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This article is a detailed account of the history of the Croatianmarker region of 'Dalmatia. For more details on modern Dalmatia see the main article.


The History of Dalmatia concerns the history of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Seamarker and its inland regions, stretching from the 2nd century BC up to the present.

Antiquity

Dalmatia's name is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae who lived in the area of the eastern Adriaticmarker coast in the 1st millennium BC. They arrived to the Adriatic Coast from the Dalmatian inland during 3rd and 2nd century BC. The name "Dalmatia" was in use probably from the second half of the 2nd century BC and certainly from the first half of the 1st century BC, defining a coastal area of the eastern Adriaticmarker between the Krka and Neretvamarker rivers. Its territory stretched northwards from the river Neretvamarker to the river Cetinamarker, and later to the Krka, where it met the confines of Liburnia. Its capital during this period was Delminium.



The Roman Republic attempted to subdue the Illyrian tribes during the Illyrian Wars of 220 and 168 BC, and succeeded, forming the Roman province of Illyricum. The Romans, however, were often faced by rebellions of various Illyrian tribes. In 156 BC the Dalmatae themselves were attacked by a Roman army for the first time, and were defeated but not fully subdued. They raised a number of formidable revolts, more notable of which was that of 33 BC. In AD 9 the Dalmatians formed an alliance with the Pannonians and rebelled for the last time, but were finally crushed by Tiberius. In AD 10, Illyricum was divided by Emperor Augustus into two provinces: Pannonia and Dalmatia which spread into a larger area inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast. This event was followed by total submission and a ready acceptance of Roman culture which spread all over Illyria.

The province of Dalmatia spread inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast, while its new capital was Salona. During the general reorganization of Roman Empire in 297 AD, the existing provincial organization in Dalmatia was changed, with the southern part of the Narona district becoming the Roman province of Praevalitana. The Narona district was a region from Budvamarker to the river Cetinamarker, while Liburnia, also one of the provincia Dalmatiarum, was north of the Cetina and included Scardonamarker. Liburnia enjoyed the status of a separate administrative-territorial unit later on during the Empire's final decades.

Later on, Dalmatia was the birthplace of Emperor Diocletian who constructed the famous Diocletian's Palace for his retirement a few kilometers south of Salona, in Spalatummarker. The Palace is now the heart of the modern-day capital of Dalmatia, Splitmarker.

The historian Theodore Mommsen wrote in his book, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, that all Dalmatia was fully romanized by the 4th century AD. However, analysis of archaeological material from that period has shown that the process of romanization was rather selective. While urban centers, both coastal and inland, were almost completely romanized, the situation in the countryside was completely different. Despite the Illyrians being subject to a strong process of acculturation, they continued to speak their native language, worship their own gods and traditions, and follow their own social-political tribal organization which was adapted to Roman administration and political structure only in some necessities.

The collapse of the Western Roman Empire, with the beginning of the Migration Period, left the region subject to Gothic rulers, Odoacer and Theodoric the Great. They ruled Dalmatia from 480 to 535 AD, when it was restored to the Eastern Empire by Justinian I (Liburnia stayed in Gothic possession as Liburnia Tarsatica).

Medieval period

Early Middle Ages (AD 500-1000)

The Adriatic Sklaviniae c.
800 AD


By 500 AD, the Byzantines had to contend with numerous Slavic tribes situated north of the Danube. They began raiding into Moesia and Thrace, but movement into Dalmatia in general was largely blocked by the presence of Gepids in Dacia and Lombards in Pannonia. The uneasy status quo was disrupted with the arrival of the Avar in 568, who crushed the Gepids and coerced their Lombard allies to move to northern Italy. The Avar ranks swelled with Slavic, Germanic and Bulgar recruits, who served either as subjects or allies. Their invasions devastated Dalmatia and further decimated the Romanised populace which was already weakened by famine, financial crises and previous barbarian incursions. In 639 the sacking of Salona, the old Dalmatian capital, was a significant event for the region, as Jaderamarker would rise to be the successor capital of Dalmatia, due its strategic position, keeping this role until 1918.

Yet, some of the 'Roman' populace retreated to the fortified coastal cities and in the Adriatic islands, founding new settlements. Cut off from the remnants of the Roman world, the romanized Dalmatians evolved their own Romance language, Dalmatian, which is now extinct but not until it exerted a strong influence on the local Slavic Chakavian dialect. Others Romance-speaking groups fled to the Dinaric mountains, living life as a shepherd people called Morlachs.

As a result of their participation in Avar raids, the South Slavs had now permanently settled the region in the first half of the 7th century AD and remained its predominant population ever since. Politically, Dalmatia was a checker-board of polities. The Slavs occupied the rural hinterland, separated into minor tribal units. The coastal cities of Ragusamarker (Dubrovnik), Spalatummarker (Split), Jaderamarker (Zadar) and Traguriummarker (Trogir) remained nominally under Byzantine rule, and were populated by the Romance-speaking descendants of various Roman settlers and Latinised Illyrians. They were cut off from one another, Rome and Constantinople by a sea of Slavic inhabitants. Because these towns were the only part of the large land mass previously known as Dalmatia that remained under Imperial rule, the geographic extent of "Dalmatia" shrunk as the term was used to only refer to the few cities and islands nominally under Byzantine authority).

The two communities were somewhat hostile at first, but as the Slavs became Christianized this tension increasingly subsided and a degree of cultural mingling soon took place.

The need for a more effective defensive organisation may have prompted various Dalmatian Slavic tribes consolidate into a principality. The Principality of Dalmatia thus arose. Its first notable ruler - Prince Borna- was ruler of the Guduscans, a ruling element with an unknown ethno-political origin. The designation -Guduscan - would soon disappear, to be replaced by Croat. Further south arose four smaller principalities - Pagania, Zachlumia, Travunia and Duklja. As Charlemagne extended his Frankish empire eastward, he took much of northern Dalmatia, inciting a war with Byzantium. By the Treaty of Aachen in 812 AD, the Dalmatian cities and Istriamarker were restored to Byzantium whilst the Slavic hinterland remained under Frankish fielty. Saracens raided the southernmost cities in 840 and 842, but this threat was eliminated by a common Frankish-Byzantinian campaign of 871.

