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Henry III of Castile: Map


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Henry III (October 4, 1379December 25, 1406), sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm ( ) was the son of John I and Eleanor of Aragon, and succeeded him as King of Castile and Leónmarker in 1390.

Henry was born in Burgosmarker, the capital of Castile. Before becoming king, he was known by the title Prince of Asturias, designating him as the heir apparent. After succeeding to the throne at 11, Henry took power at 14. Despite his nickname, he engaged in a vigorous foreign policy and maneuvers during the first few years of the 15th century. He was able to pacify the nobility and restore royal power. During his reign, the Castilian fleet won several victories against the Englishmarker; Henry sent a naval fleet in 1400 that destroyed Tétouanmarker in North Africa, a pirate base. In 1402, Henry began the colonization of the Canary Islandsmarker, sending French explorer Jean de Béthencourt. He deflected a Portuguese invasion with an attack on Badajozmarker, finally signing a peace treaty with Juan I of Portugal in 1402. He restarted the conflict against the kingdom of Granadamarker, winning a victory at Collejares, near Úbedamarker in 1406. He also sent the envoy Hernán Sánchez de Palazuelos, and later Ruy González de Clavijo, to Timur.

In 1388, Henry married Katherine of Lancaster (Catalina de Lancaster; 1372–1418), the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Gaunt's second wife, Constance of Castile, who was the elder daughter of Pedro of Castile. This ended a dynastic conflict and solidified the House of Trastamara. Henry and Catherine's son became John II of Castile, who succeeded Henry when he died in Toledomarker, Catherine acting as Regent of Castile because John II was then underage.


Henry's ancestors in three generations
Henry III of Castile Father:

John I of Castile
Paternal Grandfather:

Henry II of Castile
Paternal Great-grandfather:

Alfonso XI of Castile
Paternal Great-grandmother:

Eleanor of Guzman
Paternal Grandmother:

Juana Manuel of Castile
Paternal Great-grandfather:

Juan Manuel, Duke of Peñafiel
Paternal Great-grandmother:

Blanca de La Cerda y Lara

Eleanor of Aragon
Maternal Grandfather:

Peter IV of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandfather:

Alfonso IV of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandmother:

Teresa d'Entença
Maternal Grandmother:

Eleanor of Sicily
Maternal Great-grandfather:

Peter II of Sicily
Maternal Great-grandmother:

Elisabeth of Carinthia


All of them by his wife Catherine of Lancaster:

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