The Full Wiki

More info on Health care reform in the United States

Health care reform in the United States: Map

  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The debate over health care reform in the United States centers on questions about whether there is a fundamental right to health care, on who should have access to health care and under what circumstances, on the quality achieved for the high sums spent, and on the sustainability of expenditures that have been rising faster than the level of general inflation and the growth in the economy. The leading cause of personal bankruptcy in the United States is medical debt which is almost unknown in other countries in the developed world. The United States spends a greater portion of total yearly income in the nation on health care than any United Nations member state except for East Timor marker, although the actual use of health care services in the U.S., by most measures of health services use, is below the median among the world's developed countries.

According to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciencesmarker, the United States is the "only wealthy, industrialized nation that does not ensure that all citizens have coverage". Americans are divided along party lines in their views regarding the role of government in the health economy and especially whether a new public health plan should be created and administered by the federal government. Those in favor of universal health care argue that the large number of uninsured Americans creates direct and hidden costs shared by all, and that extending coverage to all would lower costs and improve quality. Opponents of laws requiring people to have health insurance argue that this impinges on their personal freedom. Both sides of the political spectrum have also looked to more philosophical arguments, debating whether people have a fundamental right to have health care which needs to be protected by their government.

The focus is currently on the recently passed Affordable Health Care for America Act in the House of Representatives, which has yet to be acted on by the Senate, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, up for debate in the Senate.

Costs

Current figures estimate that spending on health care in the U.S. is about 16% of its GDP. In 2007, an estimated $2.26 trillion was spent on health care in the United States, or $7,439 per capita. Health care costs are rising faster than wages or inflation, and the health share of GDP is expected to continue its upward trend, reaching 19.5 percent of GDP by 2017. In fact, government health care spending in the United States is consistently greater, as a portion of GDP, than in Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom and Japan (countries that have predominantly public health care). And an even larger portion is paid by private insurance and individuals themselves. A recent study found that medical expenditure was a significant contributing factor in 62% of personal bankruptcies in the United States during 2007. "Unless you're Warren Buffett, your family is just one serious illness away from bankruptcy...for middle-class Americans, health insurance offers little protection...," said Dr. David Himmelstein of Harvard Universitymarker, who helped compile the study.

The U.S. spends more on health care per capita than any other UN member nation. It also spends a greater fraction of its national budget on health care than Canada, Germany, France, or Japan. In 2004, the U.S. spent $6,102 per capita on health care, 92.7% more than any other G7 country, and 19.9% more than Luxembourgmarker, which, after the U.S., had the highest spending in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Although the U.S. Medicare coverage of prescription drugs began in 2006, most patented prescription drugs are more costly in the U.S. than in most other countries. Factors involved are the absence of government price controls, enforcement of intellectual property rights limiting the availability of generic drugs until after patent expiration, and the monopsony purchasing power seen in national single-payer systems. Some U.S. citizens obtain their medications, directly or indirectly, from foreign sources, to take advantage of lower prices.

A study of international health care spending levels in the year 2000, published in the health policy journal Health Affairs, found that while the U.S. spends more on health care than other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the use of health care services in the U.S. is below the OECD median. The authors of the study concluded that the prices paid for health care services are much higher in the U.S.

The U.S. system already has substantial public components. The federal Medicare program covers nearly 45 million elderly and some people with disabilities; the federal-state Medicaid program provides coverage to the poor; the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) extends coverage to low-income families with children; Native Americans are covered both on the reservation (by tribal hospital), and in the urban setting (by hospitals maintained by the Indian Health Service); merchant seamen are covered by the Public Health System; and retired railway workers and military veterans are also covered by the government.

Medicare and Medicaid Spending as % GDP
The Congressional Budget Office has argued that the Medicare program as currently structured is unsustainable without significant reform, as tax revenues dedicated to the program are not sufficient to cover its rapidly increasing expenditures. Further, the CBO also projects that "total federal Medicare and Medicaid outlays will rise from 4 percent of GDP in 2007 to 12 percent in 2050 and 19 percent in 2082—which, as a share of the economy, is roughly equivalent to the total amount that the federal government spends today. The bulk of that projected increase in health care spending reflects higher costs per beneficiary rather than an increase in the number of beneficiaries associated with an aging population." The Government Accountability Office reported that the unfunded liability facing Medicare as of January 2007 was $32.1 trillion, which is the present value of the program deficits expected for the next 75 years in the absence of reform. According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, spending on Medicare will grow from approximately $500 billion during 2009 to $930 billion by 2018. Without changes, the system is guaranteed “to basically break the federal budget,” President Obama said at a White House news conference July 22.

Uninsured

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, people in the U.S. without health insurance coverage at some time during 2007 totaled 15.3% of the population, or 45.7 million people. However, 9.7 million of uninsured people in the United States are not American citizens. According to the Census Bureau, this number decreased slightly from 47 million in 2006 due to increased publicly sponsored coverage in addition to the fact that about 300,000 more people were covered in Massachusettsmarker under the Massachusetts health care reform law in 2007. In 2009, the Census Bureau estimated that there are 47 million Americans who do not have any health insurance at all. Other studies, which complement the Census Bureau and include data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, have placed the number of uninsured for all or part of the years 2007-2008 as high as 86.7 million, about 29% of the U.S. population, or about one-in-three among those under 65 years of age.

It is estimated that the current economic downturn and rising unemployment rate likely will have caused the number of uninsured to grow by at least 2 million in 2008. Fareed Zakaria wrote that only 38% of small businesses provide health insurance for their employees during 2009, versus 61% in 1993, due to rising costs.

During September 2009, Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) stated that the average family pays an additional $1,000 per year in insurance premiums to cover the uninsured. President Obama, in his September 9 remarks to a joint session of Congress on health care, called the cost of uninsured Americans "a hidden and growing tax." However, CBO found that while broadening insurance coverage might lead to less cost shifting, "that effect would probably be relatively small and would not directly produce net savings in national or federal spending on health care." The Pacific Research Institute argues that the uninsured subsidize the insured, do not drive up the cost of health care, and use fewer services than the insured. A 2004 editorial in USA Today asserted that United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) data show the uninsured are unfairly billed for services at rates far higher—on average 305% at urban hospitals in California—than are the insured; USA Today concluded that "millions of [uninsured patients] are forced to subsidize insured patients." According to the editorial:
"Many hospitals say they have to charge the uninsured high 'sticker prices' or risk violating a federal ban on charging Medicare patients more than other customers.
Hospitals also must try to collect what patients owe, or they could lose Medicare reimbursement for bad debts, notes a 2003 study by the Commonwealth Fund, a health-policy-research foundation."
Citing data from the Urban Institute and the experience of Massachusettsmarker, the Cato Institute, a conservative libertarian think-tank, argues that without the uninsured, "The insured would pay more, not less."

