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( ; Postal map spelling: Heilungkiang; Manchu: Sahaliyan ula) is a province of the People's Republic of Chinamarker located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amurmarker. The one-character abbreviation is 黑 (pinyin: Hēi). The Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula (literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin islandmarker is derived.

Heilongjiang borders Jilinmarker in the south and Inner Mongolia to the west; it also borders Russiamarker to the north.

The Amur Rivermarker marks the border between the People's Republic of Chinamarker and Russiamarker to the north. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe Countymarker along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amurmarker and Ussuri Rivers).


In ancient times Heilongjiang was far from any literate civilization, and information was sparse. Chinesemarker and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the Xianbei, the Malgal, and the Khitan. The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the kingdom of Balhae between the 7th century and 10th century. The Jurchen Jin Dynasty that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.

Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces on a 1734 French map
Heilongjiang as an administrative entity was created in 1683, during the Kangxi era of the Manchu Qing Dynastymarker, from the northwestern part of the Jilinmarker province. This Heilongjiang Province only included the western part of today's Heilongjiang Province, and was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang (the title is also translated as the Military Governor of Heilongjiang), whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountainsmarker. The eastern part of what's today Heilongjiang remained under the supervision of the General of Jilin, whose power reached the Sea of Japanmarker. These areas deep in Manchuria were closed off to Han Chinese migration.

The original seat of the Military Governor of Heilongjiang, as established in 1683, was in Heilongjang City (also known as Aigun or Heihemarker, or, in Manchu, Saghalien Ula), located on the Amur River. However, already in 1690 the seat of the governor was tranferred to Nenjiang (Mergen) on the Nen River, and, in 1699, further south to Qiqiharmarker. According to modern historians, the moves may have been driven by supply considerations: Nenjiang and Qiqihar are connected by a convenient waterway (Nen River) with southern Manchuria, meanwhile accessing Aigun (Heihe) would require either sailing all the way down the Sungari Rivermarker until its fall into Amur and then up the Amur to Heihe, or using a portage over the Lesser Xing'an Mountains between the Nen River valley and the Amur valley. An additional advantage of Qiqihar may have been its location at the junction of a northbound road (to Nenjiang) and a westbound one (to Mongolia), enabling its garrison to serve for the defense both against the Russians and the Ölöt Mongols

In 1858 and 1860 the Qingmarker government were forced to give up all land beyond the Amurmarker and Ussuri Rivers to the Russian Empiremarker, cutting China off from the Sea of Japanmarker and giving Heilongjiang its present northern borders. At the same time, Manchuria was opened to Han Chinese migration by the Qingmarker government. By the early twentieth century, the Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group in the region.

In 1932, present-day Heilongjiang became part of the Japanesemarker puppet state of Manchukuo.

After the Japanesemarker defeat in 1945, Sovietmarker forces entered Manchuria and gave the Chinese communists control over most of the area. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the Chinese communists and Harbinmarker the first major city to be controlled by them. From Manchuria, the communists were able to conduct the initial phases of the Chinese Civil War.

At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang province included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at Qiqiharmarker. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang; its capital was Harbinmarker. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural Revolution Heilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir Leaguemarker and some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia; this has since mostly been reversed.


Heilongjiang is a land of varied topography. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khinganmarker Range and Lesser Khingan Range, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Datudingzi at 1690 m (5545 ft), located on the border with Jilinmarker province). The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.

The interior of the province, which is relatively flat and low in altitude, contains the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua Rivermarker, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amurmarker's basin, while the northern border forms part of the Amurmarker valley. Xingkai Lakemarker (or Khanka Lakemarker) is found on the border with Russiamarker's Primorsky Kraimarker.

Heilongjiang is subarctic in climate. Winters are long and frigid, with an average of −31 to −15°C in January, and summers are short and cool with an average of 18 to 23°C in July. The annual average rainfall is 500 to 600 mm, concentrated mostly in summer.

Major cities:


A road and highway proposal was accepted in 2006; the project plans to develop 38,000 kilometers of new roads and expand Heilongjiang’s total road network to 2.3 million kilometers.

There are 60 rail lines of around 5,300 kilometers including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge. Construction of a RMB92.3 billion passenger-only railway line running from Harbin-Dalian began in August 2007. The railway will stretch from Harbin, Heilongjiang’s capital, to Dalian in Liaoning province via Changchun and Shenyang comprising 23 stops. It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.

Major airports include Harbin International Airport, Qiqihar Airport, Mudanjiang Airport, Jiamusi Airport and Heihe Airport. Harbin International Airport is capable of handling six million passengers every year and connects to over 40 domestic and international cities.

Administrative divisions

Heilongjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions, consisting of twelve prefecture-level cities and one prefecture:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Type
1 Harbinmarker 哈尔滨市 Hā'ěrbīn Shì Prefecture-level city
2 Daqingmarker 大庆市 Dàqìng Shì Prefecture-level city
3 Hegangmarker 鹤岗市 Hègǎng Shì Prefecture-level city
4 Heihemarker 黑河市 Hēihé Shì Prefecture-level city
5 Jiamusimarker 佳木斯市 Jiāmùsī Shì Prefecture-level city
6 Jiximarker 鸡西市 Jīxī Shì Prefecture-level city
7 Mudanjiangmarker 牡丹江市 Mǔdānjiāng Shì Prefecture-level city
8 Qiqiharmarker 齐齐哈尔市 Qíqíhā'ěr Shì Prefecture-level city
9 Qitaihemarker 七台河市 Qītáihé Shì Prefecture-level city
10 Shuangyashanmarker 双鸭山市 Shuāngyāshān Shì Prefecture-level city
11 Suihuamarker 绥化市 Suíhuà Shì Prefecture-level city
12 Yichunmarker 伊春市 Yīchūn Shì Prefecture-level city
13 Daxing'anlingmarker 大兴安岭地区 Dàxīng'ānlǐng Dìqū Prefecture

(Additional information regarding the last prefecture can be found in Greater Khinganmarker)

The thirteen prefecture-level divisions of Heilongjiang are subdivided into 130 county-level divisions (65 district, nineteen county-level cities, forty-five counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1284 township-level divisions (473 town, 400 township, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Heilongjiang for a complete list of county-level divisions.


