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The term highland or upland is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.

The Scottish Highlands refers to the mountainous region north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. Many countries have areas that are officially or unofficially referred to as highlands. Other than Scotland, these include parts of Nigeriamarker, Ethiopiamarker, Papua New Guineamarker, Syriamarker and Nova Scotiamarker (the latter being Latin for 'New Scotland' due to its resemblance to the country). The Highlandmarker council area is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands and the largest local government area in Scotland.

Synonymous terms used in other countries include high country, used in New Zealandmarker, New South Walesmarker, Victoriamarker, Tasmaniamarker and Southern Queensland in Australia, and parts of the United Statesmarker (notably North Carolinamarker), and highveldmarker, used in South Africa.

Highland is often also used to describe a particular mountain climate, fully termed the highland zone. The highland zone is of relatively low altitude and is distinguished by the growth of thick shrubs such as heather, tussock grasses, and deciduous trees and bushes. The ground in the highland zone is generally well irrigated. This can be compared to the higher altitude alpine zone, which is generally drier and is noted for the sparseness of trees (which are generally coniferous) and shrubs, and the growth of thinner grasses and small flowers.

In Australia

The highlands in Australia are often above the elevation of 500 metres. These areas often receive snowfalls through winter. Most of the highlands lead up to large alpine or sub-alpine mountainous regions such as the Australian Alpsmarker, Snowy Mountainsmarker, Great Dividing Rangemarker, Northern Tablelands and Blue Mountainsmarker. The most mountainous region of Tasmaniamarker is the Central Highlands area, which covers most of the central western parts of the state.And Everglades Natinal Park.

In New Zealand

The mountainous regions of the Southern Alpsmarker are often called Highlands though many of these areas are highly elevated alpine regions.

In New Guinea

A spine of mountains runs the length of the island of New Guinea, forming a populous highlands region.

In Iceland

The highlands in Iceland cover most of the country and is inhospitable to humans. The highlands in iceland are usually above 200 meters.

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