Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson
(May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S.
Senator from the state of
Washington from 1941 until his death.
Jackson was an
unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic
in 1972 and 1976.
As a Cold War anti-Communist
political philosophies and positions have been cited as an
influence on a number of key figures associated with neoconservatism
including Paul Wolfowitz
and Richard Perle
. The Henry Jackson Society
is named in his
Personal life and early career
Washington, Jackson went on to graduate with a bachelor's
degree from Stanford
University and a law degree from the
Washington, where he joined the Delta
In 1935 (the year of his law school
graduation) he was admitted to the bar and began to practice law in
Everett. He found immediate success, and won election
to become the prosecuting attorney for Snohomish
County from 1938 to 1940, where he made a name for himself
prosecuting bootleggers and gamblers.
In 1961, Jackson, called by Time
the Senate's "most eligible
bachelor," married Helen Hardin, a 28-year old Senate receptionist,
but Jackson didn't move out of his childhood home where he lived
with his unmarried sisters for several years. The Jacksons had two
children, Anna Marie Laurence and Peter Jackson; Peter is currently
a speechwriter for Governor Christine
Jackson was nicknamed "Scoop" by his sister in his childhood, after
a comic strip character that he is said to have resembled.
Jackson successfully ran for Congress
as a Democrat
in 1940 and took
his seat in the House of Representatives with the 77th Congress
on January 3,
1941. From that date forward, Jackson did not lose a congressional
Jackson joined the Army when the United States entered World War
II, but left when Franklin D.
Congressmen to return home or resign their seats. As a representative,
he visited the Buchenwald concentration camp a few days after its liberation
in 1945. He attended the International Maritime
Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1945 with
the American delegation, and was elected president of the same
conference in 1946, when it was held in Seattle,
From 1945 to 1947 Jackson was also the
chairman of the Committee on
. In the 1952 election, Jackson relinquished his
seat in the House for a run at one of Washington's Senate seats.
Jackson won that election, soundly defeating Republican Senator
Harry P. Cain
, and remained a Senator for over thirty
years. Jackson died in office in 1983 after winning re-election for
the fifth time in 1982.
Though Jackson opposed the excesses of Joe
(who had traveled to Washington State to campaign
against him in 1952), he also criticized Dwight Eisenhower
for not spending enough
on national defense, and called for more inter-continental
ballistic missiles in the national arsenal. Jackson's support for
nuclear weapons resulted in a primary challenge from the left in
1958, when he handily defeated Seattle peace activist Alice
Franklin Bryant before winning re-election with 67 percent of the
vote—a total he topped the next four times he ran for
Scoop Jackson boasted one of the strongest records on civil rights
during the civil rights movement. Scoop Jackson supported the 1957
Civil Rights Act, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In April 1968,
responding to the tragic assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King
Jr., Senator Jackson gave a speech in which he talked about the
legacy and injustice of inequality.
In 1963, Jackson was made chairman of the Committee
on Interior and Insular Affairs
, which became the Committee on
Energy and Natural Resources in 1977, a position he held until
1981. In the 1970s, Jackson joined with fellow senators Ernest Hollings
and Edward Kennedy
in a press conference
to oppose President
's request that Congress end
's price controls on
domestic oil, which had helped to cause the gasoline lines during
the 1973 Oil Crisis
authored the National
Environmental Policy Act and was a leader of the fight for
statehood for Alaska and Hawaii.
1974, Jackson sponsored the Jackson-Vanik amendment
Senate (with Charles Vanik
it in the House) which denied normal trade relations to certain
countries with non-market economies that restricted the freedom of
emigration. The amendment was intended to help refugees,
particularly minorities, specifically Jews, to emigrate from the
. Jackson and his assistant,
, also lobbied personally
for some people who were affected by this law—among them Anatoly Sharansky
. Jackson also led the
opposition within the Democratic Party against the SALT II
treaty, and was one
of the leading proponents of increased foreign aid to Israel.
