view of the Himalayas and Mount Everest as seen from space looking
south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau.
)]]The Himalaya Range or
Himalayas for short ( or ; Sanskrit: हिमालय:),
meaning "abode of snow" in sanskrit, is a mountain range in Asia,
separating the Indian
subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. By extension, it is also the name of a
massive mountain system that includes the Karakoram, the Hindu
Kush, and other, lesser, ranges that extend out from the
Himalayan mountain system is the planet's highest and home to the
world's highest peaks, the Eight-thousanders, which include Mount Everest and K2. To comprehend the enormous scale of this
mountain range consider that Aconcagua, in the Andes, at , is the
highest peak outside Asia, whereas the Himalayan system includes
over 100 mountains
Himalayan system, which includes various outlying subranges,
stretches across six countries:
India, Bhutan, China, Afghanistan, Nepal, and
Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers, the Brahmaputra, the Ganga, the
Indus, Yamuna and the Yangtze, rise in the
Himalayas, and their combined drainage
basin is home to approximately 1.3 billion people.
Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia
; many Himalayan peaks are sacred in
Himalaya range runs, west to east, from the Indus river valley to
the Brahmaputra river valley, forming an arc long, which varies in
width from 400 km in the western Kashmir-Xinjiang region to 150 km in the eastern
The range consists of three
coextensive sub-ranges, with the northern-most, and highest, known
as the Great or Inner Himalayas.
The flora and fauna of the Himalayas varies with climate, rainfall,
altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base
of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest
elevations. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to
east along the front of the range. This diversity of climate,
altitude, rainfall and soil conditions generates a variety of
distinct plant and animal communities.
On the Indo-Gangetic plain
base of the mountains, an alluvial
drained by the Indus and Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems,
vegetation varies from west to east with rainfall. The xeric Northwestern thorn scrub
forests occupy the plains of Pakistan and the Indian Punjab. Further east lie the Upper Gangetic
plains moist deciduous forests of Uttarakhand and Uttar
Pradesh and Lower Gangetic
plains moist deciduous forests of Bihar and West Bengal.
These are monsoon forests, with
drought-deciduous trees that lose their leaves during the dry
season. The moister Brahmaputra Valley
semi-evergreen forests occupy the plains of Assam.
The Terai belt
Above the alluvial plain lies the Terai
a seasonally marshy zone of sand and clay soils. The Terai has
higher rainfall than the plains, and the downward-rushing rivers of
the Himalaya slow down and spread out in the flatter Terai zone,
depositing fertile silt during the monsoon season and receding in
the dry season. The Terai has a high water table due to groundwater
percolating down from the adjacent zone. The central part of the
Terai belt is occupied by the Terai-Duar savanna and
, a mosaic of grasslands, savannas, deciduous and
evergreen forests that includes some of the world's tallest
grasslands. The grasslands of the Terai belt are home to the
Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros
Above the Terai belt is an upland zone known as the Bhabhar
, a zone of porous and rocky soils, made up
of debris washed down from the higher ranges. The Bhabhar and the
lower Shiwalik ranges have a subtropical climate. The Himalayan subtropical pine
occupy the western end of the subtropical belt, with
forests dominated by Chir Pine (Pinus
. The central part of the range is home to the
subtropical broadleaf forests
, dominated by the sal tree (Shorea robusta)
.They are at the
foot of the himalayas where the himalayan streams descend on to the
called Churia or Margalla Hills, Sivalik
Hills is an intermittent outermost range of foothills extending
across the Himalayan region through Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan.
region consists of many sub-ranges. Summits are generally 600 to
1,200 metres. Steeper southern slopes form along a fault zone
called Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT)
slopes are gentler. Permeable conglomerates and other rocks allow
rainwater to percolate downslope into the Bhabhar and Terai,
supporting only scrubby forests upslope.
Inner Terai or Dun Valleys
The Inner Terai valleys
are open valleys north of Shiwalik Hills or nestled between
Shiwalik subranges. Examples include Dehra Dun in India and Chitwan in Nepal.
Prominent range 2,000 to 3,000 metres high forming along the
Main Boundary Thrust
fault zone with a steep
southern face and gentler northern slopes. Nearly continuous except
for river gorges. Rivers gather in candelabra form to the north to
break through this range in relatively few places.