A 2009 Harvard study published in the American Journal of Public Health found more than 44,800 excess deaths annually in the United States associated with uninsurance, and more broadly, the total number of people in the United States, whether insured or uninsured, who die because of lack of medical care were estimated in a 1997 analysis to be nearly 100,000 per year.

Comparisons with other health care systems

U.S. healthcare costs exceed those of other countries, relative to the size of the economy or GDP.


The cost and quality of care in the United States are frequently the two major issues of discussion. While cost comparisons are relatively easy, the reasons for higher costs in the U.S. and quality measures are frequently subject to debate. The U.S. pays twice as much yet lags other wealthy nations in such measures as infant mortality and life expectancy, which are among the most widely collected, hence useful, international comparative statistics. For 2006-2010, the U.S. life expectancy will lag 38th in the world, after most developed nations, lagging last of the G5 (Japan, France, Germany, U.K., U.S.) and just after Chile (35th) and Cuba (37th). However, both males and females in the United States have better cancer survivor rates than their counterparts in Europe.

In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) ranked the U.S. health care system 37th in overall performance, right next to Sloveniamarker, and 72nd by overall level of health (among 191 member nations included in the study). The WHO study has been criticized by the free market advocate David Gratzer because "fairness in financial contribution" was used as an assessment factor, marking down countries with high per-capita private or fee-paying health treatment. One study found that there was little correlation between the WHO rankings for health systems and the satisfaction of citizens using those systems. Some countries, such as Italy and Spain, which were given the highest ratings by WHO were ranked poorly by their citizens while other countries, such as Denmark and Finland, were given low scores by WHO but had the highest percentages of citizens reporting satisfaction with their health care systems. WHO staff, however, say that the WHO analysis does reflect system "responsiveness" and argue that this is a superior measure to consumer satisfaction, which is influenced by expectations.

Despite larger spending, the United States has a worse infant mortality rate (6.26) and life expectancy (78.11) than the European Union (5.72 and 78.67). Various reasons have been suggested to explain the high infant mortality rates in the U.S. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that higher rates of infant mortality in the U.S. are "due in large part to disparities which continue to exist among various racial and ethnic groups in this country, particularly African Americans". Some studies claim the data collected regarding infant mortality and life expectancy do not lend themselves to fair comparison. A CATO Institute survey has stated that Americans are less likely than citizens of other countries, such as Cubamarker, to abort fetuses with disabilities and other medical problems; the group views this a complicating factor towards these calculations.Michael Tanner, "The Grass Is Not Always Greener A Look at National Health Care Systems Around the World," Cato Institute, March 18, 2008 Other complaints relate to apples-to-oranges comparisons, which calls attention to the fact that different definitions are used to define live births in different nations, and that Europe's definitions are broadly different from that of the USA and Canada. Such differences in basic definitions make statistical equivalences inappropriate.

Another metric used to compare the quality of health care across countries is Years of potential life lost (YPLL). By this measure, the United States comes third to last in the OECD for women (ahead of only Mexico and Hungary) and fifth to last for men (ahead of Poland and Slovakiamarker additionally), according to OECD data. Yet another measure is Disability-adjusted life year (DALY); again the United States fares relatively poorly. According to Jonathan Cohn, health care scholars prefer these more "finely tuned" statistical measures for international comparisons in place of the relatively "crude" infant mortality and life expectancy.

Access to advanced medical treatments and technologies in the U.S. is greater than in most other developed nations and waiting times may be substantially shorter for treatment by specialists.

The lack of universal coverage contributes to another flaw in the current U.S. health care system: on most dimensions of performance, it underperforms relative to other industrialized countries. In a 2007 comparison by the Commonwealth Fund of health care in the U.S. with that of Germany, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, the U.S. ranked last on measures of quality, access, efficiency, equity, and outcomes.

In a study by the Manhattan Institutemarker, a conservative think-tank, Frank R. Lichtenberg of Columbia University found that the correlation between life expectancy and health insurance was not statistically significant. He did find that access to advanced drugs (newly approved by the FDA) had a statistically significant correlation with higher rates of life expectancy.

The U.S. system is often compared with that of its northern neighbor, Canada (see Comparison of Canadian and American health care systems). Canada's system is largely publicly funded. In 2006, Americans spent an estimated $6,714 per capita on health care, while Canadians spent US$3,678. This amounted to 15.3% of U.S. GDP in that year, while Canada spent 10.0% of GDP on health care.

A 2007 review of all studies comparing health outcomes in Canada and the U.S. found that "health outcomes may be superior in patients cared for in Canada versus the United States, but differences are not consistent."

History of reform efforts

U.S. efforts to achieve universal coverage predate Theodore Roosevelt, who had the support of progressive health care reformers in the 1912 election but was defeated. And President Harry S Truman called for universal health care as a part of his Fair Deal in 1949 but strong opposition stopped that part of the Fair Deal.

The Medicare program was established by legislation signed into law on July 30, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Medicare is a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people age 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) amended the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) to give some employees the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment.

Health care reform was a major concern of the Bill Clinton administration headed by First Lady Hillary Clinton; however, the 1993 Clinton health care plan was not enacted into law. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) made it easier for workers to keep health insurance coverage when they change jobs or lose a job, and also made use of national data standards for tracking, reporting and protecting personal health information.

During the 2004 presidential election, both the George Bush and John Kerry campaigns offered health care proposals. As president, Bush signed into law the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act which included a prescription drug plan for elderly and disabled Americans.

In February 2009, Obama signed H.R. 2, to provide coverage for millions of children through the Children's Health Insurance Program, and signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to make investments in computerized medical records and preventive services.

Health reform and the 2008 presidential election

Both of the major party presidential candidates offered positions on health care.

John McCain's proposals focused on open-market competition rather than government funding. At the heart of his plan were tax credits - $2,500 for individuals and $5,000 for families who do not subscribe to or do not have access to health care through their employer. To help people who are denied coverage by insurance companies due to pre-existing conditions, McCain proposed working with states to create what he called a "Guaranteed Access Plan."

Barack Obama called for universal health care. His health care plan called for the creation of a National Health Insurance Exchange that would include both private insurance plans and a Medicare-like government run option. Coverage would be guaranteed regardless of health status, and premiums would not vary based on health status either. It would have required parents to cover their children, but did not require adults to buy insurance.

The Philadelphia Inquirer reported that the two plans had different philosophical focuses. They described the purpose of the McCain plan as to "make insurance more affordable," while the purpose of the Obama plan was for "more people to have health insurance." The Des Moines Register characterized the plans similarly.

