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Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA): Map

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In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Origin

L0 is one of two branches from the of the most recent common ancestor, MRCA, for the shared human maternal lineage. This ancestor is estimated to have lived in Southern Africa or East Africa approximately 150,000 to 170,000 years ago. Haplogroup L0 consists of five main branches (L0a, L0b, L0d, L0f, L0k). Four of them were originally classified into haplogroup L1 as L1a, L1d, L1f, and L1k.

Distribution

It is found most commonly in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Khoisan people at 73%. Some of the higher frequencies are: Namibiamarker (!Xun) 79%, Southafrica (Khwe/!Xun) 83% and Botswanamarker (!Kung) 100%.

Haplogroup L0a is most prevalent in South-East African populations (25% in Mozambiquemarker).Among Guineansmarker, it has a frequency between 1% and 5%, with the Balanta group showing increased frequency of about 11%. Haplogroup L0a has a Paleolithic time depth of about 33,000 years and likely reached Guinea between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago. It also is often seen in the Mbuti and Biaka-pygmies.

Haplogroup L0b Ethiopia.

Haplogroup L0f is present in relatively small frequencies in Tanzania, East Africa.

Haplogroups L0d and L0k are the most ancient ones and are typical for Khoisans in South Africa.

Subclades

Tree

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L0 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation and subsequent published research.

  • Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
    • L0
      • L0d
        • L0d3
        • L0d1'2
          • L0d1
            • L0d1a
            • L0d1b
            • L0d1c
              • L0d1c1
          • L0d2
            • L0d2a'b
              • L0d2a
                • L0d2a1
              • L0d2b
            • L0d2c
      • L0a'b'f'k
        • L0k
          • L0k1
          • L0k2
        • L0a'b'f
          • L0f
            • L0f1
            • L0f2
              • L0f2a
              • L0f2b
          • L0a'b
            • L0a
              • L0a1
                • L0a1a
                  • L0a1a2
                • L0a1b
                  • L0a1b1
                    • L0a1b1a
                  • L0a1b2
                • L0a1c
                • L0a1d
              • L0a2
                • L0a2a
                  • L0a2a1
                    • L0a2a1a
                      • L0a2a1a1
                      • L0a2a1a2
                  • L0a2a2
                    • L0a2a2a
                • L0a2b
                  • L0a2ba
                • L0a2c
                • L0a2d
              • L0a3
              • L0a4
            • L0b


References

  1. Rosa, A. et al. 2004 July. "MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region", "Annals of Human Genetics", 68(Pt 4): 344
  2. Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195


See also



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