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Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was considered one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. Himmler served as Chief of the German Police and Minister of the Interior. As Reichsführer-SS, he oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapomarker.

As overseer of the concentration camps, extermination camps, and Einsatzgruppenmarker (literally: task forces, often used as killing squads), Himmler coordinated the killing of some six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Roma, many prisoners of war, and possibly another three to four million Poles, communists, or other groups whom the Nazis deemed unworthy to live or simply "in the way", including homosexuals, people with physical and mental disabilities, and members of the Confessing Church. Shortly before the end of the war, he offered to surrender both Germany and himself to the Western Allies if he were spared prosecution. After being arrested by Britishmarker forces, he committed suicide before he could be questioned.

Early life

Himmler in 1907
Heinrich Himmler was born in Munichmarker to a Roman Catholic Bavarianmarker middle-class family. His father was Joseph Gebhard Himmler, a secondary-school teacher and principal of the prestigious Wittelsbacher Gymnasium. His mother was Anna Maria Himmler (maiden name Heyder), a devout Roman Catholic. He had an older brother, Gebhard Ludwig Himmler, who was born on 29 July 1898, and a younger brother, Ernst Hermann Himmler, born on 23 December 1905.

Heinrich was named after his godfather, Prince Heinrich of Bavaria of the royal family of Bavaria, who was tutored by Gebhard Himmler. In 1910, Himmler attended Gymnasium in Landshutmarker, where he studied classic literature. Himmler's father, the principal, sent him to spy on and punish other pupils. His father even called him a born criminal. While he struggled in athletics, he did well in his schoolwork. Also, at the behest of his father, Himmler kept a diary from age 10 until age 24. He enjoyed chess, harpsichord, stamp collecting, and gardening. Throughout Himmler’s youth and into adulthood, he was never at ease in interactions with women.

Himmler’s diaries (1914-1918) show that he was extremely interested in war news. He implored his father to use his royal connections to obtain an officer candidate position for him. His parents eventually gave in, allowing him to train (upon graduation from secondary school in 1918) with the 11th Bavarian Regiment. Since he was not athletic, he struggled throughout his military training. In 1918 the war ended with Germany's defeat, thus ending Himmler's aspirations of becoming a professional army officer.

From 1919 to 1922 Himmler studied agronomy at the Munich Technische Hochschule following a short-lived apprenticeship on a farm and subsequent illness.

In his diaries he claimed to be a devout Catholic, and wrote that he would never turn away from the Church. However, he was a member of a fraternity (and later the Thule Society) and felt both associations to be at odds with the tenets of the Church. Biographers have defined Himmler’s theology as Ariosophy, his own religious dogma of racial superiority of the Aryan race and Germanic Meso-Paganism, developed partly from his interpretations of folklore and mythology of the ancient Teutonic tribes of Northern Europe. During this time he was again obsessed with the idea of becoming a soldier. He wrote that if Germany did not soon go to war, he would go to another country to seek battle.

In 1923, Himmler took part in Adolf Hitler's Beer Hall Putschmarker, serving under Ernst Röhm. In 1926 he met his future wife in a hotel lobby while escaping a storm. Margarete Siegroth (née Boden) was seven years his senior, divorced, and Protestant. On 3 July 1928, the two were married. During this time Himmler worked unsuccessfully as a chicken farmer. They had their only child, Gudrun, on 8 August 1929. Himmler adored his daughter, and called her Püppi ( ). Margarete later adopted a son, in whom Himmler showed no interest. Heinrich and Margarete Himmler separated in 1940 without seeking divorce. At that time Himmler became friendly with a secretary, Hedwig Potthast, who left her job in 1941 and became his mistress. He fathered two children with her — a son, Helge (born 1942), and a daughter, Nanette Dorothea (born 1944).

Himmler was also very interested in agriculture and the "back to the land" movement. He and his wife had romantic ideals of making a farming life. He joined the Artamanen society, a sort of idealistic back-to-the-land youth group, but mixed with racist ideology. He became one of the leaders of this movement. Through this movement he also apparently met Rudolf Höß, who would later preside over Auschwitzmarker, and Richard Walther Darré, who would later work in the RuSHAmarker (race and resettlement office) of the SS.