A poll released in early November 2008, found that voters supporting Obama listed health care as their second priority; voters supporting McCain listed it as fourth, tied with the war in Iraq. Affordability was the primary health care priority among both sets of voters. Obama voters were more likely than McCain voters to believe government can do much about health care costs.

Public policy debate

The political debate over health care reform has for several decades revolved around the questions of whether fundamental reform of the system is needed, what form those reforms should take, and how they should be funded. Issues regarding publicly funded health care are frequently the subject of political debate. Whether or not a publicly funded universal health care system should be implemented is one such example.

A variety of general and specific reform strategies have been proposed regarding the healthcare delivery and payment systems. Examples include: comparative effectiveness research; independent review panels; doctor's incentives; tax reform; prevention and wellness; insurance company anti-trust reforms; coverage mandates; tort reform; rationing of care; healthcare technology and process standardization; and single payer payment processing.

In spite of the amount spent on health care in the U.S., a 2008 report by the Commonwealth Fund ranked the United States last in the quality of health care among the 19 compared countries. Opponents of government intervention, such as the Cato Institute and the Manhattan Institutemarker, argue that the U.S. system performs better in some areas such as the responsiveness of treatment, the amount of technology available, and higher cure rates for some serious illnesses such as colon, lung, and prostate cancer in men.

According to economist and former US Secretary of Labor Robert Reich, only a "big, national, public option" can force insurance companies to cooperate, share information, and reduce costs. Scattered, localized, "insurance cooperatives" are too small to do that and are "designed to fail" by the moneyed forces opposing Democratic health care reform.

Barriers to reform

Jonathan Oberlander, Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management at the University of North Carolinamarker, argues that finding a way to pay for universal coverage is a primary barrier to comprehensive reform. A study published in August 2008 in the journal Health Affairs found that covering all of the uninsured in the US would increase national spending on health care by $122.6 billion, which would represent a 5% increase in health care spending and 0.8% of GDP. The impact on government spending could be higher, depending on the details of the plan used to increase coverage and the extent to which new public coverage crowded out existing private coverage.

Economists Katherine Baicker, who was a member of President Bush's Council of Economic Advisers, and Amitabh Chandra argue that five "myths" about the US health care system hinder reform efforts. While each has a "kernel of truth," they oversimplify complicated issues to the point where they are "false or misleading." The myths they identify are:
  • "The Problem With The Health Insurance System Is That Sick People Without Insurance Can’t Find Affordable Policies" - they argue that sick people who have insurance represent a particularly difficult challenge;
  • "Covering The Uninsured Pays For Itself By Reducing Expensive And Inefficient Emergency Room Care" - they argue that empirical research demonstrates that people who are insured generate more health care spending, in total, than uninsured individuals;
  • "Lack Of Insurance Is The Principal Barrier To Getting High-Quality Care" - they argue that coverage is not enough, but that much more needs to be done to improve the health care system;
  • "Employers Can Shoulder More Of The Burden Of Paying For Insurance" - they argue that workers ultimately bear the cost of coverage, regardless of whether or not the employer writes the premium check; and
  • "High-Deductible Health Plans And Competition, Not Government Action, Are The Keys To Lower Costs" - they argue that cost sharing is not a magic bullet for reform, though it would help control costs.


A fundamental problem in evaluating reform proposals is the difficulty estimating their cost and potential impact. Because proposals often differ in many important details, it is difficult to provide meaningful side-by-side cost comparisons. The empirical data and theory underlying cost estimates in this area are limited and subject to debate, increasing the variation between estimates and limiting their accuracy.

Peter Orszag has suggested that that behavioral economics is an important factor for improving the health care system, but that relatively little progress has been made when compared to retirement policy.

Current reform proposals

There have been a number of different health care reforms proposed during the Obama administration to improve the U.S. health care system. These include variety of specific types of reform ranging from increased use of health care technology through changing the anti-trust rules governing health insurance companies and tort-reform to rationing of care. The Obama administration has suggested a package of reforms, as have several Congressional legislative proposals.

Congressional proposals

Currently, there are two major proposals being considered in Congress.

On November 7, 2009, the House passed their version of a health insurance reform bill, the Affordable Health Care for America Act, 220-215.

As of November 21, 2009, the Senate began consideration of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

The two bills are similar in a number of ways. In particular, both bills:
  • Expand Medicaid eligibility up the income ladder (to 133% of the poverty line in the Senate bill and 150% in the House bill.
  • Establish health insurance exchanges, and subsidize those making up to 400 percent of the poverty line
  • Create some type of public option within the exchange
  • Offer tax credits to certain small businesses (under 25 workers) who provide employees with health insurance
  • Impose a penalty on employers who do not offer health insurance to their workers
  • Impose a penalty on individuals who do not buy health insurance
  • Offer a new voluntary long-term care insurance program
  • Pay for new spending, in part, through cutting Medicare Advantage, slowing the growth of Medicare provider payments, reducing Medicare and Medicaid drug prices, cutting other Medicare and Medicaid spending, and raising various taxes.


The two bills are also similar in that neither would have much, if any, effect on the rising costs experienced by most Americans who currently have private health insurance.

The biggest difference between the bills, currently, is in how they are financed. In addition to the items listed in the above bullet point, the House relies mainly on a surtax on income above $500,000 ($1 million for families). The Senate, meanwhile, relies largely on an "excise tax" for high cost 'Cadillac' insurance plans, as well as an increase in the Medicare payroll tax for high earners.

Some economists believe the excise tax to be best of the three revenue raisers above, since (due to health care cost growth) it would grow fast enough to more than keep up with new coverage costs, and it would help to put downward pressure on overall health care cost growth. .

Unlike the House bill, the Senate bill would also include a Medicare Commission which could modify Medicare payments in order to keep down cost growth.

The House and Senate bill would differ, somewhat, in their overall impact. According to Congressional Budget Office estimates, the Senate bill would cover an additional 31 million people, cost nearly $850 for coverage provisions over ten years, reduce the ten year deficit by $130 billion, and reduce the deficit in the second decade by around 0.25% of GDP. The House bill, meanwhile, would cover an additional 36 million people, cost roughly $1050 billion in coverage provisions, reduce the ten year deficit by $138 billion, and slightly reduce the deficit in the second decade.

It is worth noting that both bills rely on a number of "gimmicks" to get their favorable deficit reduction numbers. For example, both institute a public long-term care insurance known as the CLASS Act - because this insurance has a 5-year vesting period, it will appear to raise revenue in the first decade, even though all the money will need to be paid back. If the CLASS Act is subtracted from the bills, the Senate bill would reduce the deficit by $57 billion over ten years, and the House by $37 billion. In addition to the CLASS Act, neither bill accounts for the costs of updating Medicare physician payments, even though the House did so on a deficit-financed basis shortly after passing their health care bill.

