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The high jump is a track and field athletics event in which competitors must jump over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without the aid of any devices. It has been contested since the Olympic Games of ancient Greece. Over the centuries since, competitors have introduced increasingly more effective techniques to arrive at the current form. Javier Sotomayor is the current men's record holder with a jump of set in 1993 and is the longest standing in the history of the men's high jump. Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgariamarker) has held the women's world record since 1987, the longest-held record in the event.

History

ImageSize = width:200 height:990PlotArea = width:35 height:950 left:50 bottom:40Legend = columns:2 left:15 top:25 columnwidth:50AlignBars = early

DateFormat = yyyyPeriod = from:1920 till:2004TimeAxis = orientation:verticalScaleMajor = unit:year increment:5 start:1920

Colors=
 id:Basis  value:red legend:World_record_women's_high_jump


PlotData=
 bar:Leaders width:25 mark:(line,white) align:left fontsize:XS shift:(22,-4)


 from:1922 till:end color:Basis
 at:1922               text:Nancy Vorhees_1,46_m
 at:1926               text:Phyllis Green_1,55_m
 at:1929               text:Carolina Gisoll_1,60_m
 at:1932               text:Jean Shiley_1,65_m
 at:1939               text:Dorothy Adams_1,66_m
 at:1943               text:Fanny Blankers-Koen_1,71_m
 at:1956               text:Mildred Singleton_1,76_m
 at:1958               text:Iolanda Balas_1,80_m
 at:1960 shift:(22,-8) text:Iolanda_Balas_1,85_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,-7) text:Iolanda_Balas_1,90_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,0)  text:Iolanda_Balas_1,91_m
 at:1971               text:Ilona Gusenbauer_1,92_m
 at:1972               text:Jordanka Blagojewa_1,94_m
 at:1974               text:Rosemarie Ackermann_1,95_m
 at:1976 shift:(22,-8) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_1,96_m
 at:1977 shift:(22,-8) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_1,97_m
 at:1977 shift:(22,-1) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_2,00_m
 at:1978 shift:(22,-2) text:Sara Simeoni_2,01_m
 at:1982 shift:(22,-6) text:Ulrike Meyfarth_2,02_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-8) text:Ulrike_Meyfarth_2,03_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-1) text:Tamara Bykowa_2,04_m
 at:1984 shift:(22,-5) text:Tamara_Bykowa_2,05_m
 at:1984 shift:(22,2)  text:Ludmilla Andonowa_2,07_m
 at:1986               text:Stefka Kostadinova_2,08_m
 at:1987               text:Stefka_Kostadinova_2,09_m
The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotlandmarker in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either an elaborate straight-on approach or a scissors technique. In the latter, the bar was approached diagonally, and the jumper threw first the inside leg and then the other over the bar in a scissoring motion. Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to modernise, starting with the Irish-American M.F. Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off as if with the scissors, but extending his back and flattening out over the bar, the Sweeney achieved a more economic clearance and raised the world record to in 1895.

Another American, M.F. Horine, developed an even more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar. Horine increased the world standard to in 1912. His technique predominated through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at .

American and Russian jumpers held the playing field for the next four decades, and they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their (belly-down) torso around the bar, obtaining the most economical clearance up to that time. Straddle-jumper Charles Dumas broke the elusive barrier in 1956, and American John Thomas pushed the world mark to in 1960. Valeriy Brumel took over the event for the next four years. The elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took the record up to , and won the Olympic gold medal in 1964, before a motorcycle accident ended his career.
American coaches, including two-time NCAA champion Frank Costello of the University of Marylandmarker, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However, it would be a solitary innovator at Oregon State Universitymarker, Dick Fosbury, who would bring the high jump into the next century. Taking advantage of the raised, softer landing areas by then in use, Fosbury added a new twist to the outmoded Eastern Cut-off. He directed himself over the bar head and shoulders first, sliding over on his back and landing in a fashion which would likely have broken his neck in the old, sawdust landing pits. After he used this Fosbury flop to win the 1968 Olympic gold medal, the technique began to spread around the world, and soon floppers were dominating international high jump competitions. The last straddler to set a world record was the late Vladimir Yashchenko, who cleared in 1977 and then indoors in 1978.

Among renowned high jumpers following Fosbury's lead were: Americans Dwight Stones and his rival, tall Franklin Jacobs of Paterson, NJ, who cleared , an astounding over his head (a feat equaled by Sweden's Stefan Holm); Chinese record-setters Ni-chi Chin and Zhu Jianhua; Germans Gerd Wessig and Dietmar Mögenburg; Swedish Olympic medalist and world record holder Patrik Sjöberg; and female jumpers Iolanda Balaş of Romania, Ulrike Meyfarth of Germany and Italy's Sara Simeoni.