Rise in the SS

Himmler wearing an early SS uniform (black tie and cap), with the rank of Oberführer.

Early SS: 1927–1934

Himmler joined the SS in 1925 and became deputy–Reichsführer-SS in 1927. Upon the resignation of SS commander Erhard Heiden, Himmler was appointed Reichsführer-SS in January 1929. The SS then had 280 members and was merely an elite battalion of the much larger Sturmabteilung marker.

By 1933, the SS numbered 52,000 members. The organization enforced strict membership requirements ensuring that all members were of Hitler’s Aryan Herrenvolk ("Aryan master race"). Himmler and his deputy Reinhard Heydrich began an effort to separate the SS from SA control. Black SS uniforms replaced the SA brown shirts in July 1932 and by 1934 enough quantities were manufactured for general use by all. In 1933, Himmler was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer. This made him an equal of the senior SA commanders, who by this time loathed the SS and envied its power.

Himmler, Hermann Göring, and General Werner von Blomberg agreed that the SA and its leader Ernst Röhm posed a threat to the German Army and the Nazi leadership. Röhm had socialist and populist views, and believed that the real revolution had not yet begun. He felt that the SA should become the sole arms-bearing corps of the state. This left some Nazi, military and political leaders believing Röhm was intent on using the SA to undertake a coup.

Persuaded by Himmler and Göring, Hitler agreed that Röhm had to be eliminated. He delegated this task to Reinhard Heydrich, Kurt Daluege, and Werner Best, who ordered Röhm's execution (carried out by Theodor Eicke) and other senior SA officials, plus some of Hitler’s personal enemies, (like Gregor Strasser and Kurt von Schleicher), on 30 June 1934, in what became known as the Night of the Long Knives. The next day, the SS became an independent organization responsible only to Hitler.

Consolidation of power

On 20 April 1934, Göring formed a partnership with Himmler and Heydrich. Göring transferred authority over the Gestapomarker (Geheime Staatspolizei), the Prussian secret police, to Himmler, who was also named chief of all German police outside Prussia. On 22 April 1934, Himmler named Heydrich the head of the Gestapo. Heydrich continued as head of the SD, as well.

On 17 June 1936, Himmler was named Chief of German Police after Hitler announced a decree that was to "unify the control of Police duties in the Reich". Traditionally, law enforcement in Germany had been a state and local matter. In this role, Himmler was nominally subordinate to Interior Ministermarker Wilhelm Frick. However, the decree effectively merged the police with the SS, making it virtually independent of Frick's control.

Himmler gained authority as all of Germany’s uniformed law enforcement agencies were amalgamated into the new Ordnungspolizei marker, whose main office became a headquarters branch of the SS. Despite his title, Himmler gained only partial control of the uniformed police. The actual powers granted to him were some that were previously exercised by the ministry of the interior. It was only in 1943, when Himmler was appointed minister of the interior, that the transfer of ministerial power was complete.

With the 1936 appointment, Himmler also gained ministerial authority over Germany’s non-political detective forces, the Kriminalpolizei marker, which he merged with the Gestapo into the Sicherheitspolizei marker under Heydrich's command, and thus gain operational control over Germany’s entire detective force. This merger was never complete within the Reich, with Kripo remaining mainly under the control of its own civilian administration and later the party apparatus (as the latter annexed the civilian administration). However, in occupied territories not incorporated into the Reich proper, Sipo consolidation within the SS line of command proved mostly effective. In September 1939, following the outbreak of World War II, Himmler formed the Reichssicherheitshauptamt marker wherein the Sipo (Gestapo and Kripo) along with the Sicherheitsdienst marker became departments under Heydrich's command therein.