The Senate bill also begins most provisions a year later than the House bill in order to make costs seems smaller:

Image:Budgetary_Impact_of_Health_Reform_Bills.JPG| Budgetary Impact of House and Senate BillsImage:Changes_in_Coverage_Health_Care_Bills.png| Changes in Coverage Under House and Senate BillsImage:Health_Care_Costs_and_Savings.JPG| Ten-Year Costs and Savings From House and Senate BillsImage:Gross_Costs_of_Health_Coverage.png| Gross Cost of Coverage Provisions in House and Senate Bills

Obama administration proposals

During a June 2009 speech, President Obama outlined his strategy for reform. He mentioned electronic record-keeping; preventing expensive conditions; reducing obesity; refocusing doctor incentives from quantity of care to quality; bundling payments for treatment of conditions rather than specific services; better identifying and communicating the most cost-effective treatments; and reducing defensive medicine.

President Obama further described his plan in a September 2009 speech to a joint session of Congress. His plan mentions: deficit neutrality; not allowing insurance companies to discriminate based on pre-existing conditions; capping out of pocket expenses; creation of an insurance exchange for individuals and small businesses; tax credits for individuals and small companies; independent commissions to identify fraud, waste and abuse; and malpractice reform projects, among other topics.

State-level reform efforts

A few states have taken serious steps toward universal health care coverage, most notably Minnesotamarker, Massachusettsmarker, and Connecticutmarker, with a recent example being the Massachusetts 2006 Health Reform Statute. The influx of more than a quarter of a million newly insured residents has led to overcrowded waiting rooms and overworked primary-care physicians who were already in short supply in Massachusetts. In July 2009, Connecticutmarker passed into law a plan called SustiNet, with the goal of achieving health-care coverage of 98% of its residents by 2014. Other states, while not attempting to insure all of their residents, cover large numbers of people by reimbursing hospitals and other health care providers using what is generally characterized as a charity care scheme; New Jerseymarker is perhaps the best example of a state that employs the latter strategy.

Several single payer referendums have been proposed at the state level, but so far all have failed to pass: Californiamarker in 1994, Massachusettsmarker in 2000, and Oregonmarker in 2002.

The percentage of residents that are uninsured varies from state to state. Texasmarker has the highest percentage of residents without health insurance at 24%. New Mexicomarker has the second highest percentage of uninsured at 22%.

States play a variety of roles in the health care system including purchasers of health care and regulators of providers and health plans, which give them multiple opportunities to try to improve how it functions. While states are actively working to improve the system in a variety of ways, there remains room for them to do more.

San Franciscomarker has established a program to subsidize medical care for certain uninsured residents (Healthy San Francisco).

Public opinion

Survey research in recent decades has shown that Americans generally see expanding coverage as a top national priority, and a majority express support for universal health care. There is, however, much more limited support for tax increases to support health care reform. Roughly two-in-three (64%) of Americans report they are "very or completely satisfied with their plan". As of 2009, 58% supported a national health plan "in which all Americans would get their insurance through anexpanded, universal form of Medicare-for-all" but only 47% supported one "in which all Americans would get their insurance from a single government plan." Polls of public support for a government-run insurance plan to compete with private insurers, the so-called "public option", have varied widely between 40% to 83% in support of such a plan, depending on the particular poll. One polling analyst, Nate Silver, recommends the Time/SRBI and Quinnipiac polls as being most accurately phrased, which narrows down support to 56-62%.

In an article published in the May/June 2008 issue of Health Affairs, pollsters William McInturff and Lori Weigel concluded that the current health care debate is very similar to that of the early 1990s, when the 1993 Clinton health care plan was under consideration. Similarities noted by the authors include a strong desire for change, a weakening economy, and an increased willingness to accept a larger governmental role in health care. New factors include high military spending and a higher burden placed on businesses by health care costs. However, the authors argue that many of the barriers to reform that existed in the early 1990s are still in play, including a strong resistance to government as the sole provider of care ("'I like national health insurance,' patiently explained one focus-group respondent. 'I just don’t want the government to run it.'"). The authors conclude that incremental change appears more likely than wholesale restructuring of the system.

A poll released in March 2008 by the Harvard School of Public Health and Harris Interactive found that Americans are divided in their views of the U.S. health system, and that there are significant differences by political affiliation. When asked whether the U.S. has the best health care system or if other countries have better systems, 45% said that the U.S. system was best and 39% said that other countries' systems are better. Belief that the U.S. system is best was highest among Republicans (68%), lower among independents (40%), and lowest among Democrats (32%). Over half of Democrats (56%) said they would be more likely to support a presidential candidate who advocates making the U.S. system more like those of other countries; 37% of independents and 19% of Republicans said they would be more likely to support such a candidate. 45% of Republicans said that they would be less likely to support such a candidate, compared to 17% of independents and 7% of Democrats. Differing levels of satisfaction with the current system result in differences in the preferred policy solutions of Democrats and Republicans. Democrats are more likely to believe that the primary responsibility for ensuring access to health care should fall on government, while Republicans are more likely to see health care as an individual responsibility, and are more likely to believe that private industry is more effective in providing coverage and controlling cost than government. Democrats are more likely to support higher taxes to expand coverage, and more likely to require everyone to purchase coverage.

A 2008 survey of over two thousand doctors published in Annals of Internal Medicine, shows that physicians support universal health care and national health insurance by almost 2 to 1.

A CBS News/New York Times poll taken in April 2009 found that healthcare is the most important issue after the economy, and that Americans 57 percent of Americans are willing to pay higher taxes for universal healthcare, compared to 38 percent that are not. Also 54 percent of Americans feel that providing health insurance for all is more important than the problem of keeping health costs down (49 percent).

A Pew Research Center poll issued in June 2009 found that "[m]ost Americans believe that the nation’s health care system is in need of substantial changes." However, the survey found that, compared to the early 1990s when the Clinton Health Reform plan was being considered, fewer Americans believed the country was spending too much on health care, fewer believed that the health care system was in crisis, and fewer supported a complete restructuring of the system. Most supported extending coverage to the uninsured and slowing the increase in health care costs, but neither issue found the same level of support as they did in 1993. "[F]ar fewer [said that] health care expenses are a major problem for themselves and their families than was the case in 1993."

A Time Magazine poll from July 2009 asked respondents if they would favor a "national single-payer plan similar to medicare for all" from Congress. The survey found 49% in support with 46% opposed and 5% unsure.

