The Full Wiki

Hawaii (island): Map

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The Island of Hawai i, also called the Big Island or Hawai i Island ( in English and or in Hawaiian), is a volcanic island in the U.S.marker State of Hawaiimarker in the North Pacific Oceanmarker. With an area of 4,028 square miles (10,432 km²), it is larger than all of the other Hawaiian Islands combined and is the largest island in the United States.

Hawai i is said to have been named for Hawai iloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. However, other accounts attribute the name to the legendary land or realm of Hawaiki, a place from which the Polynesians originated (see also Manuamarker), the place where they go in the afterlife, the realm of the gods.

The Island of Hawai i is administered as the County of Hawai imarker. The county seat is Hilomarker. It is estimated that as of the year 2008, the island had a resident population of 201,109.

History

Hawai i was the home island of Pai`ea Kamehameha, called by Westerners Kamehameha the Great, who by 1795 had united most of the Hawaiian Islands under his rule after several years of warfare and conquest. He gave his kingdom the name of his native island (by which the islands now are known collectively), Hawai i. Captain James Cook, who made the Western world aware of these "Sandwich isles", was killed on Hawai i in Kealakekua Baymarker.

Geology and geography

Volcanism

The five shield volcanoes
The Island of Hawai i is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are (from oldest to youngest):
*Kohalamarker (extinct),
*Mauna Keamarker (dormant),
*Hualālaimarker (active but not currently erupting),
*Mauna Loamarker (active, partly within Hawai i Volcanoes National Parkmarker), and
*Kīlaueamarker (very active: an eruption that began in 1983 is ongoing; part of Hawai i Volcanoes National Park).
Interpretation of geological evidence from exposures of old surfaces on the south and west flanks of Mauna Loa led to the proposal that two ancient volcanic shields (named Ninole and Kulani) were all but buried by the younger Mauna Loa. Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa.

In greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles (150 km) across and has a land area of 4,028.0 square miles (10,432.5 km²), representing 62% of the total land area of the Hawaiian Islands. Measured from its base at the sea floor, to its highest peak, Mauna Keamarker is the tallest mountain in the world, even taller than Mount Everestmarker, according to the Guinness Book of Records. Traditionally, Hawai i is known as the Big Island because it is the largest of the Hawaiian Islands and also to ease confusion between Hawai i Island and Hawai i State.

Because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawai i is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, of land were added to the island by lava flows from Kīlauea volcano extending the coastline seaward. Several towns have been destroyed by Kīlauea lava flows in modern times: Kapohomarker (1960), Kalapanamarker (1990), and Kaimūmarker (1990). A large fresh water pool, in a deep L-shaped crack in the Kalapana area, well known on the Big Island as Queen's Bath, was flowed over by lava in 1987.

Steam plume as Kīlauea red lava enters the ocean at three Waikupanaha and one Ki lava ocean entries.
Some surface lava is seen too.
The image was taken 04/16/08.
Hawai i is the southernmost island in the Hawaiian archipelago, and contains the southernmost point in the United States, (Ka Laemarker). The nearest landfall to the south would be in the Line Islandsmarker. To the north is the island of Mauimarker, where East Maui Volcano (Haleakalāmarker) is visible across the Alenuihāhā Channel.

18 miles (29 kilometers) off Hawai i Island's southeast coast is the undersea volcano known as Lō ihimarker. Lō ihi is an actively erupting seamount that lies 3,200 feet (975 m) below the surface of the ocean. It is thought that continued volcanic activity from Lō ihi will cause the volcano to eventually breach sea level and later attach at the surface onto Kīlauea, adding even more land to Hawai i's surface area. This "event" is presently predicted for a date several tens of thousands of years in the future.

The Great Crack

The Great Crack is an long, wide and deep fissure in the island, in the district of Ka ū. The Great Crack is actually the "result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the [southwest] rift zone and not from the seaward movement of the south flank. There is no evidence that the Great Crack is getting bigger at this time or that the island is tearing apart along this seam." Furthermore, neither the 1868 nor the 1975 earthquakes caused measurable change in The Great Crack.

Rifts like the Great Crack are often the sites of volcanic eruptions, and in 1823 lava welled out of the lower 10 km (6 mi) of the Great Crack.



One can find trails, rock walls, and archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. Much of these finds are on the park side of the fence. About of private land beyond the fence were purchased during the Bill Clinton administration specifically to protect the various artifacts in this area as well as to protect the habitat of the turtles. However, near the end of the crack is an area of land between the fence, the crack and the ocean which is not part of the park land and does have many archaeological artifacts on it.
Punalu'u Black Sand Beach Park


The Hilina Slump

The Hilina Slump is a 4,760 cubic mile (20,000 kilometre³) chunk of the big island of Hawaii on the south slope of the Kilauea volcano which is slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System measurements showed the a southward displacement of the south flank of Kilauea up to approximately 10 centimeters per year. Recent undersea measurements show that an undersea "bench" has formed a buttress at the forefront of the Hilina Slump, and "this buttress may tend to reduce the likelihood of future catastrophic detachment."