Himmler oversaw the entire concentration camp system. Once World War II began, however, new internment camps, which were not formally classified as concentration camps, were established over which Himmler and the SS did not exercise control. In 1943, following the outbreak of popular word-of-mouth criticism of the regime as a result of the Stalingrad disastermarker, the party apparatus, professing disappointment with the Gestapo’s performance in deterring such criticism, established the Politische Staffeln (political squads) as its own political policing organ, breaking the Gestapo’s monopoly in this field.



The SS during these years developed its own military branch, the SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT), which later evolved into the Waffen-SS. Even though nominally under the authority of Himmler, the Waffen-SS developed a fully militarized structure of command and operationally were incorporated in the war effort parallel to the Wehrmacht. Many contemporary commentators refuse to recognize the Waffen SS as an honorable military organisation. Its units were involved in notorious incidents of murdering civilians and unarmed prisoners. This was one of many reasons that the International Military Tribunalmarker declared the SS to be a criminal organization.

Himmler and the Holocaust

After the Night of the Long Knives, the SS-Totenkopfverbändemarker organized and administered Germany’s regime of concentration camps and, after 1941, extermination camps in occupied Poland as well. The SS, through its intelligence arm, the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienstmarker, or SD), dealt with Jews, Gypsies, communists and those persons of any other cultural, racial, political or religious affiliation deemed by the Nazis to be either Untermensch (sub-human) or in opposition to the regime, and placing them in concentration camps. Himmler opened the first of these camps at Dachaumarker on 22 March 1933. He was the main architect of the Holocaust, using elements of mysticism and a fanatical belief in the racist Nazi ideology to justify the murder of millions of victims. Himmler had similar plans for the Poles, intellectuals were to be killed and most other Poles were to be only literate enough to read traffic signs. On 18 December 1941, Himmler's appointment book shows he met with Hitler, where in answer to Himmler's question "What to do with the Jews of Russiamarker?", Hitler's response is recorded as "als Partisanen auszurotten" (exterminate them as partisans").

In contrast to Hitler, Himmler inspected concentration camps. As a result of these inspections, the Nazis searched for a new and more expedient way to kill, which culminated in the use of the gas chambers.

Himmler wanted to breed a master race of Nordic Aryans in Germany. His experience as a chicken farmer had taught him the rudiments of animal breeding which he proposed to apply to humans. He believed that he could engineer the German populace, through selective breeding, to be entirely "Nordic" in appearance within several decades of the end of the war.

Posen speech

On 4 October 1943, Himmler referred explicitly to the extermination of the Jewish people during a secret SS meeting in the city of Poznańmarker (Posen). The following is an excerpt from a transcription of an audio recording that exists of the speech:

World War II

In 1939 Himmler masterminded Operation Himmler, arguably the first operation of World War II in Europe.

Before the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), Himmler prepared his SS for a war of extermination against the forces of "Judeo-Bolshevism". Himmler, always glad to make parallels between Nazi Germany and the Middle Ages, compared the invasion to the Crusades. He collected volunteers from all over Europe, especially those of Nordic stock who were perceived to be racially closest to Germans, like the Danesmarker, Norwegiansmarker, Swedesmarker and Dutchmarker. After the invasion, Ukrainiansmarker, Latviansmarker, Lithuaniansmarker, and Estoniansmarker volunteers were also recruited, attracting the non-Germanic volunteers by declaring a pan-European crusade to defend the traditional values of old Europe from the "Godless Bolshevik hordes". Thousands volunteered and many thousands more were conscripted.

The volunteers from the occupied Sovietmarker territories were frequently collaborator policemen pressed en masse into the Waffen SS once their territories of origin were overrun by the Red Army. In the Baltic states many natives volunteered to serve due to their loathing of their oppression after the occupation by the Soviet Unionmarker. As long as they were employed against Soviet troops, they performed acceptably because they expected no mercy if captured. When employed against the Western Allies, however, they often tended to surrender. Waffen SS recruitment in Western and Nordic Europe collected much less manpower, though a number of Waffen-SS Legions were founded, such as the Wallonian contingent led by Leon Degrelle, whom Himmler planned to appoint chancellor of a restored Burgundy within the Nazi orbit once the war was over.

