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Henry Constantine Wayne (September 18, 1810 – March 15, 1883) was an United States Army officer, and is known for his commanding the expedition to test the U.S. Camel Corps as part of Secretary of War Jefferson Davis's plan to use camels as a transport in the West. Wayne was also a Confederate adjutant and inspector-general for Georgiamarker and a brigadier general during the American Civil War.

Early life and career

Henry Wayne was the son of U.S. Supreme Court Justice James Moore Wayne. He graduated from West Pointmarker in 1838 and joined the artillery as a second lieutenant. Later in that year Wayne participated in the Aroostook War over the boundary of Mainemarker. In 1841, he became the assistant instructor of artillery and cavalry at West Pointmarker where he remained for two years. Henry became a first lieutenant in 1842. When the United States declared war on Mexico, Wayne joined the troops to fight. He was brevetted a major for his bravery at the Battles of Contreras and Churubuscomarker.

U.S. Camel Corps

After the Mexican-American War, Henry Wayne befriended George H. Crossman. Crossman brought up his idea of using camels for transportation of people and supplies in the West. Wayne relayed this idea to Senator Jefferson Davis, and when Davis became Secretary of War on 1853, he had Congress pass a bill to experiment with the camels. Wayne was chosen to lead an expedition to the Middle East to purchase $30,000 worth of camels. The group sailed to London on the USS Supply to examine camels in zoos. They then journeyed to Italy and met Grand Duke Leopold II to see his 250 camels that were said to be able to do the work of 1000 horses. They then purchased thirty-three camels: three in Tunisiamarker, nine in Egypt, and twenty-one in Turkey. When the group arrived back, they experimented with the animals in the deserts of the western United States. Forty-one more camels would arrive later to join the corps. Congress, on the request of the Department of War, proposed a bill to buy 1,000 more camels, but the start of the Civil War quickly ended the debate . The experiments were also ended with the start of the Civil War, and the remaining camels were either sold or released into the wild.

Civil War service

Wayne resigned his commission after receiving the results of Abraham Lincoln's victory for president. He joined the Confederate Army and was appointed the adjutant and inspector-general of Georgiamarker by Governor Joseph E. Brown, where he was responsible for putting the army of Georgiamarker into order in companies, regiments, and brigades. On December 16, 1861, Wayne was commissioned a brigadier general. Through his orders, the men of Georgia guarded the crossings of Chattahoochee River. After being ordered to Manassas, Virginiamarker, Wayne resigned his commission as a brigadier general and he instead just stuck to his duties as adjutant and inspector-general until the end of the war.

Awards and books

Wayne received the First Class Gold Medal of Mammal Division by the Société impériale zoologique d'acclimatation of France in 1858 for his introduction of the camel into the United States. In 1856 he wrote The Sword Exercise, arranged for Military Instruction.

See also



References

  1. Thomas Cushing's Memorials of the Class of 1834 of Harvard College: Prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Their Graduation (1884) pgs. 108-09
  2. Ezra J. Warner's Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders (1959) pg. 329
  3. John Walker Guss's Savannah's Laurel Grove Cemetery (2004) pg. 58
  4. Byron Farwell's The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View (2001) pg. 154
  5. Thomas William Herringshaw's Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography (1914) pg. 620
  6. John Fiske's Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1889) pg. 400


Bibliography

  • Thomas Cushing's Memorials of the Class of 1834 of Harvard College: Prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Their Graduation (1884) pgs. 108-09
  • John Fiske's Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1889) pg. 400
  • Ezra J. Warner's Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders (1959) pg. 329
  • John Walker Guss's Savannah's Laurel Grove Cemetery (2004) pg. 58
  • Byron Farwell's The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View (2001) pg. 154
  • Thomas William Herringshaw's Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography (1914) pg. 620



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