During this time (the first half of the 9th century), Prince Ljudevit Posavski, a Slavic Prince reigning over the territory between the Drava and Sava rivers (sometimes referred to as Savia, or Principality of Pannonia) began a war with Prince Borna of Dalmatia. During the battle, Borna's Guduscans abandoned him and crossed to Ljudevit's side, ensuring his victory. Borna's personal guard saved him from certain death on the battlefield. Ljudevit was soon forced out of his Pannonian realm by the Frankish forces that according to their historians controlled the greater part of Dalmatia.

The establishment of cordial relations between the cities and the Principality of Dalmatia seriously began with the reign of Prince Mislav (835), who signed an official peace treaty with the Venetian Doge Pietro Tradonico in 840, and began donating lands to the churches and monasteries. Dalmatia's first Croatian ruler and founder of the Trpimirović dynasty, Duke Trpimir, re-established the Principality of Dalmatia as the Duchy of the Croats. In his wars against the Bulgar Khans and their Serbian subjects, he greatly expanded the Duchy's territory to include all the lands up to the river of Drinamarker, thereby including the majority of Bosnia. His powerful realm extended to influence the Slavic tribes further southwards to Zachlumia and even Serbia. In AD 920 Duke Tomislav was granted the governance of the Byzantine Dalmatian city enclaves by Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus with the support of Pope John X. According to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, Tomislav marched north against the Magyars and annexed Principality of Pannonia to his authority. In 925 AD he was crowned in Tomislavgradmarker, establishing the Kingdom of Croatia, and extending his influence further southwards to Zachlumia.

The most notable Croatian noble families from Dalmatia are: the Karinjan, Lapčan, Polečić, Tugomirić, Kukar, Snačić, Gusić, Šubić (later the Zrinski), Mogorović, Lačničić, Jamometić, and Kačić. Within the borders of ancient Roman Dalmatia, on the island of Krkmarker, ruled the noble family Krčki (later Frankopan).

The Croatian kings exacted tribute from the Byzantine cities and consolidated their power in the purely Croatian-settled littoral cities such as Nin, Biogradmarker and Šibenikmarker, which was founded by Croatian kings. They also asserted control over the bordering southern duchies. Rulers of the medieval Croatian state who had control over the Dalmatian littoral and the cities were the dukes Trpimir, Domagoj, Branimir, and the kings Tomislav, Trpimir II, Krešimir I, Stjepan Držislav, Petar Krešimir IV and Demetrius Zvonimir. The Venetian Republicmarker made several attempts from the tenth century to attain control of the Dalmatian islands and city-states, while Byzantium also preserved an influence on them.

High Middle Ages (AD 1000-1300)



The High Middle Ages in Dalmatia are marked by the fluctuating and waning influence of the Byzantine Empire, and by the struggle of the neighboring powers, the Venetian Republicmarker, the Kingdom of Croatia, and (later) the Kingdom of Hungary, to fill the power vacuum. The early medieval Dalmatia had still included much of the hinterland covered by the old Roman province of Dalmatia. However, the toponym "Dalmatia" started to shift more towards including only the coastal, Adriatic areas, rather than the mountains inland. By the 15th century, use of other regional names would be introduced, marking the shrinking of the borders of Dalmatia to the narrow littoral area where the Dalmatian language was spoken.

The Empire continuously held formal suzerainty over the entire area, including Croatia and Venice, but the de facto impact of this was very periodic and increasingly irrelevant. The Dalmatian littoral cities, being unable to form a league due to their internal dissensions, were caught in the midst of a power struggle they were unable to influence. Their own political situation thus became increasingly complex. They were surrounded by the waning Kingdom of Croatia, which was increasingly under the influence of the Kingdom of Hungary. However, the Croatian South Slavs surrounded and increasingly inhabited the coastal cities and the Adriatic islands, particularly Jadera (Zadar), Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Spalatummarker (Split), greatly influencing the local Romance Dalmatian language and culture.

The cities acknowledged the suzerainty of Byzantium, but when the Empire's power weakened, functioned increasingly as city-states. Croatia and the Venetian Republic also acknowledged nominal Imperial rule. While Venice, due to its increasing financial wealth, was able to almost completely ignore this, Croatia came under de facto Hungarian control whenever the Empire could no longer maintain its influence on the region.

The city-states, Venice, and Croatia, while under nominal Byzantine suzerainty, acknowledged the administration of the Latin Pope over the local church, with the consent of the Emperors. However, while the Croatian-held branch of the Catholic Church with its seat in Nin was under Papal jurisdiction, it used Slavic liturgy, the Croatian population preferred domestic priests, who were married, bearded, and held masses in Croatian. The city-states and the Holy See, on the other hand, used Latin liturgy. After the East-West Schism of 1054, the Papal influence in Dalmatia was increased and Byzantine practices were further suppressed on the general synods of 1059–1060, 1066, 1075–1076 and on other local synods, notably by demoting the Bishopric of Nin, installing the Archbishopric of Spalatum (Splitmarker) and Archbishopric of Dioclea (Montenegro), which explicitly forbade the use of any liturgy other than Latin or Greek.

At the beginning of the High Medieval period, having just achieved a crushing victory in the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, the Empire was capable of controlling the area (Croatia, the city-states, Venice) to a significant extent. However, with the rising Norman threat in southern Italy and the East-West Schism, the Battle of Manzikertmarker finally left it powerless to maintain its power in the far west. Croatia was slipping away from Byzantine rule: King Demetrius Zvonimir rose to the throne with Papal blessing after aiding the Normans in their war against Byzantium. After his death, however, the Kingdom found itself in a struggle for independence against King Coloman of Hungary who laid claim to the throne. In 1102 Coloman forced the Croatian feudal lords to enter into a personal union with Hungary with the Pacta conventa. Hungary extended its influence to the Dalmatian coast. Venice during this time forced the Dalmatian city-states into submission, but in 1105 Coloman forced the Venetians to abandon Dalmatia granting the cities the autonomy of "Free Royal Cities" within his feudal realm (which now included both Hungary and Croatia). Based on economic reasons, both Venice and Hungary had support within the Dalmatian city states. The farmers and the merchants who traded in the interior favored Hungary as their most powerful neighbor on land that affirmed their municipal privileges, while the cities feared Venetian suppression of their trade and economy.