'Hilly' region averaging about 1,000 metres immediately north of
the Mahabharat Range, rising over about 100 km to about 4,000
metres at the Main Frontal Thrust
fault zone where
the Greater Himalaya begin.
Alpine shrub and grasslands
Above the tree line are the Northwestern
Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
, which yield to tundra
in the higher Himalayan range. The alpine
meadows are the summer habitat of the endangered Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia)
Origins and growth
The 6,000 km plus journey of the India
landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian
Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago
The Himalayas are among the youngest mountain ranges on the planet
and consist mostly of uplifted sedimentary
and metamorphic rock
. According to the modern
theory of plate tectonics
formation is a result of a continental collision
along the convergent boundary
between the Indo-Australian Plate
and the Eurasian Plate
. This is referred to as a
The collision began in the Upper
period about 70 million years ago, when the
, moving at about 15 cm per year, collided with the
. About 50 million
years ago, this fast moving Indo-Australian plate had completely
closed the Tethys Ocean
, the existence
of which has been determined by sedimentary rocks
settled on the ocean
floor and the volcanoes
that fringed its
edges. Since these sediments were light, they crumpled into
mountain ranges rather than sinking to the floor. The Indo-Australian
plate continues to be driven horizontally below the Tibetan
plateau, which forces the plateau to move upwards.
Arakan Yoma highlands in Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal were also formed as a result of this
The Indo-Australian plate is still moving at 67 mm per year,
and over the next 10 million years it will travel about
1,500 km into Asia. About 20 mm per year of the
India-Asia convergence is absorbed by thrusting
along the Himalaya southern front.
This leads to the Himalayas rising by about 5 mm per year,
making them geologically active. The movement of the Indian plate
into the Asian plate also makes this region seismically
active, leading to earthquakes
from time to time.
Glaciers and river systems
The Himalayan range encompasses about 15,000 glaciers
, which store about
of freshwater. The 70 km long
Glacier at the India-Pakistan border is the second longest
glacier in the world outside the polar region. Some of the other
more famous glaciers include the Gangotri and Yamunotri (Uttarakhand), Nubra, Biafo and Baltoro (Karakoram region), Zemu (Sikkim) and
Khumbu glaciers (Mount Everest region).
The higher regions of the Himalayas are snowbound throughout the
year in spite of their proximity to the tropics
, and they form the sources for several large
, most of which
combine into two large river systems:
This image shows the termini of the
glaciers in the Bhutan-Himalaya.
Glacial lakes have been forming rapidly on the surface of the
debris-covered glaciers in this region during the last few
eastern-most Himalayan rivers feed the Ayeyarwady River, which originates in eastern Tibet and flows south
through Myanmar to drain into the Andaman Sea.
Salween, Mekong, the Yangtze and the Huang
He (Yellow River) all originate from parts of the
plateau that are geologically distinct from the Himalaya
mountains, and are therefore not considered true Himalayan
western rivers combine into the Indus Basin, of which the
River is the largest. The Indus begins in
Tibet at the confluence of Sengge and Gar rivers and flows
southwest through India and then
through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea. It is fed by the Jhelum, the
Beas, and the Sutlej rivers,
Some geologists refer to all the rivers collectively
as the circum-Himalayan rivers
.In recent years scientists
have monitored a notable increase in the rate of glacier retreat
region as a result of global climate
. Although the effect of this won't be known
for many years it potentially could mean disaster for the hundreds
of millions of people who rely on the glaciers to feed the rivers of northern India during the
to a UN climate report, the Himalayan glaciers that are the sources
of Asia's biggest rivers could disappear by 2035 as temperatures
rise and India, Tibet,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades.
The Himalaya region is dotted with hundreds of lakes. Most lakes
are found at altitudes of less than 5,000 m, with the size of the
lakes diminishing with altitude. The largest lake is the Pangong Tso, which is spread across the border between India
It is situated at an altitude of 4,600 m, and is
8 km wide and nearly 134 km long. A notable high (but
not the highest) lake is the Gurudogmar in North Sikkim at an
altitude of 5,148 m (17,100 ft) (altitude source: SRTM). Other major lakes include the Tsongmo lake, near the Indo-China border in Sikkim, and Tilicho lake in Nepal in the Annapurna massif, a large lake in
an area that was closed to tourists until recently.