For decades, Democrats who supported a strong international
presence for the United States have been called "Scoop Jackson
Democrats", the term even being used to describe contemporary
Democrats such as Joe Lieberman
R. James Woolsey, Jr.
Jackson served almost his entire Senate tenure concurrently with
his good friend and Democratic colleague Warren G. Magnuson
. "Scoop" and "Maggie"—as they
affectionately called each other—were one of the most effective
delegations in the history of the United States Senate in terms of
"bringing home the bacon" for their home state. Washington State
received nearly one sixth of public works appropriations, even
though it ranked 23rd in population.
Jackson was often criticized for his support for the Vietnam War
and his close ties to the defense
industries of his state. His proposal of Fort Lawton as a site for an anti-ballistic missile system was
strongly opposed by local residents, and Jackson was forced to
modify his position on the location of the site several times,
though he continued to support ABM development.
Indian rights activists then protested Jackson's plan to give Fort
Lawton to Seattle instead of returning it to local tribes, staging
a sit-in. In the eventual compromise, most of Fort
Lawton became Discovery Park, with leased to United Indians of All Tribes,
who opened the Daybreak
Star Cultural Center there in 1977.
Opponents derided him as "the Senator from Boeing
" and a "whore for Boeing" because of his
consistent support for additional military spending on weapons
systems and accusations of wrongful contributions from the company;
in 1965, eighty percent of Boeing's contracts were military.
Jackson and Magnuson's campaigning for an expensive government
supersonic transport plane
project eventually failed.
After his death, critics pointed to Jackson's support for Japanese American internment
camps during World War II as a reason to protest the placement of
his bust at the University of Washington.Jackson was both an
enthusiastic defender of the evacuation and a staunch proponent of
the campaign to keep the Japanese from returning to the Pacific
Coast after the war.
National prominence and presidential campaigns
Jackson was not only successful as a politician in Washington
State, but also found recognition on the national level, rising to
the position of chairman of the Democratic National Committee
in 1960 after being considered for the vice presidential ticket
spot that eventually went to fellow Senator Lyndon Baines Johnson
Jackson ran for president twice; his campaigns were noted for the
hostile reception they received from the left wing of the
Democratic Party. Jackson's one-on-one campaigning skills, so
successful in Washington state, did not translate as well on the
national stage, and even his supporters admitted he suffered from a
certain lack of charisma.
1972 presidential campaign
Jackson was little known nationally when he first ran in 1972
, who eventually won
, accused Jackson of racism
for his opposition to busing
despite Jackson's longstanding record on civil rights issues.
Jackson had the support of Marxist
, an associate of
. Jackson's high point in
the campaign was a distant third in the early Florida primary, but
he failed to stand out of the pack of better known rivals, and only
made real news later in the campaign as part of the "Anybody but
McGovern" coalition, that raised what would be known as the "Acid,
Amnesty and Abortion" questions about McGovern. Jackson suspended
active campaigning in May after a weak showing in the Ohio primary
and after finishing well behind McGovern, Ed
, George Wallace,and Hubert
in early primaries. Jackson did reemerge at the August
Democratic convention after runner up Humphrey dropped out of the
race. Jackson's name was placed in nomination by Georgia Governor
Jimmy Carter and he finished second in the delegate roll call, well
behind nominee McGovern.
1976 presidential campaign
Jackson raised his national profile by speaking out on Soviet-U.S.
relations and Middle East policy regularly, and was considered a
front-runner for the nomination when he announced the start of his
campaign in February 1975. Jackson received substantial financial
support from Jewish-Americans who admired his pro-Israel views, but
Jackson's support of the Vietnam War resulted in hostility from the
left wing of the Democratic Party.
Jackson chose to run on social issues, emphasizing law and order
and his opposition to busing. Jackson was also hoping for support
from labor, but the possibility that Hubert Humphrey
might enter the race caused
unions to offer only lukewarm support.
