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The Hawiye ( , ) is a Somali clan. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somaliamarker, in the Ogadenmarker and the North Eastern Provincemarker (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Human Rights Watch indicate that Hawiye is the largest Somali clan. Other sources, including the Canadianmarker Report of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry, indicate that the Darod is the largest Somali clan. Hawiye is the dominant clan in Mogadishumarker, the capital of Somalia.

History

The first reference to the Hawiye dates back to the 13th century writings of the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who describes Mercamarker as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli.

Settlement and commerce

Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawamarker and Kismayomarker, to the regions surrounding Merkamarker, Mogadishumarker and Warsheikhmarker in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweynemarker in the Hiiraanmarker region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyomarker in the arid central Mudugmarker region.

About 40 percent of the Degodia subclan lives in Ethiopia; when Arthur Donaldson Smith traveled through what is now Bare woreda in 1895, he found that the Degodia were neighbors of the Afgab clan, their territory stretching east to the Weyib and Dawa Riversmarker.

The economy of the Hawiye includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism in the interior and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory and ambergris.

Sons of Hawiye Irir

  • Karanle Hawiye
    • Kidir Karanle
      • Abshacle
      • Warneef
      • Aw-bakar
    • Saxawle Karanle
      • Baad
        • Ciye
        • Shurbul
      • Buraale (Sanbure)
        • Faarax
        • Araabbi
        • Haruun
    • Kaariye Karanle
      • Afxaaji
      • Laagsuge
    • Waadeere Karanle
      • Murusade
        • Sabti
          • Abdalla Sabti
          • Majabe Sabti
          • Ibraahin Sabti
        • FoolCulus or Foorculus
          • Habar Maxamed
          • Habar Ceyno
  • Gugundhabe
    • Baadacade
    • afgaab
    • Subeyr
    • maamiye
    • Ilaabe
    • Cadawyar
    • Xaamud
    • Jidle
      • Cadde
      • Aagey
      • Murale
    • Jibade
      • Jijeele
      • Baadicadde
      • Baydiisle
      • Gaal Jecel
        • Abtisame
        • Aloofi
        • Barsame
        • Dirisame
        • Aafi
        • Sugow
        • Makaahiil Weynaha
        • Oday Cad
        • Doqon Diido
      • Degodia
  • Gurgaate
    • Wadalaan Gurgaate
      • WilWil
      • Diimaale
    • Silcis Gurgaate
    • Mahamed Gurgaate
    • Meyle Gurgaate
      • Hawadle or Xawadle
        • Samatalis
        • Allagumar
        • Walaxmooge
        • Cabdiraxiim and Cabdiraxmaan
    • Mohamuud "Dame" Gurgaate
      • Hiraab
        • Martiile
        • Maxamuud Hiraab
          • Duduble
        • Madarkicis
          • Habar Gedir
            • Sa'ad, also known as Sacad
            • Saleebaan
            • Ayr, also known Cayr
            • Sarur, also known as Suruur, Baa Suruur
        • Muddulood
          • Udeejeen or Ciise Mudulood
          • Daaro Muddulood
          • Wacweyteen
          • Darandoole
            • Hiilebi
            • Cismaan
              • Abgaal or Cali Cismaan
              • Wacdaan Cismaan
              • Moobleen Cismaan
              • Ilawaay Cismaan
  • Jambeele
    • Hintire
    • Ajuuraan
    • Garure
    • Arure
    • Olagir
  • Xaskul Hawiye
    • Owsan
    • Idin
    • Cariid
  • Raaranle
    • Moorye
    • Aw-sheek
    • Baablays


Clan tree

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. Other sources may have a different view of the clan-lineage structure.

Notable Hawiye figures

Heads of State



Politicians



Military personnel



Leading intellectuals



Traditional elders and religious leaders



Music and Literature



Political factions and organizations



Notes

  1. Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain
  2. Herbert S. Lewis, "The Origins of the Galla and Somali", in The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press, 1966, pp 27–30.
  3. The Somali, Afar and Saho groups in the Horn of Africa by I.M Lewis
  4. Donaldson-Smith, Through Unknown African Countries: the first expedition from Somaliland to Lake Rudolph (London, 1897), p. 143
  5. Kenya’s past; an introdution to historical method in Africa page by Thomas T. Spear
  6. The Shaping of Somali society; reconstructing the history of a pastoral people by Lee Cassanelli
  7. I.M. LEWIS "People of the horn of Africa Somali, Afar and Saho", Haan Associates, pp 28-31–.
  8. http://www.crdsomalia.org



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