The mountain lakes are known to geographers as tarns
if they are caused by glacial
activity. Tarns are found mostly in the upper reaches of the
Himalaya, above 5,500 metres. For more information about these, see
Impact on climate
Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the Indian
subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau.
They prevent frigid, dry Arctic
winds blowing south into the subcontinent,
which keeps South Asia
much warmer than
regions in the
other continents. It also forms a barrier for the monsoon
winds, keeping them from traveling
northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the Terai
region. The Himalayas are also believed to play an
important part in the formation of Central
Asian deserts such as the Taklamakan and Gobi deserts.
mountain ranges also prevent western winter disturbances from
Iran from traveling further, resulting in snow in
Kashmir and rainfall for parts of Punjab and northern India. Despite being a
barrier to the cold northernly winter winds, the Brahmaputra valley
receives part of the frigid winds, thus lowering the temperature in
the North East India and Bangladesh.
The Himalayas, which are often called "The Roof of the World",
contain the greatest area of glaciers and permafrost outside of the
poles. Ten of Asia’s largest rivers flow from here, and more than a
billion people’s livelihoods depend on them. To complicate matters,
temperatures are rising more rapidly here than the global average.
In Nepal the temperature has risen with 0.6 degree over the last
decade, whereas the global warming has been around 0.7 over the
last hundred years.
The rugged terrain makes few routes through the mountains possible.
Some of these routes include:
Impact on politics and culture
Mountain sheds like these are used by
the rural populace as shelter for cattle in summer months as they
take them for grazing in higher altitudes.
It should be noted that almost half of the humans and livestock
of India live on one-third of the
landscape within 500 km of the Himalayan range.( pdf, 3mb
The Himalayas, due to their large size and expanse, have been a
natural barrier to the movement of people for tens of thousands of
particular, this has prevented intermingling of people from the
Indian subcontinent with people
from China and Mongolia, causing significantly different languages and
customs between these regions.
The Himalayas have also
hindered trade routes and prevented military expeditions across its
expanse. For instance, Genghis Khan
could not expand his empire south of the Himalayas into the
In Sanskrit language, "Hima" means "Snow" and "Alaya" means "Home"
or "Abode". In Nepali
means "snow-covered mountain" and is used to name
the various mountains of the Himalayas. In Nepal, these are as
- Sagarmatha Himal सगरमाथा (चोमोलङ्गमा) हिमाल
- Annapurna Himal अन्नपूर्ण हिमाल
- Ganesh Himal गणेश हिमाल
- Langtang Himal लाङ्गटाङ्ग हिमाल
- Manaslu Himal मनास्लु हिमाल
- Rolwaling Himal रोल्वालिङ्ग हिमाल
- Jugal Himal जुगल (युगल) हिमाल
- Gauri Shankar Himal गौरि शंकर हिमाल
- Kanjirowa Himal कान्जीरोवा हिमाल
- Khumbu Himal खुम्बु हिमाल
- Dhaulagiri Himal धौलागिरी हिमाल
- Kanchanjunga Himal कंचनजंघा
The word "Himalaya" means "home (or abode) of snow
the expression "Himalaya Range" is therefore similar to the
Spanish-based mountain range called the Sierra
Notable peaks of the Himalayan system (includes outlying
||Other names and meaning
||First Western ascent
||Sagarmatha (Nepali), "Head of the World",
Chomolangma (Tibetan), "Goddess mother of the snows"
||World's highest mountain, Peak situated in Nepal and northern
part shared with Tibet.
||World's 2nd highest. Located on the border between the Taxkorgan
Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China and the
Areas of Pakistan.
||Kangchen Dzö-nga, "Five Treasures of the Great Snow"
||World's 3rd highest . Located in Nepal/India.
||World's 4th highest. Situated between Nepal & Tibet, in the
shadow of Everest.
||"The Great Black"
||World's 5th highest. Situated in Nepal.
||Qowowuyag, "Turquoise Goddess"
||World's 6th highest. Situated in Nepal.
||World's 7th highest. Situated in Nepal.
||Kutang, "Mountain of the Spirit"
||World's 8th highest. Located in the Gurkha Himal, Nepal.
||Diamir, "Naked Mountain"
||World's 9th highest . Located in the Northern Areas of Pakistan.
||"Goddess of the Harvests"
||World's 10th highest. Deadliest mountain on Earth. Situated in
||11th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan
||12th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan.