Jackson made the fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa
caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter
won after liberals split their
votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson won the Massachusetts and
New York primaries, he dropped out on May 1 after losing the
critical Pennsylvania primary to Carter by twelve points and running out
died suddenly at the age of 71 in Everett of an aortic aneurysm, shortly after giving a news
conference condemning the Soviet attack on Korean Air
Lines Flight 007.
Jackson's home Everett, Washington
News reports showed video of Jackson in
which he was seen reflexively massaging the left side of his chest
while talking, and speculated that this was his reaction to an
early symptom of his coming fatal attack.
He was greatly mourned; Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan
"Henry Jackson is proof of the old belief in the Judaic tradition
that at any moment in history goodness in the world is preserved by
the deeds of 36 just men
not know that this is the role the Lord has given them. Henry
Jackson was one of those men." Jackson is buried in Evergreen Cemetery
- In 1983, he was awarded Delta Chi of the Year.
his death in office, the Seattle-Tacoma International
Airport was initially renamed Henry M. Jackson
International Airport, but political resistance to the change led
to this being reversed in favor of Seattle-Tacoma International
Airport. It wasn't that the public didn't want to
honor the late Senator, but rather leaders in both Seattle and Tacoma (Tacoma, in
particular), fearing the loss of convention business, demanded that
their cities name be included in the name of the airport.
airport lies between the two cities in the municipality of SeaTac.
- One of Jackson's last acts as Senator was to sponsor
legislation creating what became the
Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine,
which was named after him after his death.
- The Jackson family created the Henry M. Jackson Foundation to give
grants to nonprofits and educational institutions. Board members
have included Richard Perle, Tom Foley,
and Jeane Kirkpatrick.
Washington has named the Jackson School of
International Studies in his honor. However, students
objecting to Jackson's hawkish views on the Cold War in the
mid-1980s caused the university to move a bust of the senator to
the end of an abandoned corridor until it was restored to a more
prominent place outside the Jackson School in 2006.
- The US Navy submarine was also named after him, in recognition
of his longtime support of the nation's military.
- In 1994, the Everett School
District completed construction of Henry M. Jackson High School in Mill Creek, Washington.
M. Jackson Wilderness Area was created in his honor by the 1984 Washington
- The Jewish Institute
for National Security Affairs, with the cooperation of the
Jackson family, awards a Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson Distinguished
Service Award to individuals for their career dedication to U.S.
national security. Jackson won the first award in 1982, and it was
named after him after his death. Winners include Max Cleland, Joe
Lieberman, Dick Cheney, Jane Harman, and Paul
Influence on neoconservatism
Jackson believed that evil should be confronted with power. His
support for civil rights
at home, married to his opposition to détente
, his support for human rights and
democratic allies, and his firm belief that the United States could
be a force for good in the world inspired a legion of loyal aides
who went on to propound Jackson's philosophy as part of
neoconservatism. In addition to Richard Perle, neoconservatives
, Elliott Abrams
, Charles Horner, and Douglas Feith
were former Democratic aides to
Jackson who, disillusioned with the Carter administration,
supported Ronald Reagan
and joined his
administration in 1981, later becoming prominent foreign policy
makers in the 21st-century Bush
administration. Neoconservative Ben
was a prominent political aide to Jackson's 1972 and
1976 presidential campaigns. Wolfowitz has called himself a "Scoop
Jackson Republican" on multiple occasions. Many journalists and
scholars across the political spectrum have noted links between
Senator Jackson and modern neoconservatism.
Jackson's influence on foreign policy has been cited as
foundational to the George W.
administration's foreign policy,
and the Iraq War
. Jackson biographer Robert
Kaufman says "There is no question in my mind that the people who
supported Iraq are supporting Henry Jackson's instincts."
, author of
The Good Fight: Why Liberals — and Only Liberals — Can Win the War
on Terror and Make America Great Again
, argues that the
Democratic Party should return to Jackson's values in its foreign
policy, criticizing current-day neoconservatives for failing to
adopt Jackson's domestic policy views along with his foreign policy
the Henry Jackson Society was
formed at the University of Cambridge, England.