Technical aspects

High jump shoes

High jump shoes are different from most other track shoes in that there are an additional four holes in the heel of the takeoff shoe, where the user can insert spikes for increased traction. These extra heel spikes aid greatly in the last four to five steps of the J-approach, allowing the jumper to run on his or her curve at a fast speed without slipping. Some high jump shoes are even more technologically developed and in addition to the extra spikes on the heel, the shoes are modified to lean the direction of the approach to provide further support while running their curve. As well as the approach, high jump shoes also help and support the jumper's takeoff. The IAAF regulations specify a maximum sole thickness for both high jump and long jump shoes; competitors in all other events may wear shoes with soles of any thickness.

The approach

The approach of the high jump may actually be more important than the take off. If a high jumper runs with bad timing or without enough aggression, clearing a high bar becomes more of a challenge. The approach requires a certain shape or curve, the right amount of speed, and the correct number of strides. The approach angle is also critical for optimal height.

Most great straddle jumpers have a run at angles of about 30 to 40 degrees. The length of the run is determined by the speed of the person's approach. A slower run requires about 8 strides. However, a faster high jumper might need about 13 strides. The greater the speed of the run, the greater the body's momentum can be converted upward [1740].

The j type approach, favored by Fosbury floppers, allows for horizontal speed, the ability to turn in the air (centripetal force), and good take-off position. The approach should be a hard controlled stride so that a person does not fall from creating an angle with speed. Athletes should run tall and lean from the ankles on the curve and not the hips [1741].

Drills can be practiced to solidify the approach. One drill is to run in a straight line (the linear part of the approach) and then run two to three circles spiraling into one another. Another is to run or skip a circle of any size, two to three times in a row[1742].

Top performers

Updated June 16, 2009.

Men (outdoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
1. 2.45 Javier Sotomayor Salamancamarker July 23, 1993
2. 2.42 Patrik Sjöberg Stockholmmarker June 30, 1987
3. 2.41 Igor Paklin Kobe September 4, 1985
4. 2.40 Rudolf Povarnitsyn Donetskmarker August 11, 1985
Sorin Matei Bratislavamarker June 20, 1990
Charles Austin Zürichmarker August 7, 1991
Vyacheslav Voronin London August 5, 2000
9. 2.39 Zhu Jianhua Eberstadtmarker June 10, 1984
Hollis Conway Normanmarker July 30, 1989


Women (outdoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
1. 2.09 Stefka Kostadinova Rome August 30, 1987
2. 2.08 Blanka Vlašić Zagrebmarker August 31, 2009
3. 2.07 Lyudmila Andonova Berlin July 20, 1984
4. 2.06 Kajsa Bergqvist Eberstadtmarker July 26, 2003
Hestrie Cloete Paris August 31, 2003
Yelena Slesarenko Athensmarker August 28, 2004
Ariane Friedrich Berlinmarker June 14, 2009
9. 2.05 Tamara Bykova Kievmarker June 22, 1984
Heike Henkel Tokyo August 31, 1991
Inha Babakova Tokyo September 15, 1995
Tia Hellebaut Beijing August 23, 2008


Men (indoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Venue Date
1. 2.43 Budapestmarker March 4, 1989
2. 2.42 Berlin February 26, 1988
3. 2.41 Piraeusmarker February 1, 1987
4. 2.40 Sevillamarker March 10, 1991
Madridmarker March 6, 2005
Athensmarker February 25, 2009
6. 2.39 Köln February 24, 1985
Berlinmarker March 1, 1991
9. 2.38 Indianapolismarker March 7, 1987
Indianapolismarker March 7, 1987
Wuppertalmarker February 4, 1994
Weinheimmarker March 18, 1994
Wuppertalmarker February 3, 1995
Atlantamarker March 4, 2000
Stockholmmarker February 15, 2005
Göteborgmarker February 25, 2007


Women (indoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Venue Date
1. 2.08 Arnstadtmarker February 6, 2006
2. 2.07 Karlsruhemarker February 8, 1992
3. 2.06 Athensmarker February 20, 1988
4. 2.05 Banská Bystricamarker February 14, 2006
Birminghammarker March 3, 2007
Karlsruhe February 15, 2009
7. 2.04 Berlinmarker March 3, 1995
Yekaterinburgmarker January 7, 2003
Budapestmarker March 7, 2004
10. 2.03 Budapest March 6, 1983
Bucharestmarker January 23, 1999
Wienmarker March 2, 2002