||13th highest mountain on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan.
||Xixiabangma, "Crest Above The Grassy Plains"
||14th highest mountain on Earth. Located in Tibet, it is the
highest peak wholly within Tibet.
||15th highest mountain on Earth. Located in Nepal/Tibet, it is
the highest mountain under 8,000 meters.
||17th highest on Earth and an extremely technical climb.
in the Karakoram of Pakistan.
||22nd highest on Earth. Located in the Karakoram of Pakistan.
||23rd highest on Earth. Located in Uttarakhand, it is the highest peak wholly within
||A massive peak that towers above local terrain. Located in the
||Gankar Punzum, "Three Mountain Siblings"
||World's highest unclimbed peak remains off limits to
mountaineers. Located in the Kingdom of Bhutan.
||"Mother And Her Necklace"
||Considered by some to be the most beautiful peak in the world.
Located in the Khumbu, Nepal, it dominates
the trek to Mount Everest for many miles.
Notable Himalayan mountaineers
- Santosh Yadav
is the first woman in the world to climb Mount Everest twice and the first woman to successfully climb Mt
Everest from Kangshung Face.She first
climbed the peak in May 1992 and then did it again in May
- George Mallory
(1886–1924) Attempt at first ascent of
Everest; died on North Face.
- Noel Odell (1890–1987) British.
ascent, in 1936, of Nanda
Devi, which remained the highest summited peak until
- Bill Tilman (1898–1977) British.
First ascent of Nanda Devi in 1936. In 1934, first person to penetrate
- Frank Smythe (1900–1949) British.
Mount Blank, Kamet, and early attempt on Kangchenjunga.
- Eric Shipton (1907–1977) British.
With Bill Tillman, first to penetrate Nanda Devi sanctuary.
Discovered route to Everest over Khumbu
- John Hunt (1910–1998)
British. Leader of 1953 expedition of Mount Everest.
- Tenzing Norgay (1914–1986)
Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer. First man on
Everest's summit along with Edmund Hillary.
- Maurice Herzog (b. 1919) First person to
summit an Eight-thousander, Annapurna, in 1950. Lost all toes and most fingers due
to frostbite. Peak not climbed again until 1970.
- Sir Edmund Hillary (1919–2008)
New Zealand mountaineer and explorer, the first man on Everest's
summit along with Tenzing Norgay.
- Tom Bourdillon
(1924–1956) member of British Everest expeditions 1951, 1952, and
1953, reached from summit of Everest three days
before Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay finally conquered
- Hermann Buhl
(1924–1957) First ascent of Nanga Parbat in 1953 (feat accomplished solo and without
oxygen). First ascent of Broad Peak. Died in fall on Chogolisa, body never found.
- Willi Unsoeld (1926–1979) United
States. First ascent of Everest from West Face and first major
traverse of a Himalayan peak, 1963.
Nanda Devi Unsoeld killed during Nanda Devi expedition 1976. Died during avalanche
- Chris Bonington (b. 1934) First ascent of
Annapurna (South Face), 4 ascents of Everest.
- Nawang Gombu (b. 1936) Indian
mountaineer. First person to climb Everest twice: 1963 and
- Jim Whittaker (b. 1936) United
States. First American to summit Everest.
- Reinhold Messner (born 1944)
Italian mountaineer. First man to climb all fourteen mountains over
8000 meters (collectively known as the eight-thousanders).
- Jerzy Kukuczka (1948–1989) Polish
mountaineer. Ascended all fourteen eight-thousanders faster than anybody
else, establishing ten new routes.
- Nazir Sabir Pakistani mountaineer.
First ascent of two eight thousanders (Broad Peak &
Gasherbrum II) in a single attempt.
- Swami Sundaranand (b. 1926
India) Climbed 25 mountains with little or no equipment from
1950-1990 to experience open eyed Samādhi using the ancient techniques of the
Himalayan Yogis. Noted also for his extensive photography of the
Indian Himalayas. Land has been secured in Gangotri, India, for a museum dedicated to his rare
Himalayan photos and documentation of the Himalayan Glaciers with a
special emphasis on environmental protection of the
- Jaime Viñals First Central
American person to climb Mount Everest.
