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Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور) is both a city and a district in the Hazara region of the North-West Frontier Provincemarker of Pakistanmarker. Haripur District has the highest Human Development Index of all districts in the NWFP. Haripur District is situated at latitude 33° 44' to 34° 22' and longitude 72° 35' to 73° 15' and about 610 meters above the sea level.

To the north and west of Haripur are Pashtun areas - these areas have come under the threat of the Taliban. However the people of Haripur are mainly Hindko speakers and unlike the Pashtun areas, which have been susceptible to Taliban influence, Haripur has resisted and acted as a buffer their spread. Following the campaign against the Taliban in Swat - many militants tried to find haven Haripur, particularly in the camps for Afghan refugees however local people have been assisting authorities.

History

Haripur district is situated in the heart of ancient Gandhara civilization. In 1399, central Asian conqueror Amir Timur, on his way back from his Indian campaign, left a legion of Karlugh Turks in the current Hazara region of Pakistan as the rulers. In 1472 Prince Shahabuddin, a descendant of Amir Timur came to Hazara to lead these Karlugh Turks and formed a state known as Pakhli Sarkar in the area between Hasan Abdalmarker-Attockmarker to Kashmirmarker. Karlugh Turks continued to rule most of Hazara until 1703 but gradually lost their control initially from Hassan Abdal/Attock and then from Haripur, which came the control of the powerful Gakhars. The Turks however kept their grasp over the areas between Abbottabadmarker to Kashmir until the collapse of their rule in the 18th century. Now the descendants of these Turk rulers live in several villages of districts Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra. Prominent villages where they live are Bihali Mansehra and Manakrai Haripur. One of the descendant of these Turks was Raja Amanuullah Khan who became Speaker of NWFP assembly in the 1980s.

The Sikhs annexed Hazara in two stages. Lower Hazara became tributary to the Sikhs as soon as they wrested the Fort of Attock from the Durranis. Upper Hazara suffered a similar fate when the Sikhs took Kashmir from the Barakzais in 1819.The town of Haripur (meaning Hari's town) was founded in 1822 by Hari Singh Nalwa, the Commander-in-Chief of Ranjit Singh's army along its north-west frontier. On the successful completion of his tenure as the Governor of Kashmir in 1821, Pakhli and Damtaur were bestowed upon Nalwa as a jagir in 1822. As soon as Hari Singh Nalwa received this grant, he built the walled town of Haripur in the heart of the plains of Hazara-i-Karlugh. To the north of Karlugh flowed the river Dormarker and to its south lay the country of the Gakhars. To its east ran a mountainous range; and to its west stood the Gandhgarh Hills. The selection of this site by Hari Singh was interesting because some of the most fierce encounters with the tribes inhabiting this region had been fought by the Sikhs in this vicinity.

Hari Singh's name and the presence of his fort of Harkishangarh eventually brought such a feeling of security to the region, that by 1835 a German traveller found mere remnants of the four-yard thick and 16 yards high wall built to initially protect the town.

Haripur was the sole example of a planned town in this region till the British built Abbottabadmarker many years later. Haripur continued to grow and flourish and eventually became a city and then a District. The first British Deputy Commissioner, James Abbott, painted an exquisite picture of the town of Haripur and its commanding fort of Harkishangarh.

Administration

The District of Haripur was a Tehsil of Abbottabad District until 1992 when it was separated from the District of Abbottabad and made into a district in its own right. The district is represented in the provincial assembly by four elected MPAs who represent the following constituencies:

National Constituency MNA Party
NA - 19 Sardar Muhammad Mushtaq Khan of Kotnajibullah PML (N)
Constituency MPA Party
PF-49 (Haripur-1) Raja Faisal Zaman Mutthida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan (MMA)
PF-50 (Haripur-2) Qazi Muhammad Asad Khan Fort Road Haripur (ANP)
PF-51 (Haripur-3) Gohar Nawaz Khan on seat of Akhtar Nawaz Khan(LATE) Independent
PF-52 (Haripur-4) Syed M.Sabir Shah Pakistan Muslim League (N)


Haripur District is divided into three tehsils which are subdivided into a total of 44 Union Councils of which 15 are urban Union Councils;

Haripur

Haripur Tehsil is divided into 37 Union Councils



Ghazi

Ghazi Tehsil is divided into 7 Union Councils



Khanpur

  • Khanpur (newly Announced)


Importance

The area is rich in natural resources and has two very important water reservoirs, the Tarbela Dammarker and Khanpur dam. Geographically, it is a gateway between, on the one side, Hazara and the North-West Frontier Provincemarker, and on the other side the capital, Islamabadmarker.