In 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler’s right hand man, was assassinated near Praguemarker after an attack by Czech special forces supplied by British Intelligence and the Czechoslovak rebellion. Himmler immediately carried out a brutal reprisal, killing the entire population, including women and children, of the village of Lidicemarker.

Interior Minister

In 1943, Himmler was appointed Reich Interior Minister, replacing Frick, with whom he had engaged in a turf war for over a decade. For instance, Frick had tried to restrict the widespread use of "protective custody" orders that were used to send people to concentration camps, only to be begged off by Himmler. While Frick viewed the concentration camps as a tool to punish dissenters, Himmler saw them as a way to terrorize the people into accepting Nazi rule.

Himmler's appointment effectively merged the Interior Ministry with the SS. Nonetheless, Himmler sought to use his new office to reverse the party apparatus's annexation of the civil service and tried to challenge the authority of the party gauleiters.

This aspiration was frustrated by Martin Bormann, Hitler’s secretary and party chancellor. It also incurred some displeasure from Hitler himself, whose long-standing disdain for the traditional civil service was one of the foundations of Nazi administrative thinking. Himmler made things much worse still when following his appointment as head of the Reserve Army (Ersatzheer, see below) he tried to use his authority in both military and police matters by transferring policemen to the Waffen-SS.

With Himmler threatening his power base, Bormann could not give him the opportunity fast enough, initially acquiescing in the policies, until furious protests broke out. Then, Bormann came out against the scheme, leaving Himmler discredited, especially with the party, whose gauleiters now saw Bormann as their protector.

20 July plot

It was determined that leaders of German Military Intelligence (the Abwehr), including its head, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, were involved in the 20 July 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler. This prompted Hitler to disband the Abwehr and make Himmler's Security Servicemarker (Sicherheitsdienstmarker, or SD) the sole intelligence service of the Third Reich. This increased Himmler’s personal power.

General Friedrich Fromm, Commander-in-Chief of the Reserve (or Replacement) Army (Ersatzheer), was implicated in the conspiracy. Fromm’s removal, coupled with Hitler’s suspicion of the army, led the way to Himmler’s appointment as Fromm’s successor, a position he abused to expand the Waffen SS even further to the detriment of the rapidly deteriorating German armed forces (Wehrmacht).

Unfortunately for Himmler, the investigation soon revealed the involvement of many SS officers in the conspiracy, including senior officers, which played into the hands of Bormann’s power struggle against the SS because very few party cadre officers were implicated. Even more importantly, some senior SS officers began to conspire against Himmler himself, as they believed that he would be unable to achieve victory in the power struggle against Bormann. Among these defectors were Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Heydrich’s successor as chief of the Reichssicherheitshauptamtmarker, and Gruppenführer Heinrich Müller, the chief of the Gestapomarker.

Commander-in-Chief

In late 1944, Himmler became Commander-in-Chief of the newly formed Army Group Upper Rhine (Heeresgruppe Oberrhein). This army group was formed to fight the advancing U.S. 7th Army and French 1st Army in the Alsacemarker region along the west bank of the Rhinemarker. The U.S. 7th Army was under the command of General Alexander Patch and the French 1st Army was under the command of General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.

On 1 January 1945, Himmler's army group launched Operation North Wind (Unternehmen Nordwind) to push back the Americans and the French. In late January, after some limited initial success, Himmler was transferred east. By 24 January, Army Group Upper Rhine was deactivated after going over to the defensive. Operation North Wind officially ended on 25 January.

Elsewhere the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) had failed to halt the Red Army’s Vistula-Oder offensive, so Hitler gave Himmler command of yet another newly formed army group, Army Group Vistula (Heeresgruppe Weichsel) to stop the Soviet advance on Berlin. Hitler placed Himmler in command of Army Group Vistula despite the failure of Army Group Upper Rhine and despite Himmler’s total lack of experience and ability to command troops. This appointment may have been at the instigation of Martin Bormann, anxious to discredit a rival, or through Hitler’s continuing anger at the "failures" of the general staff.

As Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula, Himmler established his command centre at Schneidemühl. He used his special train (sonderzug), Sonderzug Steiermark, as his headquarters. Himmler did this despite the train having only one telephone line and no signals detachment. Eager to show his determination, Himmler acquiesced in a quick counter-attack urged by the general staff. The operation quickly bogged down and Himmler dismissed a regular army corps commander and appointed Nazi Heinz Lammerding. His headquarters was also forced to retreat to Falkenburg. On 30 January, Himmler issued draconian orders: Tod und Strafe für Pflichtvergessenheit —"death and punishment for those who forget their obligations", to encourage his troops. The worsening situation left Himmler under increasing pressure from Hitler; he was unassertive and nervous in conferences. In mid-February the Pomeranian offensive by his forces was directed by General Walther Wenck, after intense pressure from General Heinz Guderian on Hitler. By early March, Himmler’s headquarters had moved west of the Oder River, although his army group was still named after the Vistula. At conferences with Hitler, Himmler echoed Hitler's line of increased severity towards those who retreated.

On 13 March, Himmler abandoned his command and, claiming illness, retired to a sanatorium at Hohenlychen. Guderian visited him there and carried his resignation as Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula to Hitler that night. On 20 March, Himmler was replaced by General Gotthard Heinrici.

Peace negotiations

Heinrich Himmler in 1945.
In the winter of 1944–45, Himmler’s Waffen-SS numbered 910,000 members, with the Allgemeine-SSmarker (at least on paper) hosting a membership of nearly two million. However, by early 1945 Himmler had lost faith in German victory, likely due in part to his discussions with his masseur Felix Kersten and with Walter Schellenberg. He realized that if the Nazi regime was to survive, it needed to seek peace with Britain and the United States. He also believed that Hitler had effectively incapacitated himself from governing by remaining in Berlinmarker to personally lead the defence of the capital against the Soviets.

To this end, he contacted Count Folke Bernadotte of Swedenmarker at Lübeckmarker, near the Danish border. He represented himself as the provisional leader of Germany, telling Bernadotte that Hitler would almost certainly be dead within two days. He asked Bernadotte to tell General Dwight Eisenhower that Germany wished to surrender to the West. Himmler hoped the British and Americans would fight the Soviets alongside the remains of the Wehrmacht. At Bernadotte's request, Himmler put his offer in writing.

On the evening of 28 April, the BBC broadcast a Reuters news report about Himmler's attempted negotiations with the Western Allies. When Hitler was informed of the news, he flew into a rage. A few days earlier, Hermann Göring had asked Hitler for permission to take over the leadership of the Reich — an act Hitler interpreted as a demand to step down or face a coup. However, Himmler hadn't even bothered to request permission. The news also hit Hitler hard because he had long believed that Himmler was his most loyal official, "der treue Heinrich". After Hitler calmed down, he told those who were still with him in his bunker that Himmler's act was the worst act of treachery he'd ever known.

Himmler's treachery, combined with reports the Soviets were only 300 meters from the Chancellery, prompted Hitler to write his last will and testament. In the Testament, completed the day before he committed suicide, he declared Himmler and Göring to be traitors. He also stripped Himmler of all of his party and state offices: Reichsführer-SS, Chief of the German Police, Commissioner of German Nationhood, Reich Minister of the Interior, Supreme Commander of the Volkssturm, and Supreme Commander of the Home Army. Finally, he expelled Himmler from the Nazi Party and ordered his arrest.

Himmler’s negotiations with Count Bernadotte had failed. He joined Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, who by then was commanding all German forces within the northern part of the western front, in nearby Plönmarker. Dönitz sent Himmler away, explaining that there was no place for him in the new German government.

Himmler next turned to the Americans as a defector, contacting Eisenhower's headquarters and proclaiming he would surrender all of Germany to the Allies if he was spared from prosecution. He asked Eisenhower to appoint him "minister of police" in Germany's post-war government. He reportedly mused on how to handle his first meeting with the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force commander and whether to give the Nazi salute or shake hands with him. Eisenhower refused to have anything to do with Himmler, who was subsequently declared a major war criminal.