- Casey Mackins An English mountaineer who climbed Mt Everest by
a new route without oxygen from Tibet in 1984 and then again from
Nepal in 1990 during his famous Sea to Summit expedition where he
became the first person to climb Everest starting from sea
- José Antonio Delgado
Sucre(1965–2006) was the first Venezuelan mountaineer to reach
the summit of five eight-thousanders. He was one of the most
experienced climbers in Latin America. He was born in Caracas,
- Ed Viesturs (b. June 22, 1959) is
the first American, and 12th person overall, to summit all fourteen
eight-thousanders, and the sixth
climber to do it without bottled oxygen.
- Pemba Dorjie (born c. 1977) a
Sherpa who currently holds the world record for the quickest climb
to the summit of Mount Everest from camp. On May 21, 2004 Dorjie
set that record, with a total time of 8 hours and 10 minutes.
- Apa Sherpa (born c. 1960) On May 21,
2009, successfully summited Mt. Everest for the 19th time, breaking
his own record for most successful ascents.
- Krzysztof Wielicki (born
1950) Polish mountaineer, the fifth man to climb all fourteen
eight-thousanders. Three of them (Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga and
Lhotse) he ascended as the first man ever to do it in winter.
- Bear Grylls (born 1974) Youngest
Briton to climb Mount Everest
- Mandip Singh Soin (born 1957)
Indian mountaineer, India's Most Versatile Adventurer only Indian
to receive the NESS Award by the Royal Geographical Society,
Several places in the Himalaya are of religious significance in
. In Hinduism, the Himalaya have also been
personified as the god Himavat
, the father
's consort, Parvati
Some of the important religious places in the Himalayas are:-
- Haridwar, the place where the river Ganga enters
- Badrinath, a temple dedicated to
- Kedarnath, where one of the 12 Jyotirlingas is located.
- Gaumukh, the source of the Bhagirathi (and hence, by extension, the Ganga), located
a few miles above the town of Gangotri.
- Deoprayag, where the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi merge to
form the Ganga.
- Rishikesh, has a temple of Lakshmana.
- Mount Kailash, a 6,638 m high peak which is the abode of the
Hindu Gods Shiva and Uma
and is also venerated by Buddhists.
The peak is forbidden to climb, it is so sacred it is circled at
its base. Lake Manasarowar lies at the base of Mount Kailash, and is the
source of the Brahmaputra.
- Amarnath, has a natural Shiva linga of ice which forms for a few weeks each
year. Thousands of people visit this cave during these few
- The Vaishno Devi is a popular
shrine among Durga devotees.
- Sri Hemkund Sahib - Sikh gurudwara where
Guru Gobind Singh is claimed to have meditated and achieved
enlightenment in a previous incarnation.
In addition, to the above, a number of Tibetan Buddhist
sites are situated in the
Himalaya, including the residence of the Dalai Lama
. There were over 6,000 monasteries
Tibetan Muslims had their own
mosques in Lhasa and
The following mystic entities are associated with the Himalayas:
- The Yeti is one of the most famous
creatures in cryptozoology. It is a
large primate-like creature that is supposed
to live in the Himalaya. Most mainstream scientists and experts
consider current evidence of the Yeti's existence unpersuasive, and
the result of hoaxes, legend or misidentification of mundane
- Shambhala is a mystical city with
various legends associated with it, it is one of twenty-four
Himalayan hidden realms, or beyul, in Vajrayana Buddhism. While some legends consider it
to be a real city where secret Buddhist doctrines are being
preserved, other legends believe that the city does not physically
exist and can only be reached in the mental realm.
The Himalayas in poetry
is from the collection Hunkar
(A Roar) by
which has been described by a critic as
burning coals in the shade of playful rainbow
. In this
poem the loftiness of the Himalayas reflects metaphorically the
, whom he invokes
to rise to action, leaving the path of the mystical meditation of
Few stanzas in translation are:
My king of mountains! My magnificent
Radiant embodiment of great
Flame of fierce, accumulated
Snowy diadem of my
Effulgent brow of my
My king of mountains! My magnificent
Unvanquished, unfettered, free through the
Sacred, righteously proud and great through the
What glory have you been
Through the ages in the limitless
How unbroken is your eternal
Sages of sages! How unending
Pouring into infinite space, what
Do you seek to
What intractable web of
My king of mountains! My
O sage engrossed in silent
your eyes atleast for a moment!
