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Hermosillo, formerly named Santísima Trinidad del Pitic (Holy Trinity of Pitic) is the largest city and capital of the Mexicanmarker state of Sonoramarker, and is located in the center of the state, 167 miles (270 kilometers) from the border with the United Statesmarker. Hermosillo is known for its extreme hot weather because it is located in the Sonoran desertmarker. For three months in the year Hermosillo has an average of 40 °C or more, making it one of the hottest cities in Mexicomarker.

Location

Hermosillo is centrally located within the state of Sonora, within several hundred miles of several other major Mexican cities, such as Tijuanamarker and Mexicalimarker, and U.S. cities such as Phoenixmarker and Tucsonmarker, Arizonamarker.

History

Catedral de Hermosillo
Centered on the Plaza Zaragoza, Hermosillo's origin traces back to 1700, when several villages were founded on lands previously inhabited by Native American.

The official foundation of the city was in 1741 by orders of the Viceroy of New Spain, Pedro de Castro, 1st Duke of la Conquista, to create "El presidio de Pitic".

In 1783 it came to be named the Villa de Pitic, but on September 5, 1828, it was renamed Hermosillo in honor of general José María González de Hermosillo who in 1810 fought for the independence of Mexico in the state of Sinaloamarker. On April 26, 1879, the city was named the capital of Sonora, and that declaration was confirmed in article 28 of the state constitution written on September 15, 1917.

The latter half of the 1800s were turbulent years for the city – on October 14, 1852, Gaston Rousset Boulbon led anti-government fighters to victory against the national army, but soon left the city. On May 4, 1866, republican troops under Ángel Martínez took the city from imperial forces under Jose María Tranquilino Almada. Just a few hours later, however, the imperialists retook the city. Later that year, a similar capturing and recapturing of the city occurred. Even during this time, the city continued developing – on November 4, 1881, a rail line between Hermosillo and the city of Guaymas went into operation, and by the end of the 19th century, the city had a population of 14,000 and thriving commerce and agriculture.

During the Mexican Revolution, Hermosillo was the capital of Mexico for five months, as it was the location of the meeting of Venustiano Carranza's war cabinet. Later, on November 18, 1915, the city was attacked by revolutionary Francisco Villa, but he was defeated.

Recent events

On June 5, 2009, a disastrous fire damaged the privately-run ABC day-care centre in Hermosillo, killing at least 49 children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years.

Demographics

As of the census of 2005 there were 641,791 people living in the city of Hermosillo and 701,838 people living in the municipality of Hermosillo.

As of 2005 the per capita income for the municipality of Hermosillo was $15,310 and the Human Development Index was 0.8912.

Population

According to the results of the INEGI 2005 census, the city had 641,791 inhabitants and the municipality had 701,838 inhabitants.

Much of the population growth of the city is due to the heavy industrialization that has came to the city, especially due to large investments in the automotive industry and its suppliers.

Here are some historical data of the population of the town and municipality of Hermosillo.

1990: City, 406,417 hab; Municipality, 448,966 (Population Census).1995: City, 504,009, Municipality, 559,154 (First Count).2000: Municipality, 609,829.2005: City, 641,791, Municipality, 701,838.

In this way, the annual growth rate during the last period for the city was 3.13% and 2.5% of the municipality. Because of this the city of Hermosillo is one of the cities with the highest population growth in Mexico, only behind Playa del Carmenmarker, Cancunmarker, Reynosamarker and San Juan del Riomarker.

Climate

Hermosillo has an arid climate under the Koppen climate classification. The summers are extremely hot, with temperatures sometimes exceeding . The record is , which has been achieved several times, first in July, 1934. Winter in Hermosillo goes from mild to cool in January and February, its lowest temperature, , was registered on January 13, 1971.

The rainfall in Hermosillo is affected by the North American Monsoon, with over two-thirds of the 7.6 inches of rain falling between the months of July and September in an average year. The increased humidity moderates the climate somewhat during the wet months, leading to the range of temperatures in July and August being somewhat narrower than that in June.

Development

Industry is an important part of the city's economy. 114 companies have plants in the city, employing thousands of workers. Ford Motor Company has a plant there, assembling the Ford Fusion, Lincoln MKZ, and the Mercury Milan. A major expansion of the plant was recently completed. This plant had formerly built the Ford Escort, Mercury Tracer, and other models.

Commerce in Hermosillo is in bloom, with nearly a dozen of medium-sized commercial areas.

Transportation

The main highway serving Hermosillo is Mexican Federal Highway 15. Another important route is Sonora State Highway 100.General Ignacio Pesqueira Garcia International Airportmarker provides domestic and international service to the United Statesmarker.

Higher education



Sport

The city's baseball team is the Naranjeros de Hermosillo. The city had an American Basketball Association team, the Hermosillo Seris. On January 26, 2007 the Naranjeros won their 14th title in history, the team with the most titles in the Mexican Pacific League (LMP).

Notable people



References

  1. Official list of deaths
  2. San Francisco Chronicle news story on the day care centre fire in June 2009
  3. Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM), Campus Sonora Norte
  4. Universidad de Hermosillo
  5. Instituto Tecnológico de Hermosillo
  6. Universidad Tecnológica de Hermosillo
  7. Centro de Estudios Tecnológicos
  8. Instituto de Ciencias y Educación Superior
  9. Universidad Kino
  10. Centro de Estudios Superiores del Estado de Sonora
  11. El Colegio de Sonora
  12. Centro de Investigación en Alimentos y Desarrollo
  13. Instituto de Capacitación para el Trabajo de Sonora
  14. Nacional de Capacitación Intensiva
  15. Senda 2000
  16. Universidad del Desarrollo Profesional
  17. Escuela Normal del Estado
  18. Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica


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