Subject only to the Royal Assent the cities enjoyed the right to elect their own chief magistrate, bishop, and judges. Their ancient Roman law remained valid, and they were even permitted to conclude separate alliances. No alien, not even a Hungarian, could reside in a city if he was unwelcome, while any man who disliked Hungarian suzerainty could emigrate with all his household and property. In lieu of tribute, the revenue from customs was in most cases shared equally by the king, chief magistrate, bishop and the municipality. On the other hand, the rights and analogous privileges granted by Venice were, however, too frequently infringed. While Hungarian garrisons were being quartered on unwilling towns, Venice interfered with trade, the appointment of bishops, or the tenure of communal domains. Consequently the Dalmatians remained loyal only while it suited their interests, and insurrections frequently occurred. In Jadera (Zadar) alone, four separate rebellions are recorded between 1180 and 1345, although the city was treated with special consideration by its Venetian masters, who regarded its possession as essential to their maritime ascendancy. The doubtful allegiance of the Dalmatian cities tended to protract the struggle between Venice and Hungary, which was further complicated by internal discord due largely to the spread of the Bogomil heresy, and by many outside influences.

The Mongols reached Dalmatia chasing the King, while the ability of Hungary to control Dalmatia was severely hampered due to its defeat.Dalmatia was, however, once again to be returned to Imperial Byzantine rule, as the Empire regained some of its former strength during the Komnenian restoration. Emperor Manuel I the Great of the Komnenian dinasty invaded and defeated the Kingdom of Hungary at the Battle of Sirmium in 1167. By 1168 nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands. After his death in 1180, however, and the subsequent coup d'état against his son, Byzantium's influence once again withdrew from the area. Hungary/Croatia also lost its grip on the cities at this time, they came under the control of the Byzantine Ban of Bosnia Kulin and his successors. One of which, Matej Ninoslav proclaimed himself Prince of Splitmarker. The Ban of Bosnia, however, was back under Hungarian control by the reign of King Béla III, as he reasserted royal power in Dalmatia.

This was to change after the King's his death. In 1202, the armies of the Fourth Crusade were forced, due to their financial difficulties, to render assistance to Venice by taking the city of Jaderamarker (Zadar) for the Republic. In 1204 the same crusader army was ironically persuaded by Doge Enrico Dandolo to treacherously attack the Christian capital of Constantinoplemarker, finally eliminating the Byzantine Empire from the list of contenders on Dalmatian territory.

Hungary and Venice were now intermittently controlling Dalmatia. The cities of Spalatum, Jadera, Tragurium and Ragusa with the surrounding territories each changed hands several times between Venice and Hungary during the early 13th century. However, this period was marked by a decline in external hostilities as the Dalmatian cities started accepting de facto foreign sovereignty, having been mainly independent for nearly 700 years. The exception was the southernmost city of Ragusa, then known by its Slavic inhabitants as Dubrovnik (its modern name). Even more isolated by land than the other cities, Ragusa established its own Republic which quickly began to develop a specific culture. Its geographically isolated position in the uttermost south of Dalmatia meant that the Republic of Ragusa exhibited a strong ethnic mix of Romance Dalmatians and Slavic Dalmatians. By the 13th century, the councilmen in the Republic's council were mixed, and in the 15th century the ragusan literature was written in the Slavic language (from which Croatian language is directly descended), while the city was often called by its Slavic name, Dubrovnik. This state, though often recognizing the suzerainty of foreign powers, kept its de facto independence all the way up to the Napoleonic era, when it was abolished by the Frenchmarker.

A consistent period of Hungarian rule in Dalmatia was ended with the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241. The Mongols severely impaired the feudal state, so much so that that same year, King Béla IV had to take refuge in Dalmatia, as far south as the Klismarker fortress. The Mongols attacked the Dalmatian cities for the next few years but eventually withdrew without major success, as the mountainous terrain and distance were not suitable for Mongol warfare. Soon afterwards, the Venetians once again took advantage of temporary Hungarian weakness to once again take control of Dalmatia.

Late Middle Ages (AD 1300-1420)

In 1346, Dalmatia was struck by the Black Death. The economic situation was also poor, and the cities became more and more dependent on Venice. However, having thoroughly recovered from the Mongol invasion, Hungary began restoring its influence. In the same year (1346), King Louis I the Great of Hungary and Croatia began a military campaign to expel the Venetians from Dalmatia. He was defeated at Zadar, though, and was compelled to withdraw. Thirteen years later, in 1357, the King waged a new war against Venice for the rule of Dalmatia. After successfully organizing an anti-Venetian league, Louis defeated the Venetian Republicmarker expelling all Venetians from Dalmatia. By the Treaty of Zadar (1358), all Louis' demands in the region were recognized. Having won the land war, he immediately formed an Adriatic fleet.

After King Louis' death in 1382, Hungary was once again weakened by internal struggles. In 1389 Tvrtko I, the founder of the Bosnian Kingdom, was able to control the Adriatic littoral between Kotormarker and Šibenikmarker, and even claimed control over the northern coast up to Rijekamarker, and his own independent ally, Dubrovnik (Ragusa). This was only temporary, as Hungary and the Venetians continued their struggle over Dalmatia after Tvrtko's death in 1391. By this time, the whole Hungarian and Croatian Kingdom was facing increasing internal difficulties, as a 20-year civil war ensued between the Capetian House of Anjou from the Kingdom of Naples, and King Sigismund of the House of Luxembourg. During the war, the Neapolitan fleet arrived in Dalmatia and was welcomed by all cities except Ragusa (Dubrovnik), which was by this time an independent merchant republic. The Anjou contender, Ladislaus of Naples, was welcomed by many Croatian feudal lords as their candidate for the throne, and he remained in control of Dalmatia throughout the conflict. One of the major powers in the area, supporting Ladislaus, at the time was Ban of Croatia, Grand Duke of Bosnia, and Herzog of Splitmarker, Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. However, Ladislaus was eventually defeated and forced to sail away for Naples, on his departure he sold his "rights" on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for a relatively meager sum of 100,000 ducats. Hrvatinić and his faction of nobles switched sides to Sigismund, but the Venetian Republic took over the city-states by the year 1420. Dalmatia was to remain under Venetian rule for 377 years (1420 - 1797). The city of Omišmarker was the last to yield to Venice in 1444, while only the Republic of Ragusa preserved its independence.