In an August 2009 poll, SurveyUSA showed the majority of Americans (77%) feel that it is either "Quite Important" or "Extremely Important to "give people a choice of both a public plan administered by the federal government and a private plan for their health insurance."

In September 2009 Utah State University MBA students conducted an email survey to find the percentage of people from the US population that wanted to see changes in the current healthcare system. These findings showed that 58% of the test population wanted the current healthcare system to undergo changes. Out of the population that wanted to undergo changes only 9.9% of the population leaned towards a government mandated option.

Prescription drug prices

During the 1990s, the price of prescription drugs became a major issue in American politics as the prices of many new patented drugs increased sharply, and many citizens discovered that neither the government nor their insurer would pay the monopoly price of such drugs. In absolute currency, the U.S. spends the most on pharmaceuticals per capita in the world. However, national expenditures on pharmaceuticals accounted for only 12.9% of total health care costs, compared to an OECD average of 17.7% (2003 figures). Some 23% of out-of-pocket health spending by individuals is for prescription drugs.

See also





References

  1. "Medical Bills Leading Cause of Bankruptcy, Harvard Study Finds", ConsumerAffairs.com, February 3, 2005 http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/bankruptcy_study.html#ixzz0QdG8hYUvhttp://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/bankruptcy_study.html
  2. Gerard F. Anderson, Uwe E. Reinhardt, Peter S. Hussey and Varduhi Petrosyan, "It’s The Prices, Stupid: Why The United States Is So Different From Other Countries", Health Affairs, Volume 22, Number 3, May/June 2003. Accessed February 27, 2008.
  3. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations, Institute of Medicine at the National Academies of Science, January 14, 2004, accessed October 22, 2007
  4. WSJ-Seib-Health Debate Isn't About Health
  5. Center for Economic and Social Rights. "The Right to Health in the United States of America: What Does it Mean?" October 29, 2004.
  6. Sade RM. "Medical care as a right: a refutation." N Engl J Med. 1971 December 2;285(23):1288-92. PMID 5113728. (Reprinted as "The Political Fallacy that Medical Care is a Right.")
  7. "National Health Expenditure Data: NHE Fact Sheet," Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, referenced February 26, 2008
  8. "The World Health Report 2006 - Working together for health."
  9. "National Health Expenditures, Forecast summary and selected tables", Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2008. Accessed March 20, 2008.
  10. [1]
  11. [2]
  12. http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/doifiles/012006061T02.xls
  13. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/28/business/economy/28view.html
  14. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
  15. CBO Testimony
  16. GAO Presentation-January 2008-Slide 17
  17. Bloomberg-Cardiologists Crying Foul over Medicare Reforms-August 2009
  18. "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007." U.S. Census Bureau. Issued August 2008.
  19. "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2006." U.S. Census Bureau. Issued August 2007.
  20. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured
  21. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/News-Conference-by-the-President-July-22-2009/
  22. Families USA (2009) press release summarizing a Lewin Group study: "New Report Finds 86.7 Million Americans Were Uninsured at Some Point in 2007-2008" [3]
  23. http://www.familiesusa.org/assets/pdfs/americans-at-risk.pdf
  24. Washington Post-Zakaria-More Crises Needed?-August 2009
  25. Meet the Press-Transcript of Sept 13 2009-Dick Durbin Statement
  26. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-to-a-Joint-Session-of-Congress-on-Health-Care/
  27. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/103xx/doc10311/06-16-HealthReformAndFederalBudget.pdf
  28. http://liberty.pacificresearch.org/docLib/20070408_HPPv5n2_0207.pdf
  29. http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2004-07-01-our-view_x.htm
  30. Michael F. Cannon, All the President's Mandates: Compulsory Health Insurance Is a Government Takeover, Briefing Paper no. 114, Cato Institute, September 23, 2009 (pdf version accessed October 16, 2009)
  31. American Journal of Public Health | December 2009, Vol 99, No.12
  32. State-by-state breakout of excess deaths from lack of insurance
  33. A 1997 study carried out by Professors David Himmelstein and Steffie Woolhandler (New England Journal of Medicine 336, no. 11 [1997]) "concluded that almost 100,000 people died in the United States each year because of lack of needed care—three times the number of people who died of AIDs." The Inhuman State of U.S. Health Care, Monthly Review, Vicente Navarro, September 2003. Retrieved September 10, 2009
  34. :File:Life Expectancy 2005-2010 UN WPP 2006.PNG using: United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision -Table A.17[4]. Life expectancy at birth (years) 2005-2010. All data from the ranking is included, except for Martinique and Guadeloupe (due to imaging difficulties).
  35. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1560849/UK-cancer-survival-rate-lowest-in-Europe.html
  36. World Health Organization assess the world's health system. Press Release WHO/44 21 June 2000.
  37. Health system attainment and performance in all Member States, ranked by eight measures, estimates for 1997
  38. David Gratzer, Why Isn't Government Health Care The Answer?, Free Market Cure, July 16, 2007
  39. Robert J. Blendon, Minah Kim and John M. Benson, "The Public Versus The World Health Organization On Health System Performance", Health Affairs, May/June 2001
  40. Christopher J.L. Murray, Kei Kawabata, and Nicole Valentine, "People’s Experience Versus People’s Expectations", Health Affairs, May/June 2001
  41. Infant Mortality Fact Sheet
  42. David Hogberg, National Center for Public Policy Research, Don't Fall Prey to Propaganda: Life Expectancy and Infant Mortality are Unreliable Measures for Comparing the U.S. Health Care System to Others, July 2006
  43. Infant-mortality myths, Dr. Michael Arnold Glueck, Dr. Robert J. Cihak
  44. CBS News Story
  45. Clifford Krauss, "As Canada's Slow-Motion Public Health System Falters, Private Medical Care Is Surging," The New York Times, February 26, 2006
  46. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/mpr_04.htm
  47. OECD Health Data 2008: How Does Canada Compare
  48. [5]Open Medicine, Vol 1, No 1 (2007), Research: A systematic review of studies comparing health outcomes in Canada and the United States, Gordon H. Guyatt, et al.