Our country is
burning, in flames
Writhing restlessly at your
The blessed Indus, the five
Yamuna - the nectar-swept
That flow to the blessed
Are abundant with your melting
At the gates of that
You, the guardian of its
Have challenged, 'You must cut off my
Before you can trample over this
O pious sage, a great misfortune has fallen
On that same land of
Afflicted, the children are
Bitten by countless snakes from four
My king of mountains! My
The Himalayas in documentary
The Himalayas in fiction
- Kim, by Rudyard Kipling, is the signature account of
life in nineteenth century India as seen
through British eyes and is based on the exploits of a young boy in
the Himalayas and plains of India while engaged in the Great Game.
- Shangri-La is a fictional utopia situated somewhere in the Himalayas, based on
the legendary Shambhala. It is described in
the novel Lost
Horizon, written by the British writer James Hilton in
- Tintin in Tibet is one
of the series of classic comic-strip albums, written and
illustrated by Belgian
writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring
the young reporter Tintin investigating a plane crash in the
Gosain Than massif in the Himalayas.
Hollywood movie Vertical
Limit (2000), is set in the K2 peak of the
Himalayas, in Pakistan.
- Several levels of Tomb Raider 2
and one level in Tomb Raider:
Legend of the Tomb Raider
series are situated in the Himalayas.
- The Inheritance of Loss written by Kiran Desai is partly set in the Himalaya
Mountains. It won the Man Booker
Prize in 2006.
- Rumer Godden's novel "Black Narcissus" (1939) is about an order of
nuns who set up a convent in the Himalayas. The film, released in
1947 by Powell and
Pressburger and starring Deborah
Kerr, was not actually shot in the Himalayas and relied
primarily on matte paintings to
evoke the mountains.
- Isabel Allende's novel, Kingdom of the Golden Dragon
takes place mostly in the Forbidden Kingdom, a fictional country in
- "Dragon Rider " is authored
by Cornelia Funke and tells the story
of an epic journey that a small boy, a brownie, and a dragon take to the "Rim of Heaven," a
place in the Himalayas where dragons reside.
- Expedition Everest - Legend of the Forbidden Mountain is an
elaborately themed roller coaster located at Disney's Animal Kingdom at Walt
Disney World that takes riders through a yeti-guarded Mount
- United Nations, May 2007, Our Planet magazine
- Personal Time with Swami-ji, 157 mins Film, The Center for
Healing Arts 
- Himalaya: Through the Lens of a Sudu Published August 2001 ISBN
- Tibetan monks: A controlled life. BBC News.
March 20, 2008.
- Mosques in Lhasa, Tibet. People's Daily Online.
October 27, 2005.
- Swami Sundaranand
Himalaya: Through the Lens of a Sudu Published by Tapovan
Kuti Prakashan (August 2001). ISBN 81-901326-0-1
- Michael Palin, Himalaya, Weidenfeld Nicolson
Illustrated (2004). ISBN 0-297-84371-0
- Augusto Gansser, Andreas
Gruschke, Blanche C. Olschak: Himalayas. Growing
Mountains, Living Myths, Migrating Peoples, New York, Oxford:
Facts On File 1987. ISBN 0816019940 and New Delhi: Bookwise
- John Hunt, Ascent of Everest,
Hodder & Stoughton (1956). ISBN 0-89886-361-9
- Everest, the IMAX movie (1998).
- Swami Tapovan Maharaj
Wanderings in the Himalayas, English Edition, Pulished by
Chinmaya Publication Trust, Madras-3 (1960) translated by T.N.
Kesava Pillai, M.A.
- Nandy, S.N., Dhyani, P.P. and Samal, P.K., Information Database of the Indian Himalaya,
GBPIHED, Almora (2006)
- Maurice Isserman and Stewart
Weaver, Fallen Giants: The History of Himalayan Mountaineering
from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes (Yale University
Press, 2008). ISBN 978-0300115017
Image:Mount_Everest_North_Face.jpg|Mount Everest north face
from Rongbuk in TibetFile:Northern Areas 38b
Parbat, PakistanImage:Nanga Parbat 035.jpg|Nanga Parbat, PakistanImage:Sunrise, Manaslu.jpg|ManasluImage:Sunset_om_Kangchengyao_in_North_Sikkim.jpg|North
Sikkim, Kangchengyao satellite, India