The non-partisan British group is
dedicated to "pursuit of a robust foreign policy ... based on clear
universal principles such as the global promotion of the rule of
law, liberal democracy, civil rights, environmental responsibility
and the market economy" as part of "Henry Jackson's legacy." The
Society, however, disclaims any neoconservative affiliation.
Jackson Papers controversy
twenty-two years after his death, US government officials,
including three members of the Central Intelligence Agency,
seized and removed several of Senator Jackson's archived documents
housed at the University of Washington.
Though a team of the university's staff in
1983 removed all information considered classified
the time, the officials were verifying anything still considered
classified, or reclassified since then, had been removed. The
documents are pending declassification at the University as of
U.S. Senate (Class 1) elections in Washington]]: Results
||Archie G. Idso
||Lloyd J. Andrews
||George M. Brown
- "In matters of national security, the best politics is no
- "I'm not a hawk or a dove. I just don't want my country to be a
- "If you believe in the cause of freedom, then proclaim it, live
it and protect it, for humanity's future depends on it."
- "The richest country in the world can afford whatever it needs
for defense." (1960, campaigning for Kennedy)
- "We all want to put the brakes on the arms race...we all want
to achieve arms control...but to those who say we must take risks
for peace by cutting the meat from our military muscle, I say you
are unwittingly risking war."
- "When we have something we feel strongly about — and in this
case it is civil liberties and freedom and what this nation was
founded upon, that we should do something to implement
international law — and it is international law now, the right to
leave a country freely and return freely — that we should put that
issue of principle on the table knowing that the Russians are not
going to agree to it." (1974, opposing détente)
- "I believe that international terrorism is a modern form of
warfare against liberal democracies. I believe that the ultimate
but seldom stated goal of these terrorists is to destroy the very
fabric of democracy. I believe that it is both wrong and foolhardy
for any democratic state to consider international terrorism to be
'someone else's' problem.... Liberal democracies must acknowledge
that international terrorism is a 'collective problem.'" (1979,
- "The danger of Americans being killed, the danger of
divisiveness that would accrue from those developments ... are all
too real. A superpower should not play that kind of role in a
cauldron of trouble, because sooner or later we are going to get
hurt." (on Reagan's 1982 decision to send troops to
- Time: "Time weekly roundup." Retrieved April
- Peter J. Ognibene, Scoop: The Life and Politics of Henry
- Meyerson, Adam. " Scoop Jackson Democrat", Hoover
Institution, Policy Review, 1990.
- " Media Influence on National Security Decisionmaking",
- Jason Vest. "The
Men From JINSA and CSP", The Nation, August 15,
- Alexander Cockburn. Al Gore: A
User's Manual, pg. 82, 2000.
- " Part VIII: White Man's Land",
Eliminationism in America, "Orcinus", 01-23-2007.
- Higgins, Jim. More Years for the Locust, (Appendix
1), International Socialist Group,
- " A Message of Discontent from Wisconsin",
"AllPolitics", Time, 04-17-1972.
- " What Would Scoop Jackson Say?", Fact-O-Rama,
Cybercast News Service. Retrieved
June 2, 2006.
- (dead link?)
- Kaplan, Lawrence F. " Regime Change", The New
- The Washington Times, (broken link).
- " Pseudo-Random Thoughts", Jim Miller on Politics,
- Harrop, Froma. " Dems Need Another Scoop Jackson", RealClearPolitics, 11-23-2005.
- " Statement of Principles", Henry Jackson
Society, March 11, 2005.
- " Don't blame 'Scoop' for the neocons",
Guardian, November 23, 2005.
- (dead link?)
- " Henry “Scoop” Jackson for President 1972 Campaign
Brochure", 4President.org. Retrieved 07-02-2006.
- " CNN Cold War", Episode 16: Détente, Episode
Script. Retrieved June 2, 2006.