Early modern period (1420-1797)



The Ottoman Conquest of the Balkans began as early as 1354 with the reign of Sultan Orhan I, who decided to pursue holy war against the Christians in Europe. The Ottomans crossed into Europe and quickly came into conflict with the Bulgarians and Serbs. By 1390, a fragmented Serbia was reduced to a vassal state with Serbian nobles paying tribute and supplying soldiers to the Ottomans, shortly afterwards, in 1396 Bulgaria was also effectively destroyed as a state. In 1453 the Ottoman Empire finally conquered Constantinople itself and destroyed the remnant of the Byzantine Empire, significantly weakened after its defeat by the Venetian-sponsored Fourth Crusade. During the following decades the Ottomans expanded significantly into the Balkans. Hungary was soon assailed by the Turks as well, and could no longer afford to support its claim on Dalmatia. In 1396 the Hungarian King, Sigismund, pulled together a crusade against the Ottomans. Comprised primarily of Hungarian and French knights, but including some Wallachian troops, the crusader army, though nominally led by Sigismund, lacked command cohesion. The crusaders crossed the Danube, marched through Vidin, and arrived at Nikopol, where they met the Turks. The headstrong French knights refused to follow Sigismund’s battle plans, resulting in a crushing defeat. Serbia was consequently completely subdued in 1459, and neighboring Bosnia in 1463, leaving the Turks on the borders of continental Dalmatia. Venice was by now in full control over the Dalmatian region and secured its economic and political influence.

The Republic of Ragusa, on the other hand, sought safety in friendship with the invaders, perceiving the Venetians as a more real threat. In 1481, it switched allegiance to the Ottoman Empire. This gave its tradesmen advantages such as access to the Black Sea, and the Republic of Ragusa was one of fiercest competitors to Venice's merchants in the 15th and 16th century. In one particular instance, the Republic actually sold two small strips of its territory (Neummarker and Sutorina) to the Ottomans in order to prevent land access from Venetian territory.



At the beginning of the 16th century, Hungary (which included the crown of Croatia) was losing its ability to resist the Turks. Venice, which by now controlled Dalmatia for over 80 years, was facing serious difficulties as well, primarily due to the formation of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai, which compelled it to withdraw its Dalmatian garrisons for home service. Meanwhile, the military power of Hungary was broken in 1526 at the Battle of Mohácsmarker, and the Turks were able to easily conquer the greater part of Hungary. With the elimination of the Hungarian/Croatian military resistance, the greater part of continental Dalmatia was easily conquered by 1537. The treaty of 1540 left only the maritime cities and islands to Venice, the interior forming a Turkish province, governed from the mountain fortress of Klismarker by a Sanjak beg (an administrator with military powers). The fortress itself was within sight of the nearby maritime city of Split, and remained an ominous threat to the Christian peasants who worked the fields in between. Faced with the Ottoman threat, Croats from the neighboring lands now moved to the maritime cities and islands in great numbers, outnumbering the Romanic population to an increasing degree and making their language the primary one. The mercenary community of the Uskoci had originally been a band of these fugitives, esp. near Senjmarker; its exploits contributed to the renewal of war between Venice and Turkey (1571-1573). At the Battle of Lepantomarker in 1571, a Dalmatian squadron assisted the allied fleets of Spain, Venice, Austria and the Papal States to crush the Turkish navy. The significant victory, however, was rendered insignificant by the Holy League's disunity. The war, therefore, did little to change the situation on the ground in Dalmatia. The continental areas of Dalmatia remained under Ottoman rule, being parts of the Vilâyet of Bosnia or the Klis Sanjak.

The relative peace which followed this conflict was interrupted by the War of Candia. During this war, the Venetians lost control of the island of Cretemarker, but made significant gains in Dalmatia. For the Ottomans, Dalmatia was too far away and relatively insignificant, while the Venetians operated near their own bases of supply and had undisputed control of the sea, being thus able to easily reinforce their coastal strongholds. The Ottomans launched a large-scale attack in 1646 and made some gains, including the capture of the "impregnable" fortress of Novigradmarker on 4 July. Next year, however, the tide turned, as the Venetian commander Leonardo Foscolo seized several forts and retook Novigrad,, while a month-long siege of the fortress of Šibenikmarker by the Ottomans in August and September failed. The following year, the Venetians re-captured most of the lost ground, including the fortress of Klismarker.

Meanwhile, Hungary and Croatia accepted Austrian Habsburg rule in 1527, in exchange for assistance against the Turks. They became part of the strengthening Habsburg Monarchy. In the 17th century, the Habsburgs and the Turks fought an incessant border war, culminating in several greater conflicts (see Ottoman wars in Europe). During the second half of the 17th century, the tide turned against the Turks. After the Christian victory at the Battle of Vienna the Holy League, encompassing the Holy Roman Empire (headed by Habsburg Austria), the Venetian Republicmarker, and Polandmarker, invaded Ottoman Hungary and the Balkans in the Great Turkish War. For Dalmatia, the Holy League's victory meant that nearly all of its immediate hinterland was reunited with the maritime cities under Venetian rule. The Treaty of Karlowitz, signed on January 26, 1699, defined much of the bounds of modern Dalmatia as the contemporary Venetian/Ottoman border. It granted the whole of Dalmatia as far south as Stonmarker and from Sutorina to Boka kotorskamarker to the Venetian Republicmarker and, after the Venetian-Turkish war of 1714–1718, Venetian territorial gains were confirmed by the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz. Because the Venetians were able to reclaim some of the inland territories in the north during the Turkish wars, the region of Dalmatia was no longer restricted to the coastline and the islands. However, the Venetian influence wasn't as strong in the former southern Dalmatia, meaning that the toponym did not extend inland into areas of Herzegovina or Montenegromarker. Following this treaty, Dalmatia experienced a period of intense economic and cultural growth in the 18th century, given how trade routes with the hinterland were reestablished in relative peace.

19th Century



Napoleonic period

Dalmatia entered the Napoléonic period as a province of the Venetian Republic, and ended up as a province of the Austrian Empiremarker, which was created from the Habsburg Monarchy. During the period, it was part of three state entities. These are:



377 years of Venetian rule over Dalmatia were brought to a close on April 18, 1797, when General Napoléon Bonaparte conquered and dissolved the decaying Venetian Republic. On (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the Republican Calendar) the Treaty of Campo Formio was signed between the Austrians and the French Republic, ending the War of the First Coalition. By this treaty, Napoléon forced the Habsburgs to surrender the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgiummarker) to France in exchange for Dalmatia, Istria and the Venetian mainland. Dalmatia, thus became part of Austria (the Habsburg Monarchy) for the first time, while the Republic of Ragusa retained its independence, and greatly profited by its neutrality during the early Napoléonic Wars.

