberg died of cancer in Beverly Hills, Californiamarker, in 1986 and his remains were entombed at Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in Culver City, Californiamarker.

In an article in 1976 in Esquire magazine, sportswriter Harry Stein published an "All Time All-Star Argument Starter," consisting of five ethnic baseball teams. Greenberg was the first baseman on Stein's Jewish team.

In 2006, Greenberg was featured on a United Statesmarker postage stamp. The stamp is one of a block of four honoring "baseball sluggers", the others being Mickey Mantle, Mel Ott, and Roy Campanella.

See also


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