Boundary

Boundaries of Haripur
The geographical significance of the district lies in the fact that its boundaries touch Mardan Districtmarker, a centre of the ancient Gandhara civilization in the north west. Abbottabad Districtmarker in the north east, Mansehra District in the north, Margallah hills of Islamabad in the south east, Swat valley in the north-west, Buner and Swabimarker districts in the west. Besides Swabi, Mansehra and Abbottabad districts of NWFP, two districts of Punjab province i.e. Attockmarker and Rawalpindimarker lie on the southwest and southeast respectively of Haripur district. The Federal Capital Islamabad is also adjacent to the district in the south.

Demography

Haripur's population was 692,228 at the 1998 Census, but was estimated to be 803,000 in 2005. Out of those only 12.0% of the population live in urban areas, while, the rest (88.0%) of the population lives in the rural areas.

The population is spread over 1,725 km², with population density of 401.3 persons per km², this compares to the average population density of 233 persons per km², in the North West Frontier as whole. The average household size of the district is 6.6 persons per household compared to 8 at the provincial level. Agriculture is the livelihood of the rural population, the total arable area is 77,370 acres (313.1 km²).

Language

According to the 1998 District Census Report, Hindko is the predominant language in the district, representing >88% of the total population. Other languages spoken are Punjabi, Mirpuri (Mirpuri Punjabi), Pushto, Potohari, Gojri and Pahaari.

Growth rate

The average annual growth rate for the district during the 1981 to 1998 inter-census period has been 2.19%, lower than the provincial average (2.8%) and almost equal to the national average i.e. 2.2%.

Literacy rate

The overall literacy rate for Haripur district is 53.7%, substantially higher than the provincial literacy rate in NWFP (35.2%). The female literacy rate is dismally low at 37.4% compared to male literacy of 70.5%. The urban: rural break down show that rural literacy is lower (51.4%) than urban literacy (69.7%).

Education

Haripur District has a Post Graduate College, that is funded by the Government, Providing education on Higher level. The city also has two Colleges for Girls which is also funded by the Government to provide Higher Education for Girls coming all around the City.

Haripur has 907 government primary schools, including 656 for boys and 251 for girls, in 2000–2001. In addition to government primary schools, 166 mosque schools were also functional in the district during this period.

The 907 government primary schools are there to cater a primary school age population (5–9 years) of 101,670, out of which 52,240 (51.38%) were boys and 49,430 (48.61%) were girls. The ratio of the primary schools with the primary school going age population indicates a limited access of the children to primary education. The district had 83 middle schools (56 for boys & 27 for girls), during 2001.

The mosque schools were introduced under the National Education Policy 1979 at the time of Fifth Five-Year Plan 1978–83. A mosque school is organized on the basis of 20–30 students, having normally one PTC teacher and Imam of the mosque as staff members, a shorter teaching programme (about four hours a day), same curriculum as of primary schools in addition to teaching of Quran-e-Nazira (recitation of the Quran). The students qualifying from such schools are eligible for admission in formal schools for higher education.

During 2000–2001, 166 mosque schools (15.47% of the total primary schools) were functioning in district, while in 1997–98, this number was 180. Details about the number of teachers and students, curricular activities and performance of these schools are not available. The school age population catered by the mosque schools is not available.

Industries

Haripur District is comparatively more industrialised than other districts in the NWF Province. There are many biggest factory units here like Telephone Industries of Pakistan, NRTC(National Radio Telecommunication Corporatin, Hazara fertilizers, Razzaq Blancket Industry, Ali Hussain Poltry, Khwaja Children Home, Pak-China fertilizers, Terbela Cotton Mills etc. Furthermore, many small and big industrial factories are made in the Hatar industrial state such as Dewan Salman Fibreand Heavy Electrical Complex. Because of these industries this district is playing an important role at country level in the economic development.

Since Haripur has developed situation of medium and big industries, its role in the agricultural field is also admirable. This district especially provides fruits and vegetable not only to Peshawar but also to Islamabad and the Punjab. There is more likelihood of social and economical development due to the project of Ghazi Brotha and Motorway from Peshawer to Islamabad.

One of the well known places of the district Haripur is Khalabat Town named after a village now under Tarbela Dammarker lake. It is a well planned town with a population of around 35,000 and is located at the bank of Tarbela Lake and is home to those displaced by the Terbela Dam.

Notable people from Haripur



References

  1. Why the Taliban won't take over Pakistan The Christian Science Monitor
  2. 20 Taliban hideouts busted in Haripur
  3. DISTRICT HARIPUR
  4. Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 77-104, ISBN 8173047855.
  5. Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 84-5, ISBN 8173047855.
  6. Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 224-5, ISBN 8173047855.
  7. 'The Rock Aornos from Huzara' - British Library Online Gallery
  8. Constituencies and MPAs - Website of the Provincial Assembly of the NWFP
  9. Tehsils & Unions in the District of Harripur
  10. Information Pakistan - Districts of Pakistan



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