However, during the War of the Third Coalition, the Austrians were defeated at Ulmmarker and Austerlitzmarker, forcing them to sign the Treaty of Pressburg (December 26, 1805) by which Dalmatia, Istria, and all Austrian lands in Italy were handed over to France. Napoléon added these territories to the Kingdom of Italy, which was recently transformed from the Italian Republicmarker. In 1806, the Republic of Ragusa finally succumbed to French troops under General Marmont (later to become the governor of the Illyrian Provinces), the same year a Montenegrin force supported by the Russians tried to contest the French by seizing Boka Kotorskamarker. The local pro-Coalition forces then pushed the French to Dubrovnikmarker (Ragusa). The Russians induced the Montenegrins to advance further and they proceeded to take control of the islands of Korčulamarker and Bračmarker, but made no further progress, and withdrew in 1807 under the Treaty of Tilsit. The Republic of Ragusa was officially annexed to the Napoléonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808.

In 1809, Austria was defeated once more at the Battle of Wagrammarker, and was forced to sign the Treaty of Schönbrunn (October 14, 1809) by which it ceded additional territory to France. Napoléon subsequently removed Istria and Dalmatia (including Dubrovnik) from the Kingdom of Italy and added them to the newly formed Illyrian Provinces, directly within the French Empire. Marshal Nicolas Soult was awarded the title Duke of Dalmatia (Duc de Dalmatie). (At the time, South Slavs, such as Croats, Slovenes, and Serbs, were mistakenly considered "Illyrians", so in modern terms the name of the administrative unit would mean "South Slavic Provinces".)

Napoleon's rule in Dalmatia was marked with war and high taxation, which caused several rebellions. On the other hand, French rule greatly contributed to Croatian national awakening (the first newspaper in Croatian was published then in Zadar, the Kraglski Dalmatin-Il Regio Dalmata), the legal system and infrastructure were finally modernized to a degree in Dalmatia, and the educational system flourished. French rule brought a lot of improvements in infrastructure; many roads were built or reconstructed. Napoleon himself blamed Marshal Auguste Marmont, the governor of Dalmatia, that too much money was spent. However, in 1813, the Habsburgs once again declared war on France and by 1814 restored control over Dalmatia, forming a temporary Kingdom of Illyria. In 1822, in accordance with the Congress of Vienna, this entity was eliminated and Dalmatia was placed within the Austrian Empiremarker.

Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary



In the Habsburg Monarchy until the 18th century, the Kingdom of Croatia included only a small north-western part of present-day Croatiamarker around Zagrebmarker and a small strip of coastland around Rijekamarker, due to the rest of the country being under Ottoman rule or part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. In 1744, having been previously taken back from the Ottomans, the Kingdom of Slavonia was included into the Kingdom of Croatia and became its autonomous province.

With the conclusion of the Napoléonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy became the Austrian Empiremarker. The Empire's control over Dalmatia was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna, and the area of the former French Illyrian provinces was organized as the short-lived Kingdom of Illyria. In 1822, this was abolished and a new Imperial administrative unit, the Kingdom of Dalmatia was formed. To the north, the Kingdom of Slavonia was separated from the Kingdom of Croatia with the advent of Austrian neo-absolutism in 1849, and became itself a separate administrative unit.

In 1848, the Croatian Assembly (Sabormarker) published the "People's Requests", in which they demanded, among other things, the abolition of serfdom and the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia. The "People's Requests" were organised in points, or punte in Chakavian Croatian, thus the supporters of the unification (the Unionist Faction) were also known as "Puntari". The Dubrovnik Municipality was the most outspoken of all the Dalmatian communes in its support for unification with Croatia. A letter was sent from Dubrovnik to Zagreb with pledges to work for this idea. In 1849, Dubrovnik continued to lead the Dalmatian cities in the struggle for unification. A large-scale campaign was launched in the Dubrovnik paper L'Avvenire (The Future) based on a clearly formulated programme: the federal system for the Habsburg territories, the inclusion of Dalmatia into Croatia and the Slavic brotherhood. The president of the council of Kingdom of Dalmatia was the politician Baron Blaž Getaldić.

In the same year, the first issue of the Dubrovnik almanac appeared, Flower of the National Literature (Dubrovnik, cvijet narodnog književstva), in which Petar Preradović published his noted poem "To Dubrovnik". This and other literary and journalistic texts, which continued to be published, contributed to the awakening of the national consciousness reflected in efforts to introduce the Croatian language into schools and offices, and to promote Croatian books. The Emperor Franz Joseph I brought the so-called Imposed Constitution which prohibited the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia and also any further political activity with this end in view. The political struggle of Dubrovnik to be united with Croatia, which was intense throughout 1848 and 1849, did not succeed at that time.

In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise led to a reorganization of the Empire into a dual monarchic union of Austrian and Hungarian lands, while the country was renamed into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Kingdom of Croatia and the Kingdom of Slavonia were granted to the Hungarian part of the Empire, and were joined into the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. This Kingdom enjoyed exceptionally significant autonomy within the Hungarian lands, while the Kingdom of Dalmatia remained merely another administrative unit within the Austrian part of the dual monarchy (mostly for naval strategic reasons). Croats of both Kingdoms resented this as it permanently prevented the union of all Croatian territories in Austria-Hungary.

Therefore, after the revolutions of 1848 (and particularly since the late 1860s) two factions appeared in Dalmatian politics:

  • The first was the Unionist faction (also known as the "Puntari"), led by the People's Party (Narodna Stranka) and, to a lesser extent, the Party of Rights (Stranka Prava), which advocated the union of Dalmatia with the remaining parts of Croatia. The faction, along with its supporters in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia later also advocated the separation of these territories into a third federated unit of the Empire. The most prominent representative of this faction was Niko Pucić de Zagorien.
  • The second was the pro-Italian Autonomist faction (later known as the "Irredentist faction"). The political goals of which were at first the establishment of an independent Slavic Dalmatian nation, when this failed the faction began advocating irredentist goals of autonomy and even union with Italy. However as the census of 1880 states the population of the Kingdom of Dalmatia was decidedly Croatian (371,565 Croats, 78,714 Serbs, and 27,305 Italians). The pro-Italian faction therefore relied on the support of the Serbian population and mostly remained dedicated to increased political autonomy instead of openly fully and openly supporting a union with Italy. The most prominent politician of this faction was Antonio Bajamonti, mayor of Splitmarker from 1860 to 1880.