  49. In 1949, Truman called for a health program accessdate=2009-10-07 as part of his Fair Deal: *On April 24, 1949 The American Medical Association denounced this health program. *On April 25, 1949 The Murray-Dingell omnibus health legislation (S.1679 and H.R. 4312) were introduced into the Senate and the House; the Congress adjourned in October 1949 without acting on these bills.
  50. Monte M. Poen (1996) in his Harry S. Truman versus the Medical Lobby: The Genesis of Medicare, University of Missouri Press ISBN 978-0-8262-1086-9 pp 161-168
  51. "An Employee's Guide to Health Benefits Under COBRA: The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986," United States Department of Labor, Reprinted September 2006
  52. "Fact Sheet: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)," United States Department of Labor, December 2004
  53. Robin Toner , "THE 2004 CAMPAIGN: POLITICAL MEMO; Biggest Divide? Maybe It's Health Care," The New York Times, Tuesday, December 18, 2007
  54. "CAMPAIGN 2004: THE BIG ISSUES - Kerry vs. Bush on Health Care," The New York Times, October 3, 2004
  55. http://cms.hhs.gov
  56. Robert E. Moffit and Nina Owcharenko, "The McCain Health Care Plan: More Power to Families," The Heritage Foundation, October 15, 2008
  57. Associated Press, "Coverage Guarantee Can Hit Young The Hardest: Obama Health Plan Follows Where Some States Have Struggled," September 11, 2008
  58. BarackObama.com - Healthcare
  59. Colliver, Victoria McCain, Obama agree: health care needs fixing, San Francisco Chronicle, 2008-10-01, accessed 2008-10-01.
  60. Stacey Burling, __prescriptions_for_an_ailing_system.html "Rivals' prescriptions for an ailing system," The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 28, 2008
  61. Tony Leys, "Health plans pit low-cost vs. public coverage," The Des Moines Register, September 29, 2008
  62. Robert J. Blendon, Drew E. Altman, John M. Benson, Mollyann Brodie,Tami Buhr, Claudia Deane, and Sasha Buscho, "Voters and Health Reform in the 2008 Presidential Election," New England Journal of Medicine 359;19, November 6, 2008
  63. Democracy Now! | Election Issue 2004: A Debate on Healthcare
  64. "The Great Health Care Debate of 1993-94"
  65. The New Yorker-The Cost Conundrum-June 2009
  66. Denis Cortese Interview on Charlie Rose Show-July 2009
  67. Health care in US ranks lowest among developed countries
  68. Robert Reich Public Option Video
  69. How Pharma and Insurance Intend to Kill the Public Option, And What Obama and the Rest of Us Must Do
  70. Jonathan Oberlander, "The Politics Of Paying For Health Reform: Zombies, Payroll Taxes, And The Holy Grail," Health Affairs, web exclusive, October 21, 2008
  71. Jack Hadley, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, and Dawn Miller, "Covering The Uninsured In 2008: Current Costs, Sources Of Payment, And Incremental Costs," Health Affairs web exclusive, August 25, 2008
  72. http://www.taxfoundation.org/blog/show/2187.html
  73. Katherine Baicker and Amitabh Chandra, "Myths And Misconceptions About U.S. Health Insurance: Health care reform is hindered by confusion about how health insurance works," Health Affairs, web exclusive, October 21, 2008
  74. Sherry Glied, Dahlia K. Remler and Joshua Graff Zivin, "Inside the Sausage Factory: Improving Estimates of the Effects of Health Insurance Expansion Proposals," The Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 4, 2002
  75. Peter Orszag, "Behavioral Economics: Lessons from Retirement Research for Health Care and Beyond," Presentation to the Retirement Research Consortium, August 7, 2008
  76. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/11/19/us/politics/1119-plan-comparison.html, http://crfb.org/blogs/updated-health-care-charts
  77. http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Daily-Reports/2009/November/02/Public-Option.aspx
  78. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-health-age9-2009nov09,0,2196213.story
  79. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120723411
  80. http://archive.salon.com/opinion/feature/2009/11/19/public_option
  81. http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/st_healthcareproposals_20090912.html, http://crfb.org/blogs/updated-health-care-charts
  82. http://crfb.org/blogs/understanding-health-insurance-excise-tax, http://crfb.org/blogs/taxing-health-care-decisions
  83. http://crfb.org/blogs/updated-health-care-charts
  84. http://crfb.org/blogs/true-costs-health-reform
  85. Remarks by the President to the AMA-June 15, 2009
  86. Summary of Obama Speech-
  87. Remarks by the President to a Joint Session of Congress on Healthcare-September 2009
  88. About.com's Pros & Cons of Massachusetts' Mandatory Health Insurance Program
  89. Beckel, Abigail "Voting for Healthcare Reform"Physicians Practice journal, volume 18, number 7, pages 26-40, July/August 2008, accessed July 1, 2009
  90. http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html
  91. The California Single-Payer Debate, The Defeat of Proposition 186 - Kaiser Family Foundation
  92. Free-Market Reformers Are Winners in Election 2002 - by Joe Moser - The Heartland Institute
  93. Total Population - Kaiser State Health Facts
  94. Managed Care & Health Insurance - Kaiser State Health Facts statehealthfacts.org
  95. Catherine Hess, Sonya Schwartz, Jill Rosenthal, Andrew Snyder, and Alan Weil, "States’ Roles in Shaping High Performance Health Systems," The Commonwealth Fund, April 2008
  96. Thomas Bodenheimer, "The Political Divide In Health Care: A Liberal Perspective," Health Affairs, November/December 2005
  97. Robert J. Blendon and John M. Benson, "Americans’ Views On Health Policy: A Fifty-Year Historical Perspective," Health Affairs, March/April 2001
  98. Daniel P. Kessler and David W. Brady, "Putting The Public’s Money Where Its Mouth Is: Consumers’ enthusiasm for health reform wanes sharply when asked to pay higher taxes to expand coverage," Health Affairs, web exclusive, August 18, 2009, DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.w917
  99. http://www.consumerreports.org/health/insurance/best-health-plans/overview/best-health-plans-ov.htm
  100. Kaiser Family Foundation. "Kaiser Health Tracking Poll: July 2009."
  101. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health Tracking Poll: June 2009.
  102. Nate Silver (August, 2009) Public Support for the Public Option http://www.fivethirtyeight.com/2009/06/public-support-for-public-option.html A June 2009
  103. Nate Silver. "How to Poll on the Public Option." August 24, 2009.
  104. William D. McInturff and Lori Weigel, "Déjà Vu All Over Again: The Similarities Between Political Debates Regarding Health Care In The Early 1990s And Today," Health Affairs, Volume 27, Number 3, May/June 2008
  105. "Most Republicans Think the U.S. Health Care System is the Best in the World. Democrats Disagree.," Press Release, Harvard School of Public Health and Harris Interactive, March 20, 2008
  106. "Americans’ Views on the U.S. Health Care System Compared to Other Countries," Harvard School of Public Health and Harris Interactive, March 20, 2008
  107. Robert J. Blendon, Drew E. Altman, Claudia Deane, John M. Benson, Mollyann Brodie, and Tami Buhr, "Health Care in the 2008 Presidential Primaries," New England Journal of Medicine 358;4, January 24, 2008
