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Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, a statesman and a veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Born to Simon Dearborn and Sarah Marston in North Hampton, New Hampshiremarker, he spent much of his youth in Eppingmarker, where he attended public schools. He studied medicine and opened a practice in Nottingham Squaremarker in 1772.

When fighting in the American Revolutionary War began, he organized and led a local militia troop of 60 men to Bostonmarker where he fought at the Battle of Bunker Hillmarker as a captain in Colonel John Stark’s First New Hampshire Regiment. He then volunteered to serve under Benedict Arnold during the ill-fated American expedition to Quebec. His journal is an important record for that campaign. He was captured on December 31, 1775, during the Battle of Quebecmarker and detained for a year. He was released on parole in May 1776, but he was not exchanged until March 1777.

After fighting at Ticonderogamarker, Freeman's Farm and Saratogamarker, Dearborn joined George Washington's main army at Valley Forgemarker as a lieutenant colonel where he spent the winter of 1777–1778. He fought at the Battle of Monmouth in 1778, and in 1779, he accompanied Major General John Sullivan on the Sullivan Expedition against the Iroquois in upstate New Yorkmarker. During the winter of 1778-1779 he was encamped at what is now Putnam Memorial State Parkmarker in Redding, Connecticutmarker. Dearborn joined Washington’s staff in 1781 as deputy quartermaster general with the rank of colonel, and was present when Cornwallis surrendered after the Battle of Yorktown.

In June 1783, he received his discharge from the army and settled in Gardiner, Mainemarker, then part of Massachusetts, where he worked as a U.S. marshal for the District of Maine. He represented this district as a Democratic-Republican in the Third and Fourth Congresses (1793-1797). In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Secretary of War, a post he held for eight years until March 7, 1809. During his tenure, he helped plan the removal of Indians beyond the Mississippi River.

He was appointed collector of the port of Boston by President James Madison in 1809, a position he held until January 27, 1812, when he was appointed senior major general in the United States Army in command of the northeast sector from the Niagara Rivermarker to the New Englandmarker coast. During the War of 1812, while Dearborn prepared plans for simultaneous assaults on Montrealmarker, Kingstonmarker, Fort Niagaramarker, and Detroitmarker, the execution was imperfect. Some scholars believe that he did not move quickly enough to provide sufficient troops to defend Detroit. William Hull, without firing a shot, surrendered the city to British General Isaac Brock. Although Dearborn had minor successes at the capture of Yorkmarker (now Torontomarker) on April 27, 1813, and at the capture of Fort Georgemarker on May 27, 1813, his command was, for the most part, ineffective. He was recalled from the frontier on July 6, 1813, and reassigned to an administrative command in New York Citymarker. Dearborn was honorably discharged from the army on June 15, 1815.

President James Madison nominated Dearborn for reappointment as Secretary of War, but the Senate rejected the nomination. He was later appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal by President James Monroe and served from May 7, 1822, to June 30, 1824, when, by his own request, he was recalled.

He retired to his home in Roxbury, Massachusettsmarker, where he died 5 years later. He is interred in Forest Hills Cemetery, in Jamaica Plainmarker outside of Boston.

Dearborn was married three times: to Mary Bartlett in 1771, to Dorcas (Osgood) Marble in 1780, and to Sarah Bowdoin, widow of James Bowdoin, in 1813. Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn was his son by his second wife.

Legacy

Lewis and Clark, appointed by Thomas Jefferson, named the Dearborn Rivermarker in west-central Montanamarker after Dearborn in 1803. Dearborn County, Indianamarker, Dearborn, Michiganmarker and Dearborn, Missourimarker were also named for him, as was Fort Dearbornmarker in Chicagomarker. His son, Henry A. S. Dearborn, was a congressman in 1831-1833.

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