Capture and death

Himmler’s corpse in Allied custody after his suicide by poison, 1945
Unwanted by his former colleagues and hunted by the Allies, Himmler wandered for several days around Flensburgmarker near the Danish border. Attempting to evade arrest, he disguised himself as a sergeant-major of the Secret Military Police, using the name Heinrich Hitzinger, shaving his moustache and donning an eye patch over his left eye, in the hope that he could return to Bavaria. He had equipped himself with a set of false documents, but someone whose papers were wholly in order was so unusual that it aroused the suspicions of a British Army unit in Bremenmarker. Himmler was arrested on 22 May by Major Sidney Excell and, in captivity, was soon recognized. Himmler was scheduled to stand trial with other German leaders as a war criminal at Nurembergmarker, but committed suicide in Lüneburgmarker by means of a potassium cyanide capsule before interrogation could begin. His last words were Ich bin Heinrich Himmler! ("I am Heinrich Himmler!"). Another version has Himmler biting into a hidden cyanide pill embedded in one of his teeth, when searched by a British doctor, who then yelled, "He has done it!" Several attempts to revive Himmler were unsuccessful. Shortly afterwards, Himmler’s body was buried in an unmarked grave on the Lüneburg Heathmarker. The precise location of Himmler’s grave remains unknown.

Forgeries, fabrications and conspiracy theories

In May 2008, a British police investigation “identified 29 forgeries that had been slipped into 12 files after 2000” which had been used to support recent Himmler conspiracies and speculations.

The Financial Times further reported that "the forgeries were cited as sources by a historian who had written three books about World War Two.”

Author Martin Allen was widely reported to have a history of making sensationalistic accusations and reliance on fabricated materials when writing about other notable Nazis. “When challenged about a supposed letter from the Duke of Windsor to Hitler, Allen responded that it had been given to his late father by Albert Speer, later being found in the author's attic.”

Historical views

Historians are divided on the psychology, motives, and influences that drove Himmler. Some see him as dominated by Hitler, fully under his influence and essentially a tool carrying Hitler’s views to their logical conclusion. Others see Himmler as extremely anti-Semitic in his own right, and even more eager than his boss to commit genocide. Still others see Himmler as power-mad, devoted to the accumulation of power and influence.

According to the Jewish Virtual Library, Himmler’s decisive innovation was to transform the race question from "a negative concept based on matter-of-course anti-Semitism" into "an organizational task for building up the SS ... It was Himmler’s master stroke that he succeeded in indoctrinating the SS with an apocalyptic ‘idealism’ beyond all guilt and responsibility, which rationalized mass murder as a form of martyrdom and harshness towards oneself."

The wartime cartoonist Victor Weisz depicted Himmler as a giant octopus, wielding oppressed nations in each of his eight arms.

Wolfgang Sauer, historian at University of California, Berkeleymarker, felt that "although he was pedantic, dogmatic, and dull, Himmler emerged under Hitler as second in actual power. His strength lay in a combination of unusual shrewdness, burning ambition, and servile loyalty to Hitler."

Himmler told his personal masseur Felix Kersten that he always carried with him a copy of the Bhagavad Gita, because it relieved him of guilt about implementing the Final Solution; he felt that, like the warrior Arjuna, he was simply doing his duty without attachment to his actions. This was consistent with the "eclectic" borrowing of disparate Hindu concepts that the Nazis used in their construction of a neopagan religion. Himmler was once known to remark: "I marvel at the wisdom of the founders of Indianmarker religions."

In an extract of Norman Brook's War Cabinet Diaries, Winston Churchill took a view towards Himmler widely shared during the war, advocating his assassination. According to Brook, responding to a suggestion that Nazi leaders be executed, "this prompted Churchill to ask if they should negotiate with Himmler ‘and bump him off later’, once peace terms had been agreed. The suggestion to cut a deal for a German surrender with Himmler and then assassinate him met with support from the Home Office. ‘Quite entitled to do so’, the minutes record [... Churchill] as commenting."

