Five flags of Florida (not including
the current State Flag of Florida).
The history of Florida
can be traced back to when
the first Native
began to inhabit the peninsula as early as 14,000
years ago. Recorded history begins with the arrival of
Europeans to Florida, beginning
with the Spanish explorer Juan
Ponce de León, who explored the area in 1513.
time Florida has had a long history of immigration, including
French and Spanish settlement during the 16th century, as well as
in-migration from new Native American groups. It was under colonial
rule by Spain and Great Britain before becoming a US territory in
1822. More than 20 years later, it was admitted to the union as a
in 1845. Twentieth and 21st
century developments and migrations have created a diverse
population and an urbanized economy.
Prehistory of Florida
entered what is now
Florida at least 14,000 years ago. Due to the large amount of water
locked up in glaciers
during the Wisconsin glaciation
, the sea level may
have been 100 metres (more than 300 feet) lower than present
levels. As a result, the Florida peninsula had a land area about
twice what it is today. Florida also had a drier and cooler climate
than in more recent times. There were few flowing rivers or
. Across large areas of Florida,
fresh water was available only in sinkholes
catchment basins. As a
result, most paleo-Indian activity was around the watering holes.
and basins in the beds of modern rivers (such as the Page-Ladson prehistory site in
River) have yielded a rich trove of paleo-Indian artifacts, including Clovis points.
Excavations at an ancient stone quarry (the Container Corporation of America site in
County) yielded "crude stone implements" showing signs of
extensive wear from deposits below those holding Paleo-Indian
artifacts. Thermoluminescence dating
analysis independently gave
dates of 26,000 to 28,000 years ago for the creation of the
artifacts. The findings are controversial, and funding has not been
available for follow-up studies.
As the glaciers began retreating about 8000 BC
, the climate of Florida became warmer and
wetter, and the sea level rose. The paleo-Indian culture was
replaced by, or evolved into, the Early Archaic culture
an increase in population and more water available, they left their
artifacts in many more locations. Archaeologists
have learned much about the Early Archaic people of Florida from
the spectacular discoveries made at Windover
The Early Archaic period evolved into the
Middle Archaic period around 5000 BC. People started living in
villages near wetlands and favored sites that were likely occupied
for multiple generations.
The Late Archaic period started about 3000 BC, when Florida's
climate had reached current conditions and the sea had risen close
to its present level. People commonly occupied both fresh and
saltwater wetlands. Large shell middens
accumulated during this period. Many people lived in large villages
with purpose-built mounds
, such as at the
.People began creating fired pottery in Florida by 2000
BC. By about 500 BC, the Archaic culture, which had been fairly
uniform across Florida, began to fragment into regional
The post-Archaic cultures of eastern and southern Florida developed
in relative isolation. It is likely that the peoples living in
those areas at the time of first European contact were direct
descendants of the inhabitants of the areas in late Archaic times.
cultures of the Florida panhandle and the north and central
Gulf coast of the
Florida peninsula were strongly influenced by the Mississippian culture.
Continuity in cultural history suggests that the peoples of those
areas were also descended from the inhabitants of the Archaic
period. In the panhandle and the northern part of the peninsula,
people adopted cultivation of maize
cultivation was restricted or absent among the tribes who lived
south of the Timucuan-speaking
people (i.e., south of a line approximately from present-day
Florida to a point on or north of Tampa Bay.)
Native American tribes
At the time of first European contact, Florida was inhabited by an
estimated 350,000 people belonging to a number of tribes. The
Spanish recorded nearly one hundred names of groups they
encountered, ranging from organized political entities such as the
, with a population of around
50,000, to villages with no known political affiliation. There were
an estimated 150,000 speakers of dialects of the Timucua language
, but the Timucua
were only organized as groups of villages
and did not share a common culture.
Other tribes in Florida at the time of first contact included the
. The populations of all of these
tribes decreased during the period of Spanish control of Florida.
At the beginning of the 18th century, tribes from areas to the
north of Florida, supplied, encouraged, and occasionally
accompanied by white
the Province of Carolina
raided throughout Florida. They burned villages, wounded many of the
inhabitants and carried captives back to Charles
Towne. Most of the villages in Florida were
abandoned and the survivors sought refuge at St.
Augustine or in isolated spots around the state.
Some of the Apalachee eventually reached Louisiana, where they
survived as a distinct group for at least another century.
surviving members of these tribes were evacuated to Cuba when Spain
transferred Florida to the British
Empire in 1763.