The political alliances in Dalmatia shifted over time. At the beginning, the Unionists and Autonomists were allied against the centralism of Vienna. After a while, when the national question came to prominence, they split. In 1861 came the meeting of the first Dalmatian Assembly, among others with representatives from Dubrovnik. Representatives of Kotor came to Dubrovnik to join the struggle for unification with Croatia. The citizens gave them a festive welcome, flying Croatian flags from the ramparts and exhibiting the slogan: Ragusa with Kotor. The Kotorans elected a delegation to go to Vienna; Dubrovnik nominated Niko Pucić as delegate. Niko Pucić went to Vienna to demand not only the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia, but also the unification of all Croatian territories under one common Assembly. These demands were again rejected, and in 1883 the death of Niko Pucić (born 1820) had a profound impact on local politics.

The Unionist faction won the elections in Dalmatia in 1870, but was again prevented from merging with the rest of Croatia due to the intervention of the Austrian imperial government, which dreaded the loss of precious coastline territories to the Hungarians.

20th century



WWI and the Interwar period (1914-1941)

In World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire fought on the side of the Central Powers, and many Dalmatians saw service in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Italian and Galician fronts. Many were captured by the Russians and only returned home after an ordeal in the Russian Civil War. During the War, the Kingdom of Italy turned on its pre-war Triple Alliance allies, the German Empiremarker and Austria-Hungary, due to the guarantees of territorial gains made by the Entente in the secret London Pact of 1915. These territorial gains included a large part of Dalmatia and (especially) the city of Zadarmarker.

Following the conclusion of the War and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary, the Italians occupied many Dalmatian cities in an effort to bolster their claim during the negotiations in the Treaty of Versailles. With the Treaty of Saint Germain, which regulated the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the London Pact was nullified due to the efforts of American President Woodrow Wilson and the Slavic delegates. Italian occupation troops on the ground were soon joined by American and British forces.

The vast majority of Dalmatia consequently became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenesmarker (later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker). However, the Italians managed to claim the city of Zadar as well as the islands of Krkmarker, Cresmarker, Lošinjmarker, and Lastovomarker which was much resented by Dalmatians. Outside Dalmatia, Italy was also granted the mainly Slavic-populated Istriamarker region, as well as (eventually) the city of Rijekamarker. A number of Italians (circa 20,000) allegedly moved from the areas of Dalmatia assigned to Yugoslavia and resettled in Italy, mainly in Zadar. Relations between the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Italy constantly remained tense because of the dispute over Dalmatia and, more significantly, because of the lasting conflict over the northern port-city of Rijekamarker (not part of Dalmatia). This was proclaimed a free state under the League of Nations, but was occupied by Italian fascist rebels lead by the writer Gabriele d'Annunzio. In 1924 the city was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia.

In 1922, Fascism came to power in Italy. State policy now included strong measures of nationalist oppression. Minority rights, such as those of Croats, were severely reduced. This included the shutting down of educational facilities in Slavic languages, forced italianization of citizens' names, and the brutal persecution of any and all protests to such a situation.

In Zadar (Zara) many Croats left, due to these policies of the fascist government. Similar oppression cannot be said to have taken place in Yugoslav Dalmatia with the Italian minority, as no form of forced slavification took place. In fact, Italians living in Yugoslavia had some degree of protection, in accordance with the Treaty of Rapallo (such as Italian citizenship and primary instruction). All this increased the intense resentment between the two ethnic groups. Where in the 19th century there was conflict only in the upper classes, there was now an increasing mutual resentment between Croats and Italians present in varying degrees among the entire population.

In the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenesmarker, Dalmatia no longer constituted a separate entity and was divided into small counties (oblasts). In 1922, Dalmatia was organized into two oblasts, the District of Split (Splitska oblast), with its seat in Split, and the District of Dubrovnik (Dubrovačka oblast), with its seat in Dubrovnik. This changed when King Alexander I proclaimed a dictatorship on January 6, 1929, renaming the country into the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker. In the new regime, a different system of subdivisions was introduced: the Kingdom was divided into nine banovinas (banates, territories ruled by a Ban). Excluding the Italian-annexed territories, Dalmatia was, for the most part, included into the Littoral Banovina (Primorska Banovina), though most of southern Dalmatia, including the city of Dubrovnikmarker, became part of the Zeta Banovina (Zetska Banovina, named after the river Zeta).

Croats, in Dalmatia and elsewhere, generally resented the oppressive policies of the ideologically unitarianist, but in practice pro-Serbian policies of the King's dictatorial regime. Various anti-Serb Yugoslav terrorist organizations (the Ustaše, among others) united and succeeded in assassinating the King in Marseillesmarker on October 9, 1934. With his heir designate, Prince Peter still underage, a regency headed by Prince Paul Karađorđević was established. Prince Paul was pro-German in his external policies, and more lenient towards Croats. In 1939, with war brewing in Europe, Prince Paul allowed for the creation of the Banovina of Croatia to increase the stability of the Yugoslav state and win support of the Croats. The new Banovina was formed out of the Sava Banovina (Savska Banovina) and the Littoral Banovina (Primorska Banovina), also including southern Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, and all counties with a majority Croat population. His move, in retrospect, came too late to secure the support of Croats.

World War II (1941-1945)



Independent State of Croatia (NDH) poster declaring "The Adriatic is ours".
The NDH ceded Dalmatia to Mussolini's Italy in 1941, but continued to petition for its return.


In April 1941, during World War II, Germany invaded and occupied Yugoslavia. A month later, Yugoslavia was dissolved and partitioned by the Axis Powers. The majority of Dalmatia was annexed by Italy, the rest being formally left to the Independent State of Croatiamarker, but in reality occupied by Italian forces which often supported the Chetniks in their ethnic cleansing agenda. Bitterly resenting the Italian occupation, Dalmatians joined the Yugoslav Partisans resistance movement en masse. The result was an intense guerrilla war that ravaged the region.

The local population of the newly occupied areas was subject to violent forced italianization by the fascist authorities. Several concentration camps were established by Italians to house "enemies of the state", including the infamous Gonars and Rab concentration camps. All coastal cities were under Italian occupation, however, the occupation forces proved unable to maintain consistent control over the hinterland, and it was under Partisan administration for much of the war. The Dalmatian islands in particular were a microcosm of the conflict. The sea was dominated by Italian patrol ships, which enforced the occupation in the main coastal towns, while the interior was mostly in the hands of the Partisan resistance. This was especially true of the larger islands, like Bračmarker or Korčulamarker.