A main focus of recent work on Himmler has been the extent to which he competed for and craved Hitler’s attention and respect. The events of the last days of the war, when he abandoned Hitler and began separate negotiations with the Allies, are obviously significant in this respect.

Himmler appears to have had a distorted view of how he was perceived by the Allies; he intended to meet with US and British leaders and have discussions "as gentlemen". He tried to buy off their vengeance by last-minute reprieves for Jews and important prisoners. According to British soldiers who arrested him, Himmler was genuinely shocked to be treated as a prisoner.

In 2008, Himmler was named "the greatest mass murderer of all time" by German news magazine Der Spiegel, reflecting his role as architect of the Holocaust.. While reflecting his continued public perception in modern Germany, statistical research on democide shows this claim to be a severe overestimate, even when his personal responsibility is considered collectively with Hitler and his other lieutenants.Rummel, R.J. "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900". Charlottesville: Center for National Security Law, School of Law, University of Virginia, 1997. /www.mega.nu/ampp/rummel/note5.htm>

See also

  • Nazi mysticism
  • Ahnenerbe - Nazi anthropologists, some of whom went to Tibet. Part-founded by Himmler.
  • Julleuchter — Himmler's Yuletide gift to the SS
  • Racial policy of Nazi Germany — Himmler’s involvement
  • Allach porcelain — One of Himmler’s favorite projects to establish an industrial base for the production of works of art that would be representative, in Himmler's eyes, of truly Germanic culture
  • Lebensborn - a project under the responsibility of Himmler to raise blond haired blue eyed children


References

Notes

  1. cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, 11 September 2000).
  2. "Sinti and Roma", United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  3. Encyclopedia Brittanica
  4. Andersch, A.: Der Vater eines Mörders (The father of a murderer). Diogenes, 2006. ISBN 978-3257236088
  5. Breitman, p. 9
  6. Time Magazine, Jun. 16, 1947
  7. Breitman, p. 11
  8. BBC Historic Figures - Heinrich Himmler
  9. Hoess and Paskuly, p 203
  10. Höhne, Order of the Death's Head (2000 ed), p. 47-49
  11. Bauer, Yehuda Rethinking the Holocaust Yale University Press, 2000, p. 5
  12. Pringle, Heather: The Master Plan: Himmler’s Scholars and the Holocaust. Hyperion, New York, 2006. ISBN 0786868864
  13. Poznan speech
  14. Heinrich Himmler - Petty Bourgeois and Grand Inquisitor by Joachim C Fest
  15. "Heinrich Himmler": Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel
  16. [ UK police find Himmler/Churchill archive forgeries http://www.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idUSL0342892320080503?sp=true]
  17. Historic Forgery and Fraud
  18. Himmler
  19. Heinrich Himmler : Nazi Germany
  20. GI - World War II Commemoration
  21. Padfield, Peter Himmler New York:1990,Henry Holt, p. 402; Roger Manvell, Heinrich Fraenkel, Himmler, Putnam, 1965, p.181; Ted Morgan, An Uncertain Hour: The French, the Germans, the Jews, the Klaus Barbie Trial, and the City of Lyon, 1940-1945, Arbor House, 1990, p.372
  22. [1]
  23. A book summary of "Hitler, Buddha, Krishna - An unholy alliance from the Third Reich to the present day" Ueberreuter Verlag – Vienna – 2002
  24. News | Cabinet Secretaries´ Notebooks from World War Two at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk
  25. Doward, Jamie. "Hitler must die without trial — Churchill." The Observer 1 January 2006.
  26. Source: Der Spiegel, Issue dated 3 November, 2008: Hitlers Vollstrecker – Aus dem Leben eines Massenmörders


Bibliography

  • Haiger, Ernst: "Fictions, Facts, and Forgeries: The ‘Revelations’ of Peter and Martin Allen about the History of the Second World War" in The Journal of Intelligence History, Vol 6 no. 1 (Summer 2006 [published 2007]), pp. 105–117
  • (in German — Heinrich Himmler was granduncle of the author)


External links



Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Der Führer
Adolf Hitler



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