Best Year Performance

Men's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

Year Height Athlete Venue
1971 2.29 Berkeleymarker
1972 2.25 Moscow
1973 2.30 Munichmarker
1974 2.28 Oslomarker
1975 2.28 New Yorkmarker
1976 2.32 Philadelphiamarker
1977 2.33 Richmondmarker
1978 2.34 Tbilisimarker
1979 2.32 Ottawamarker
1980 2.36 Moscow
1981 2.33 Leningradmarker
1982 2.33 Delhimarker
1983 2.38 Shanghai
1984 2.39 Eberstadtmarker
1985 2.41 Kobe
1986 2.38 Rietimarker
1987 2.42 Stockholmmarker
1988 2.43 Salamancamarker
1989 2.44 San Juanmarker
1990 2.40 Bratislavamarker
1991 2.40 Saint-Denis
Zürichmarker
1992 2.37 Seoulmarker
1993 2.45 Salamancamarker
1994 2.42 Sevillemarker
1995 2.40 Mar del Platamarker
1996 2.39 Atlanta, Georgiamarker
1997 2.37 Athensmarker
1998 2.37 Maracaibomarker
1999 2.37 Sevillemarker
2000 2.40 London
2001 2.37 Eberstadtmarker
2002 2.37 Durbanmarker
2003 2.36 Bydgoszczmarker
2004 2.36 Eberstadtmarker
2005 2.38 Oudtshoornmarker
Rome
2006 2.37 Monacomarker
2007 2.35 Salamancamarker
Stockholmmarker
Osaka
Osaka
2008 2.38 London


Women's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

Year Height Athlete Venue
1970 1.87 Kiev
1971 1.92 Vienna
1972 1.94 Zagreb
1973 1.92 Warsaw
1974 1.95 Rome
1975 1.94 Nice
1976 1.96 Dresden
1977 2.00 Berlin
1978 2.01 Bresciamarker
1979 1.99 Turinmarker
1980 1.98 Turinmarker
1981 1.97 Brusselsmarker
1982 2.02 Athensmarker
1983 2.04 Pisamarker
1984 2.07 Berlin
1985 2.06 Moscow
1986 2.08 Sofiamarker
1987 2.09 Rome
1988 2.07 Sofiamarker
1989 2.04 Barcelonamarker
1990 2.02 Seattlemarker
1991 2.05 Tokyo
1992 2.05 San Marinomarker
1993 2.05 Fukuoka
1994 2.00 Havanamarker
Moscow
Helsinkimarker
1995 2.05 Tokyo
1996 2.05 Atlanta, Georgiamarker
1997 2.02 Osaka
Fukuoka
1998 2.03 Kalámai
1999 2.04 Monacomarker
2000 2.02 Villeneuve d'Ascqmarker
2001 2.04 Kalamáta
2002 2.05 Poznańmarker
2003 2.06 Eberstadtmarker
Saint-Denis
2004 2.06 Athensmarker
2005 2.03 Sheffieldmarker
2006 2.05 London
2007 2.07 Stockholmmarker
2008 2.06 Istanbulmarker
Madridmarker
2009 2.08 Zagreb


National records

Updated September 2, 2009.

Men

Nation Height Athlete Venue Date
2.45 m Javier Sotomayor Salamancamarker 1993-07-27
2.42 m Patrik Sjöberg Stockholmmarker 1987-06-30
2.42 m Carlo Thränhardt Berlin 1988-02-26
2.41 m Igor Paklin Kobe 1985-09-04
2.40 m Rudolf Povarnitsin Donetskmarker 1985-08-11
2.40 m Sorin Matei Bratislavamarker 1990-06-20
2.40 m Charles Austin Zürichmarker 1991-08-07
2.40 m Vyacheslav Voronin London 2000-08-05
2.39 m Zhu Jianhua Beijing 1983-06-11
2.38 m Dragutin Topic Belgradmarker 1993-08-01
2.38 m Troy Kemp Nicemarker 1995-07-12
2.38 m Artur Partyka Eberstadtmarker 1996-08-18
2.38 m Jacques Freitag Oudtshoornmarker 2005-03-05
2.37 m Valeriy Sereda Rietimarker 1984-09-02
2.37 m Steve Smith Seoulmarker 1992-09-20
2.36 m Eddy Annys Ghentmarker 1985-05-26
2.36 m Jan Zvara Praguemarker 1987-08-23
Jaroslav Baba Rome 2005-07-08
2.36 m Nick Saunders Aucklandmarker 1990-02-01
2.36 m Georgi Dakov Brusselsmarker 1990-08-10
2.36 m Lambros Papakostas Athensmarker 1992-07-21
2.36 m Tim Forsyth Melbournemarker 1997-03-02
2.36 m Steinar Hoen Oslomarker 1997-07-01
2.36 m Konstantin Matusevich Perthmarker 2000-02-05
2.35 m Jean-Charles Gicquel Paris 1994-03-13
2.35 m Mark Boswell Sevillemarker 1999-08-23
2.35 m Kyriakos Ioannou Osaka 2007-08-29
2.34 m Robert Ruffini Praguemarker 1988-07-03
2.34 m Rolandas Verkys Warsawmarker 1991-06-16
2.34 m Arturo Ortíz Barcelonamarker 1991-06-22
2.34 m Andrey Sankovich Gomelmarker 1993-05-15
2.34 m Lee Jin-Taek Seoulmarker 1997-06-20
2.34 m Abderrahmane Hammad Alger 2000-07-14
2.34 m Germaine Mason Santo Domingomarker 2003-08-09
2.34 m Kabelo Kgosiemang Addis Ababamarker 2008-05-04
2.33 m Marcello Benvenuti Veronamarker 1989-09-12
2.33 m Gilmar Mayo Pereira 1994-10-17
2.33 m Naoyuki Daigo Kobe 2006-07-02
2.32 m Gennadiy Belkov Tashkentmarker 1982-05-29
2.32 m Jessé de Lima Lausannemarker 2008-09-02
2.31 m Roland Dalhäuser Eberstadtmarker 1981-06-07
2.31 m Oleg Palaschevskiy Bryanskmarker 1990-08-12
2.31 m Elvir Krehmic Zagrebmarker 1998-07-07
2.31 m Mika Polku Hämeenkyrömarker 2000-07-22
Toni Huikuri Bratislavamarker 2002-06-11
2.30 m Marko Turban Rakveremarker 1996-06-05
2.30 m Normunds Sietiņš Nurmijervi 1992-07-20
2.30 m Adrian O'Dwyer Algiersmarker 2004-06-24
2.26 m Metin Durmuşoğlu Istanbulmarker 2002-06-08
2.22 m Felipe Apablaza Cochabambamarker 2001-06-03