Following the capitulation of Italy in 1943, the Wehrmacht took over the occupation after a short period of Partisan control (officially, Italian-occupied Dalmatia was handed to the control of the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatiamarker). During this brief period of liberation, a large proportion of the coastal city population volunteered to join the Partisans (most notably that of Split, where a third of the total population left the city), while many Italian garrisons deserted to fight as Partisan units and still others were forced to surrender their weapons and equipment to the Partisans. Heavy fighting took place as the Partisans fell back towards the mountainous interior.

In 1944, German troops succeeded in executing Operation Herbstgewitter, which involved the clearing of the island of Korčulamarker. This was is considered a part of a concerted effort known as the Sixth anti-Partisan Offensive. Meanwhile, while Soviet troops advanced in the Balkans in 1944, Marshal Josip Broz Tito's Partisans (by now recognized as Allied Yugoslav troops) simultaneously moved to liberate the remainder of Axis-occupied Dalmatia. The Dalmatian city of Splitmarker was established the provisional capital of Allied-liberated Croatia. In 1943-44 the city of Zadar suffered 54 areal bombings by the Allies and was heavily damaged, with considerable civilian casualties.

SFR Yugoslavia (1945-1991)



After World War II, Yugoslavia was reconstituted as a Socialist Republic, consisting of six federal republics and two autonomous provinces. Dalmatia now became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, itself a sovereign republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslaviamarker (SFRY). All World War II divisions, occupation zones, and the dissolution itself, were abolished. The city of Zadarmarker and several islands annexed by Italians during the Interwar Period were reunited with the remainder of Dalmatia. To the north, Istriamarker and Rijekamarker were recognized as territories with an overwhelming Slavic majority and were duly added to Yugoslavia. After the reconstitution, most citizens who considered themselves of Italian nationality opted for emigration to Italy.

Although the vast majority of Dalmatia was now within the Socialist Republic of Croatia, the Bay of Kotormarker (Boka Kotorska) area became part of the SR Montenegro. Within the SFR Yugoslaviamarker, Dalmatia experienced an economic and demographic boom, with dozens of new companies and factories being founded. This was particularly true for the city of Splitmarker, which regained its ancient title as capital of Dalmatia. The city's population far exceeded that of Zadar, and its economic and industrial output was comparable to the federal republic capitals. In the immediate aftermath of the War, the Yugoslav Federal Government sponsored public works to improve Dalmatia's near-medieval infrastructure. The locally famous Adriatic Highway was constructed almost exclusively by Dalmatian volunteers, and is the first modern road that connected all Dalmatian littoral cities, as well as linked them with the rest of Croatia. Commerce was also improved with the construction of modern road and rail links with the hinterland and Bosnia and Herzegovina, creating a Dalmatian economic sphere which exceeded the borders of SR Croatia. Newly established Dalmatian shipbuilding industry, combined with that of Rijekamarker, could at its peak be counted among the strongest in the world in terms of quality, and even output.

With the increase in living standards and the construction of infrastructure, tourism began to take its place as an extremely significant Dalmatian industry. After the liberalization of Yugoslavia in the 1960s, the Federal government funded large scale projects for the improvement of tourist capacity, including many modern hotels and resorts. The city of Dubrovnik achieved international fame as an attractive destination, and the economy of the islands, ravaged by grape pestilence became revived entirely. Tourism in Dalmatia reached its peak in the 1970s and early 80s, and is still struggling to achieve the popularity of that period.

Croatian war for independence (1991-1995)



For a complete account of the civil war in Dalmatia, see the Yugoslav wars, Croatian War of Independence, and Battle of Dalmatia articles.


Following the Yugoslav Wars of the early in 1990s the state of Croatia became independent, and in 2006 the new state of Montenegromarker declared independence as well. Today Dalmatia is, thus, divided politically between these two independent countries.

In 1991, when Yugoslavia began to disintegrate, Croatia declared full independence. The Croatian War of Independence (Domovinski rat) affected sections of northern Dalmatia, where a significant population of Croatian Serbs resided. They rebelled, under encouragement and with assistance from a variety of Serbian nationalist circles, and seceded into the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK). The center of the RSK was in the northern Dalmatian town of Kninmarker. The establishment of the RSK was helped by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), as well as paramilitary troops that came from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. The Serbian forces had a prevalence in equipment and munitions because of JNA support, and they proceeded to commit various acts of terrorism, including shelling attacks on civilian targets.

The Yugoslav People's Army operated from their barracks, that were mostly positioned in larger cities and strategically important points. In some cities, the JNA had built large residential blocs, and in the opening stages of the war various Croatian paramilitary and vigilante mobs forcibly evicted families from their homes, robbed their property and sometimes even subject them to torture, rape and murder, all under the excuse that those buildings will be used by "sharpshooters" or for "reconnaissance purposes". First attempts to take over JNA facilities occurred in August in Sinj and failed, while the major action took place in September 1991. Croatian Army and police were then more successful, although most of the facilities taken were repair shops, warehouses and similar facilities, either poorly defended or commanded by officers sympathetic to Croatian cause. Major bases, commanded by die-hard officers and manned by reservists from Montenegro and Serbia, became the object of standoffs that usually ended with JNA personnel and equipment being evacuated under supervision of EEC observers. This process was completed shortly after Sarajevo armistice in January 1992.

The entire non-Serb population was ethnically cleansed from RSK-controlled areas, notably the villages of Škabrnjamarker (see Škabrnja massacre) and Kijevomarker. Croatian refugees, tens of thousands of them, found shelter in many of the Dalmatian coastal towns where they were placed in now empty tourist facilities. During the Dalmatian anti-Serb riots of May 1991, up to 350 Serb houses, most notably in Zadarmarker and Trogirmarker, were destroyed by angry Croatian mobs. By early 1992, the military positions were mostly entrenched, and further expansion of the RSK were halted. The Serbian forces continued the random shelling of Croatian cities over the next four years. Besides the northern hinterland that bordered with Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker, the Yugoslav People's Army also occupied sections of southern Dalmatia around Dubrovnik, as well as the islands of Vismarker and Lastovomarker. These lasted until 1992. The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) was deployed throughout the UNPA zones, including those in northern Dalmatia, as well as on Prevlakamarker.