List of Secretaries of the CPC Heilongjiang Committee:
  1. Zhang Qilong 张启龙(1949-1950)
  2. Zhao Dezun 赵德尊 (1950-1953)
  3. Feng Jixin 冯纪新 (1953-1954)
  4. Ou Yangqin 欧阳钦 (1954-1965)
  5. Pan Fusheng 潘复生 (1965-1967)
  6. Wang Jiadao 汪家道 (1971-1974)
  7. Liu Guangtao 刘光涛 (1977)
  8. Yang Yichen 杨易辰 (1977-1983)
  9. Li Li'an 李力安 (1983-1985)
  10. Sun Weiben 孙维本 (1985-1994)
  11. Yue Qifeng 岳岐峰 (1994-1997)
  12. Xu Youfang 徐有芳 (1997-2003)
  13. Song Fatang 宋法棠 (2003-2005)
  14. Qian Yunlu 钱运录 (2005-2008)
  15. Ji Bingxuan 吉炳轩 (2008-incumbent)

List of Governors:
  1. Yu Yifu 于毅夫 (1949-1952)
  2. Zhao Dezun 赵德尊 (1952-1953)
  3. Chen Lei 陈雷 (1953-1954)
  4. Han Guang 韩光 (1954-1956)
  5. Ouyang Qin 欧阳钦 (1956-1958)
  6. Li Fanwu 李范五 (1958-1966)
  7. Pan Fusheng 潘复生 (1967-1971)
  8. Wang Jiadao 汪家道 (1971-1974)
  9. Liu Guangtao 刘光涛 (February 1977-December 1977)
  10. Yang Yichen 杨易辰(December 1977-1979)
  11. Chen Lei 陈雷 (1979-1985)
  12. Hou Jie 侯捷 (1985-1989)
  13. Shao Qihui 邵奇惠 (1989-1994)
  14. Tian Fengshan 田凤山(1994-2000)
  15. Song Fatang 宋法棠 (2000-2003)
  16. Zhang Zuoji 张左己 (2003-December 2007)
  17. Li Zhanshu 栗战书 (December 2007-incumbent)


The agriculture of Heilongjiang, heavily defined by its cold climate, is based upon crops such as soybeans, maize, and wheat. Commercial crops grown include beets, flax, and sunflowers.

Heilongjiang is also an important source of lumber for China. Pine, especially the Korean pine and larch are the most important forms of lumber produced in Heilongjiang. Forests are mostly to be found in the Daxingan Mountains and Xiaoxingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian Tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.

Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horse and cattle. Heilongjiang has the greatest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.

Petroleum is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with an average wind energy density of 200 watts per square metre.

Heilongjiang is part of northeast China, the traditional base of industry for the People's Republic of Chinamarker. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russiamarker. In recent years, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China campaign to deal with this problem, using privatization as the preferred method of economic reform.

At least five miners were killed after a coal mine fire in Heilongjiang it was reported on September 21, 2008.

Its GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003-2007. Furthermore, the incremental value of the private economy grew by 20.1 percent in 2006 reaching RMB234 billion, and accounting for 37.6 percent of the GDP. The tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion, a rise of 17.8 percent.

Private enterprises in Heilongjiang witnessed the fastest development in 2007, fueling the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge. Over 200 of them have an annual income exceeding RMB100 million. The province's three major private enterprises, namely the Heilongjiang Sunflower Medicine Ltd, Qitaihe Yidaxin Coal Co., and Heilongjiang Yiyang Group, each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue in 2007.

At present, many private investors are involved in large construction projects in Heilongjiang. In 2006, 928 large projects absorbed private capital of RMB5 million each, and 101 projects attracted RMB100 million each within the province. In line with the centralgovernment’s policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang is now restructuring its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest and timber processing.

In 2008, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 831 billion yuan (US$120 billion), an annual growth rate of 11.8%. Its per capita GDP was 21,727 yuan (US$3,128). Its primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 108.9 billion yuan, 436.6 billion yuan, and 285.5 billion yuan respectively. The per capita disposable income of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,856 yuan (US$700), a rise of 17.5 from 2007.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Daqingmarker New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Heihemarker Border Economic Cooperation Area
  • Harbinmarker Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Harbinmarker New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation Area


The majority of Heilongjiang's population is Han Chinese, while other ethnic minorities include the Manchus, Koreans, Mongols, Hui, Daur, Xibe, Oroqin, Hezhen and Russians.

Ethnic groups in Heilongjiang (2000 census) Nationality Population Percentage Han Chinese 34,465,039 95.20% Manchu 1,037,080 2.86% Koreans 388,458 1.07% Mongol 141,495 0.39% Hui 124,003 0.34% Daur 43,608 0.12% Xibe 8,886 0.03%
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.

Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)


Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast). (See Culture of Manchuria.)


Heilongjiang Television and Harbin Economy Radio serve as broadcasters.


Harbinmarker, the provincial capital, is a city of contrasts, with Chinese, Russianmarker, and eclectic worldwide influences clearly apparent. Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant churches dot the city.

The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event.

Wudalianchi Lakes are a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amurmarker into five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights.

Lake Jingbomarker, in Ning'anmarker County, is a section of the Mudan River that has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls.

Colleges and universities



External links

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