Women

Nation Height Athlete Venue Date
2.09 m Stefka Kostadinova Rome 1987-08-30
2.08 m Blanka Vlašić Zagrebmarker 2009-08-31
2.08 m Kajsa Bergqvist Arnstadtmarker 2006-02-04
2.07 m Heike Henkel Karlsruhemarker 1992-02-08
2.06 m Hestrie Cloete Paris 2003-08-31
2.06 m Yelena Slesarenko Athensmarker 2004-08-28
2.05 m Inga Babakova Tokyo 1995-09-15
2.05 m Tia Hellebaut Birminghammarker 2007-03-03
2.04 m Silvia Costa Barcelonamarker 1989-09-09
2.03 m Louise Ritter Austinmarker 1988-07-08
2.03 m Niki Bakogianni Atlantamarker 1996-08-03
2.03 m Monica Iagar Bucharestmarker 1999-01-23
2.03 m Antonietta Di Martino Milanmarker 2007-06-24
2.02 m Ruth Beitia San Sebastiánmarker 2007-08-04
2.01 m Olga Turchak Moscowmarker 1986-07-07
2.01 m Hanne Haugland Zürichmarker 1997-08-13
2.00 m Biljana Petrovic Saint-Denis 1990-06-22
2.00 m Tatyana Shevchik Gomelmarker 1993-05-14
2.00 m Zuzana Hlavoňová Praguemarker 2000-06-05
2.00 m Britta Bilač Helsinkimarker 1994-08-14
2.00 m Dóra Györffy Nyiregyhazamarker 2001-07-26
1.98 m Alison Inverarity Ingolstadtmarker 1989-02-12
1.98 m Debbie Brill Rietimarker 1984-09-02
1.98 m Lyudmila Butuzova Sochimarker 1984-06-10
1.97 m Danuta Bułkowska Wörrstadtmarker 1984-06-09
1.97 m Ling Jin Hamamatsu 1989-05-07
1.97 m Aaron Kingsbury Vilniusmarker 1992-30-03
1.97 m Sigrid Kirchmann Stuttgartmarker 1993-08-21
1.97 m Olga Bolshova Rietimarker 1993-09-05
1.97 m Solange Witteveen Manausmarker 2001-05-19
1.97 m Juana Rosario Arrendel San Salvadormarker 2002-12-02
1.97 m Tatyana Efimenko Rome 2003-07-11
1.97 m Romary Rifka Xalapamarker 2004-04-04
1.95 m Diana Elliott Oslomarker 1982-06-26
Susan Moncrieff Bremenmarker 2001-06-24
Jessica Ennis Desenzanomarker 2007-05-05
1.95 m Maryse Ewanje-Epee Göteborgmarker 1984-03-04
1.95 m Levern Spencer Zaragozamarker 2009-07-18
1.93 m Candeğer Oğuz Istanbulmarker 2004-05-16
1.92 m Orlane dos Santos Bogotámarker 1989-08-11
1.92 m Hanna Mikkonen Tamperemarker 2005-06-12
1.92 m Deirdre Ryan Manchestermarker 2006-07-15
1.91 m Viktoria Leks Tallinnmarker 2007-02-11


See also



References

  1. Website of Turkish Athleticism Federation
  2. National men records at the website of Chilean Athleticism Federation


External links




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