The Croatian government gradually restored control over all of Dalmatia in the following military operations:

  • September 1991: ("September War") - successful defence of Šibenikmarker from JNA onslaught and takeover of JNA bases in the area.
  • May and July 1992: Operation Tigar, the JNA was forced to retreat from Vis, Lastovo, Mljet and areas around Dubrovnik.
  • July 1992: the Miljevci Heights in the Šibenik hinterland, near Drniš, were liberated
  • January 1993: Operation Maslenica, Croatian forces liberated Zadar and Biograd hinterland.
  • In August 1995 Croatian forces conducted Operation Storm, destroying the RSK and restoring Croatian control.


During Operation Storm, the majority of Serb population from Krajina left their homes, while some of those who stayed - mostly elderly people - were sporadically subjected to acts of violence. Homes left by ethnic Serbs were taken over by ethnic Croatian refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina with the help and encouragement of Croatian authorities. Through the past decade, a number of ethnic Serb refugees have returned and gradually reverted demographic results of war in certain areas, although it is very unlikely that their proportion in region's population will ever reach pre-war levels.

Republic of Croatia (1995 on)



For more information on the modern period, see the main Dalmatia article


Dalmatia has arguably suffered in war more than other Croatian regions, with its infrastructure ruined, while the tourism industry - previously the most important source of income - was deeply affected by negative publicity and didn't properly recover until the late 1990s. Dalmatian population in general suffered a dramatic drop in living standards which created a visible chasm between Dalmatia and the relatively more prosperous northern regions of Croatia. This chasm, along with expected post-war extremism, is reflected in extreme nationalism enjoying higher levels of support in Dalmatia than in the rest of Croatia, which embraced more moderate course. This is particularly true in the rural Dalmatian Zagora (hinterland), while the core of the cities, having suffered less warfare and a more moderate decrease in living standards, remain somewhat more moderate.

This phenomenon manifested not only in Dalmatia being a reliable stronghold for the HDZ and other Croatian right-wing parties, but also in mass protests against Croatian Army generals being prosecuted for war crimes. The indictment of General Mirko Norac in early 2001 drew 150,000 people to the streets of Split - which is arguably the largest protest in the history of modern Croatia.

See also



References



  1. S.Čače, Ime Dalmacije u 2. i 1. st. prije Krista, Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, godište 40 za 2001. Zadar, 2003, pages 29,45.
  2. Charles George Herbermann, The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference (1913)
  3. M.Zaninović, Ilirsko pleme Delmati, pages 58, 83-84.
  4. D. Mandić, Crvena Hrvatska, pages 68-83
  5. J.Medini, Provincia Liburnia, Diadora, vol. 9, Zadar, 1980, page 433
  6. C. Michael Hogan, "Diocletian's Palace", The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, Oct 6, 2007
  7. Other Dalmatian cities at the time were: Tarsatica, Senia, Vegium, Aenona,Iader,Scardona,Tragurium, Aequum,Oneum,Issa, Pharus, Bona,Corcyra Nigra,Narona, Epidaurus, Rhizinium, Acruvium, Olcinium, Scodra, Epidamnus/Dyrrachium
  8. A. Stipčević, Iliri, Školska knjiga Zagreb, 1974, page 70
  9. I.Mužić, Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća, Naklada Bošković, Split 2006
  10. History of Dalmatia: 614 to 802 AD
  11. Sedlar (1994), 372
  12. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/balkans/croat13011526.html History: 1301 to 1526 AD
  13. Setton (1991), p. 142
  14. Setton (1991), p. 148
  15. Setton (1991), p. 149
  16. L.Monzali, Antonio Tacconi e la Comunità Italiana di Spalato, Società Dalmata di Storia Patria, Venezia 2007, p.29: "Fra gli autonomisti emerse come capo carismatico Antonio Bajamonti" (Among the Autonomist emerged as a charismatic leader Antonio Bajamonti)
  17. http://www.drcar-murko.si/en/vsbina.php?id=11


Sources

  • RSK, Supreme Defense Council (Vrhovni savjet odbrane), Knin, 4. avgust 1995., 16.45 časova, Broj 2-3113-1/95. The faximile of this document was published in: Rade Bulat "Srbi nepoželjni u Hrvatskoj", Naš glas (Zagreb), br. 8.-9., septembar 1995., p. 90.-96. (the faximile is on the page 93.).


  • RSK, Supreme Defense Council (Vrhovni savjet odbrane) issued a directive on August 4, 1995, at 16:45 hrs. This decision was signed by Milan Martić and later acknowledged at the Supreme Headquarters of the Republic of Serb Krajina Army at 17:20 hrs.


  • RSK, Republican Civil Protection Headquarters (Republički štab Civilne zaštite), No.: Pov. 01-82/95., Knin, 02.08.1995., HDA, Documentation of the RSK, kut. 265. This is a document from the Republican Civil Protection Headquarters of the RSK. This document orders all subordinated headquarters of RSK to immediately submit all reports about preparations for the evacuation, sheltering, and taking care of evacuated civilians ("evakuacija, sklanjanje i zbrinjavanje") (the deadline for the report was 3. August 1995 in 19 h).


  • RSK, Republican Civil Protection Headquarters (Republički štab Civilne zaštite), No: Pov. 01-83/95., Knin, 02.08.1995., Preparations for the evacuation of material, cultural and other goods (pripreme za evakuaciju materijalnih, kulturnih i drugih dobara), HDA, Documentation of the RSK, kut. 265. This was the next order from the Republican Civil Protection Headquarters. It was intended for all Municipal Civil Protection Headquarters. This document orders all subordinated headquarters to implement the preparations for the evacuation of all material, and all mobile cultural goods, archives, evidence and materials that are highly confidential/top secret, money, lists of valuable things (?) ("vrednosni popisi") and referring documentations.


  • Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu", Belgrade, 2003., p. 93.-94.


  • Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu", Bad Vilbel, 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179.


  • Marko Vrcelj, "Rat za Srpsku Krajinu 1991-95", Belgrade, 2002., p. 212.-222.


  • Luigi Tomaz, In Adriatico nell'antichità e nell'alto medioevo. Da Dionigi di Siracusa ai dogi Orseolo, Foreword by Arnaldo Mauri, Think ADV, Conselve 2003.


  • Luigi Tomaz, Il confine d'Italia in Istria e Dalmazia. Duemila anni di storia, Foreword by Arnaldo Mauri, Think ADV, Conselve 2007.


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