Earthquakes and Tsunamis

On April 2, 1868, an earthquakemarker with a magnitude estimated between 7.25 and 7.75 on the Richter scale rocked the southeast coast of Hawai i. It triggered a landslide on the slopes of Mauna Loa, five miles (8 km) north of Pahala, killing 31 people. A tsunami claimed 46 additional lives. The villages of Punalu umarker, Nīnole, Kawa a, Honu apo, and Keauhou Landing were severely damaged. According to one account, the tsunami "rolled in over the tops of the coconut trees, probably high ... inland a distance of a quarter of a mile in some places, taking out to sea when it returned, houses, men, women, and almost everything movable." This was reported in the 1988 edition of Walter C. Dudley's book, "Tsunami!" (ISBN 0-8248-1125-9).

On November 29, 1975, a wide section of the Hilina Slump dropped 11 1/2 feet (3 m) and slid 26 feet toward the ocean. This movement caused a 7.2 magnitude earthquake and a high tsunami. Oceanfront properties were washed off their foundations in Punalu u. Two deaths were reported at Halapē, and 19 other persons were injured.

The northeast coast of the Big Island has also suffered tsunami damage from earthquakes in Chile and Alaska that triggered waves. Downtown Hilomarker was severely damaged in 1946 and 1960, with many lives lost. Just north of Hilo, Laupāhoehoemarker lost 16 school children and 5 teachers in the 1946 tsunami.

Demographics

As of 2000, there were 148,677 people, 52,985 households, and 36,877 families residing in the county. The population density was 14/km² (37/mi²). There were 62,674 housing units at an average density of 6/km² (16/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 31.55% White, 0.47% African American, 0.45% Kanaka Maoli, 26.70% Asian, 11.25% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, and 28.44% from two or more races. 9.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 52,985 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a woman whose husband did not live with her, and 30.40% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the county the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, and 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98 males.

Economy

Sugarcane was the backbone of Hawai i Island's economy for more than a century (see Sugar plantations in Hawaii). In the mid-twentieth century, sugar plantations began to downsize and by 1996, the last sugarcane plantation had closed down.

Today, most of Hawai i Island's economy is based on tourism (see Tourism in Hawaii), centered primarily on the leeward (kona) or western coast of the island in the North Kona and South Kohala districts. However, diversified agriculture is a growing sector of the economy of the island. Macadamia nuts, papaya, flowers, tropical and temperate vegetables, and coffee (kona coffee) are all important crops. In fact, because of Hawai i Island's reputation for growing beautiful orchids, the island has the nickname "The Orchid Isle." Cattle ranching is also important. The Big Island is home to one of the largest cattle ranches in the United States, Parker Ranch, which is situated on in and around Kamuelamarker. Astronomy is another industry, with numerous telescopes situated on Mauna Keamarker owing to the excellent clarity of the atmosphere at its summit and the lack of light pollution.

Tourist information

Red lava
The Big Island is famous for its volcanoes. Kīlaueamarker, the most active, has been erupting almost continuously for more than two decades.At the coast where the lava meets the ocean, one can sometimes see billows of white steam rising from off the shoreline. At night, the lava lights up the steam to give an orange glow.When the molten lava makes contact with the ocean, the sea water turns into steam, and the sudden cooling of the lava causes the newly formed lava rocks to explode and crack into small pieces.The broken up lava is further ground into black sands along the shore by the ocean waves. Black sand beaches are common on the Big Island.

Places of interest

Lehua blossoms ( ōhi a lehua), Hawai i


Maps

Image:Hawaii national parks map.gif|National parks, mountains and cities on the islandImage:Hawaii Island topographic map-en.svg|Topographical map of the island of Hawaii

Cities and towns

The island is divided into nine districts. The names of the districts are South Hilo, North Hilo, Hamakua, South Kohala, North Kohala, North Kona, South Kona, Kau, and Puna. There are no incorporated municipalities on the island. Some of the named towns include:


Colleges and universities



Transportation

Hawai'i has island-wide zero-fare public transport provided by Hele-On Bus

Two commercial airports serve Hawai i Island:

Major commercial ports are Hilomarker on the East side and Kawaihaemarker on the West side. Cruise ships also stop at Kailua-Konamarker on the West side,

References

Notes

  1. MacDonald and Abbott, 1970
  2. Are We Breaking Away - The Great Crack, USGS, July 16, 1998.
  3. Owen, Susan, Paul Segal, Jeff Freymueller, et. al., "Rapid Deformation of the South Flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii," Science 3, March 1995: Vol. 267. no. 5202, pp. 1328 - 1332.
  4. Morgan, J. K., G. F. Moore, and D. A. Clague (2003), "Slope failure and volcanic spreading along the submarine south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii," Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(B9), 2415, doi:10.1029/2003JB002411.
  5. Hele-On Bus website retrieved 2009-045-08


Bibliography

  • MacDonald, G. A., and A. T. Abbott. 1970. Volcanoes in the Sea. Univ. of Hawai i Press, Honolulu. 441 pages.


External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message