  108. Doctors support universal health care: survey, Reuters, March 31, 2008 (first reported in Annals of Internal Medicine).
  109. http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/pdf/poll_health_care_040609.pdf?tag=contentMain;contentBody CBS News/New York Times, national poll, April 6, 2009.
  110. Obama's Ratings Remain High Despite Some Policy Concerns, Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, June 18, 2009
  111. "Health Care Poll" on 10/8/09 url=http://www.theinfonetwork.org/Health_Care_Paper.pdf
  1. "Medical Bills Leading Cause of Bankruptcy, Harvard Study Finds", ConsumerAffairs.com, February 3, 2005 http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/bankruptcy_study.html#ixzz0QdG8hYUvhttp://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/bankruptcy_study.html
  2. Gerard F. Anderson, Uwe E. Reinhardt, Peter S. Hussey and Varduhi Petrosyan, "It’s The Prices, Stupid: Why The United States Is So Different From Other Countries", Health Affairs, Volume 22, Number 3, May/June 2003. Accessed February 27, 2008.
  3. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations, Institute of Medicine at the National Academies of Science, January 14, 2004, accessed October 22, 2007
  4. WSJ-Seib-Health Debate Isn't About Health
  5. Center for Economic and Social Rights. "The Right to Health in the United States of America: What Does it Mean?" October 29, 2004.
  6. Sade RM. "Medical care as a right: a refutation." N Engl J Med. 1971 December 2;285(23):1288-92. PMID 5113728. (Reprinted as "The Political Fallacy that Medical Care is a Right.")
  7. "National Health Expenditure Data: NHE Fact Sheet," Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, referenced February 26, 2008
  8. "The World Health Report 2006 - Working together for health."
  9. "National Health Expenditures, Forecast summary and selected tables", Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2008. Accessed March 20, 2008.
  10. [1]
  11. [2]
  12. http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/doifiles/012006061T02.xls
  13. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/28/business/economy/28view.html
  14. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
  15. CBO Testimony
  16. GAO Presentation-January 2008-Slide 17
  17. Bloomberg-Cardiologists Crying Foul over Medicare Reforms-August 2009
  18. "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007." U.S. Census Bureau. Issued August 2008.
  19. "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2006." U.S. Census Bureau. Issued August 2007.
  20. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured
  21. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/News-Conference-by-the-President-July-22-2009/
  22. Families USA (2009) press release summarizing a Lewin Group study: "New Report Finds 86.7 Million Americans Were Uninsured at Some Point in 2007-2008" [3]
  23. http://www.familiesusa.org/assets/pdfs/americans-at-risk.pdf
  24. Washington Post-Zakaria-More Crises Needed?-August 2009
  25. Meet the Press-Transcript of Sept 13 2009-Dick Durbin Statement
  26. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-to-a-Joint-Session-of-Congress-on-Health-Care/
  27. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/103xx/doc10311/06-16-HealthReformAndFederalBudget.pdf
  28. http://liberty.pacificresearch.org/docLib/20070408_HPPv5n2_0207.pdf
  29. http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2004-07-01-our-view_x.htm
  30. Michael F. Cannon, All the President's Mandates: Compulsory Health Insurance Is a Government Takeover, Briefing Paper no. 114, Cato Institute, September 23, 2009 (pdf version accessed October 16, 2009)
  31. American Journal of Public Health | December 2009, Vol 99, No.12
  32. State-by-state breakout of excess deaths from lack of insurance
  33. A 1997 study carried out by Professors David Himmelstein and Steffie Woolhandler (New England Journal of Medicine 336, no. 11 [1997]) "concluded that almost 100,000 people died in the United States each year because of lack of needed care—three times the number of people who died of AIDs." The Inhuman State of U.S. Health Care, Monthly Review, Vicente Navarro, September 2003. Retrieved September 10, 2009
  34. :File:Life Expectancy 2005-2010 UN WPP 2006.PNG using: United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision -Table A.17[4]. Life expectancy at birth (years) 2005-2010. All data from the ranking is included, except for Martinique and Guadeloupe (due to imaging difficulties).
  35. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1560849/UK-cancer-survival-rate-lowest-in-Europe.html
  36. World Health Organization assess the world's health system. Press Release WHO/44 21 June 2000.
  37. Health system attainment and performance in all Member States, ranked by eight measures, estimates for 1997
  38. David Gratzer, Why Isn't Government Health Care The Answer?, Free Market Cure, July 16, 2007
  39. Robert J. Blendon, Minah Kim and John M. Benson, "The Public Versus The World Health Organization On Health System Performance", Health Affairs, May/June 2001
  40. Christopher J.L. Murray, Kei Kawabata, and Nicole Valentine, "People’s Experience Versus People’s Expectations", Health Affairs, May/June 2001
  41. Infant Mortality Fact Sheet
  42. David Hogberg, National Center for Public Policy Research, Don't Fall Prey to Propaganda: Life Expectancy and Infant Mortality are Unreliable Measures for Comparing the U.S. Health Care System to Others, July 2006
  43. Infant-mortality myths, Dr. Michael Arnold Glueck, Dr. Robert J. Cihak
  44. CBS News Story
  45. Clifford Krauss, "As Canada's Slow-Motion Public Health System Falters, Private Medical Care Is Surging," The New York Times, February 26, 2006
  46. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/mpr_04.htm
  47. OECD Health Data 2008: How Does Canada Compare
  48. [5]Open Medicine, Vol 1, No 1 (2007), Research: A systematic review of studies comparing health outcomes in Canada and the United States, Gordon H. Guyatt, et al.
  49. In 1949, Truman called for a health program accessdate=2009-10-07 as part of his Fair Deal: *On April 24, 1949 The American Medical Association denounced this health program. *On April 25, 1949 The Murray-Dingell omnibus health legislation (S.1679 and H.R. 4312) were introduced into the Senate and the House; the Congress adjourned in October 1949 without acting on these bills.
  50. Monte M. Poen (1996) in his Harry S. Truman versus the Medical Lobby: The Genesis of Medicare, University of Missouri Press ISBN 978-0-8262-1086-9 pp 161-168
  51. "An Employee's Guide to Health Benefits Under COBRA: The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986," United States Department of Labor, Reprinted September 2006
  52. "Fact Sheet: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)," United States Department of Labor, December 2004
  53. Robin Toner , "THE 2004 CAMPAIGN: POLITICAL MEMO; Biggest Divide? Maybe It's Health Care," The New York Times, Tuesday, December 18, 2007
  54. "CAMPAIGN 2004: THE BIG ISSUES - Kerry vs. Bush on Health Care," The New York Times, October 3, 2004
  55. http://cms.hhs.gov
  56. Robert E. Moffit and Nina Owcharenko, "The McCain Health Care Plan: More Power to Families," The Heritage Foundation, October 15, 2008
  57. Associated Press, "Coverage Guarantee Can Hit Young The Hardest: Obama Health Plan Follows Where Some States Have Struggled," September 11, 2008
  58. BarackObama.com - Healthcare
  59. Colliver, Victoria McCain, Obama agree: health care needs fixing, San Francisco Chronicle, 2008-10-01, accessed 2008-10-01.
  60. Stacey Burling, __prescriptions_for_an_ailing_system.html "Rivals' prescriptions for an ailing system," The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 28, 2008
  61. Tony Leys, "Health plans pit low-cost vs. public coverage," The Des Moines Register, September 29, 2008
  62. Robert J. Blendon, Drew E. Altman, John M. Benson, Mollyann Brodie,Tami Buhr, Claudia Deane, and Sasha Buscho, "Voters and Health Reform in the 2008 Presidential Election," New England Journal of Medicine 359;19, November 6, 2008
  63. Democracy Now! | Election Issue 2004: A Debate on Healthcare
  64. "The Great Health Care Debate of 1993-94"
  65. The New Yorker-The Cost Conundrum-June 2009
  66. Denis Cortese Interview on Charlie Rose Show-July 2009
  67. Health care in US ranks lowest among developed countries
  68. Robert Reich Public Option Video
  69. How Pharma and Insurance Intend to Kill the Public Option, And What Obama and the Rest of Us Must Do
  70. Jonathan Oberlander, "The Politics Of Paying For Health Reform: Zombies, Payroll Taxes, And The Holy Grail," Health Affairs, web exclusive, October 21, 2008
  71. Jack Hadley, John Holahan, Teresa Coughlin, and Dawn Miller, "Covering The Uninsured In 2008: Current Costs, Sources Of Payment, And Incremental Costs," Health Affairs web exclusive, August 25, 2008
  72. http://www.taxfoundation.org/blog/show/2187.html
  73. Katherine Baicker and Amitabh Chandra, "Myths And Misconceptions About U.S. Health Insurance: Health care reform is hindered by confusion about how health insurance works," Health Affairs, web exclusive, October 21, 2008
  74. Sherry Glied, Dahlia K. Remler and Joshua Graff Zivin, "Inside the Sausage Factory: Improving Estimates of the Effects of Health Insurance Expansion Proposals," The Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 4, 2002
  75. Peter Orszag, "Behavioral Economics: Lessons from Retirement Research for Health Care and Beyond," Presentation to the Retirement Research Consortium, August 7, 2008
  76. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/11/19/us/politics/1119-plan-comparison.html, http://crfb.org/blogs/updated-health-care-charts
  77. http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Daily-Reports/2009/November/02/Public-Option.aspx
  78. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-health-age9-2009nov09,0,2196213.story
  79. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120723411
  80. http://archive.salon.com/opinion/feature/2009/11/19/public_option
  81. http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/st_healthcareproposals_20090912.html, http://crfb.org/blogs/updated-health-care-charts
  82. http://crfb.org/blogs/understanding-health-insurance-excise-tax, http://crfb.org/blogs/taxing-health-care-decisions
  83. http://crfb.org/blogs/updated-health-care-charts
  84. http://crfb.org/blogs/true-costs-health-reform
  85. Remarks by the President to the AMA-June 15, 2009
  86. Summary of Obama Speech-
  87. Remarks by the President to a Joint Session of Congress on Healthcare-September 2009
  88. About.com's Pros & Cons of Massachusetts' Mandatory Health Insurance Program
  89. Beckel, Abigail "Voting for Healthcare Reform"Physicians Practice journal, volume 18, number 7, pages 26-40, July/August 2008, accessed July 1, 2009
  90. http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html
  91. The California Single-Payer Debate, The Defeat of Proposition 186 - Kaiser Family Foundation
  92. Free-Market Reformers Are Winners in Election 2002 - by Joe Moser - The Heartland Institute
  93. Total Population - Kaiser State Health Facts
  94. Managed Care & Health Insurance - Kaiser State Health Facts statehealthfacts.org
  95. Catherine Hess, Sonya Schwartz, Jill Rosenthal, Andrew Snyder, and Alan Weil, "States’ Roles in Shaping High Performance Health Systems," The Commonwealth Fund, April 2008
  96. Thomas Bodenheimer, "The Political Divide In Health Care: A Liberal Perspective," Health Affairs, November/December 2005
  97. Robert J. Blendon and John M. Benson, "Americans’ Views On Health Policy: A Fifty-Year Historical Perspective," Health Affairs, March/April 2001
  98. Daniel P. Kessler and David W. Brady, "Putting The Public’s Money Where Its Mouth Is: Consumers’ enthusiasm for health reform wanes sharply when asked to pay higher taxes to expand coverage," Health Affairs, web exclusive, August 18, 2009, DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.w917
  99. http://www.consumerreports.org/health/insurance/best-health-plans/overview/best-health-plans-ov.htm
  100. Kaiser Family Foundation. "Kaiser Health Tracking Poll: July 2009."
  101. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health Tracking Poll: June 2009.
  102. Nate Silver (August, 2009) Public Support for the Public Option http://www.fivethirtyeight.com/2009/06/public-support-for-public-option.html A June 2009
  103. Nate Silver. "How to Poll on the Public Option." August 24, 2009.
  104. William D. McInturff and Lori Weigel, "Déjà Vu All Over Again: The Similarities Between Political Debates Regarding Health Care In The Early 1990s And Today," Health Affairs, Volume 27, Number 3, May/June 2008
  105. "Most Republicans Think the U.S. Health Care System is the Best in the World. Democrats Disagree.," Press Release, Harvard School of Public Health and Harris Interactive, March 20, 2008
  106. "Americans’ Views on the U.S. Health Care System Compared to Other Countries," Harvard School of Public Health and Harris Interactive, March 20, 2008
  107. Robert J. Blendon, Drew E. Altman, Claudia Deane, John M. Benson, Mollyann Brodie, and Tami Buhr, "Health Care in the 2008 Presidential Primaries," New England Journal of Medicine 358;4, January 24, 2008
  108. Doctors support universal health care: survey, Reuters, March 31, 2008 (first reported in Annals of Internal Medicine).
  109. http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/pdf/poll_health_care_040609.pdf?tag=contentMain;contentBody CBS News/New York Times, national poll, April 6, 2009.
  110. Obama's Ratings Remain High Despite Some Policy Concerns, Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, June 18, 2009
  111. "Health Care Poll" on 10/8/09 url=http://www.theinfonetwork.org/Health_Care_Paper.pdf


Further reading

Books



Articles and links



External links

Directory
News media



Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message