originally an offshoot of the Creek
who absorbed other groups, developed as a distinct tribe
in Florida during the 18th century. They are now represented in the Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma, the Seminole Tribe of Florida, and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of
Juan Ponce de León
According to popular legend, unlikely to be true, Juan Ponce de
León discovered Florida while searching for the Fountain of Youth
. Although it is often
stated that he sighted the peninsula for the first time on March
27, 1513, and thought it was an island, he probably saw one of the
Bahama islands. He landed on the east coast of the newly discovered
land on April 2. He named the land La Pascua Florida
"Flowery Easter," probably due to the abundant plant life
in the area or to the fact that he
arrived during the Spanish Easter
Ponce de León may not have been the first European to reach
Florida, as he claimed he encountered at least one Indian who could
speak Spanish Ponce de León returned with equipment and settlers to
start a colony in 1521, but they were driven off by repeated
attacks from the native population. The earliest records of inland
Florida are those of conquest survivors. Pánfilo de Narváez
explored Florida's west
coast in 1528 but was lost at sea upon his attempted seaward escape
to Mexico. One of his expedition's officers, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de
, survived nine years' trudging between Florida and Mexico,
returned to Spain and published his observations. He inspired
Hernando de Soto's
invasion of Florida in 1539. Members of his expedition later
published details of Florida's natives, their lifestyles and
behavior. In 1559 Tristán de Luna y Arellano
established a brief settlement in Pensacola that was abandoned in 1561.
Timucua Indians worship a column
erected by the French in 1562
The French began taking an interest in the area as well, leading
the Spanish to accelerate their colonization plans
Jean Ribault led a largely Huguenot expedition to Florida in 1562, and his
Goulaine de Laudonnière founded Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville in 1564 as a haven for the Huguenots. Founded in 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés,
San Agustín (St. Augustine) is the oldest continuously inhabited European
settlement in any U.S. state; it is second oldest only to San Juan,
Puerto Rico in the United States' current territory.
From this base of operations, the Spanish began building Catholic
On September 20, 1565, Menéndez de Avilés attacked Fort Caroline,
killing all the French Huguenot soldiers defending it (sparing only
a few Catholics), and renamed the fort San Mateo. Two years later,
Dominique de Gourgues
recaptured the settlement from the Spanish and slaughtered all of
the Spanish defenders.
After the initial destruction of Fort Caroline, St. Augustine
became the most important settlement in Florida. It was little more
than a fortress for many years, and was frequently attacked and
burned, with most residents killed or fled. It was notably
devastated in 1586, when English sea captain and sometime pirate
Sir Francis Drake
plundered and burned
the city. Roman Catholic
missionaries used St. Augustine as a base of operations and
established missions throughout what is today the southeastern
United States. Missionaries converted 26,000 natives by 1655, but a
revolt in 1656 and an epidemic in 1659 proved devastating. Pirate
attacks were unrelenting against small outposts and even St.
Throughout the 17th century, English
settlers in Virginia and the Carolinas
gradually pushed the boundaries of Spanish territory south, while
the French settlements along the Mississippi River encroached on the
western borders of the Spanish claim.
In 1702, English
and allied Yamasee
and Creek Indians
attacked and razed the town of
St. Augustine, but they could not gain control of the fort. In
1704, Moore and his soldiers began burning Spanish missions in
north Florida and executing Indians friendly with the Spanish. The
collapse of the Spanish mission system and the defeat of the
Florida up to slave raids
reached to the Florida Keys and decimated the native population.
The Yamasee War
of 1715-1717 resulted in
numerous Indian refugees, such as the Yamasee, moving south to
Florida. In 1719, the French captured the Spanish settlement at
The British and their colonies made war repeatedly against the
Spanish, especially in 1702, and captured St Augustine in 1740. The
British were angry that Spanish officials tolerated and invited
runaway slaves into Florida. Invading Seminoles
killed off most of the local Indians.
Florida had about 3000 Spanish inhabitants when Britain took
control in 1763. Nearly all quickly left. Even though in 1783
control of Florida was restored to Spain after the Battle of Pensacola
, Spain sent
no more settlers or missionaries.
Spain traded Florida to the Kingdom of Great Britain for control of Havana, Cuba, which
had been captured by the
British during the Seven Years'
The expanded West Florida territory in
It was part of a large expansion of British
territory following the country's victory in the
Seven Years War
. Almost the entire Spanish population left
along with most of the remaining indigenous population. The British
divided the territory into East Florida
and West Florida
. They began aggressive
recruitment programs designed to attract settlers to the area,
offering free land and backing for export-oriented
East Florida was the site of the largest single importation of
white settlers in the colonial period; about 1,400 people
indentured by Scottish physician Dr.
arrived in July 1768. These people settled
Smyrna, where they began to farm various crops needed in
the Empire, such as indigo, grapes, silk, etc. Most crops did not
do well in the sandy Florida soil, and those that did rarely
equaled the quality produced in other areas.
eventually tired of their servitude and the increasingly
uncompromising nature of Turnbull, who on several occasions used
black slaves to whip his unruly settlers. The settlement collapsed
and the survivors fled to St. Augustine. Their relatives survive to
this day, as does the name New Smyrna.
the British moved the northern boundary of West Florida to a line
extending from the mouth of the Yazoo River east to the Chattahoochee River (32° 28′north
latitude), consisting of approximately the lower third of the
present states of Mississippi and Alabama.
During this time, Creek Indians migrated
into Florida and formed the Seminole tribe.
During the American
, the Spanish, then allied with the French
(who were actively at war with Britain), recaptured most of West
Florida, including Pensacola
. In 1784, the Treaty of Paris
Revolutionary War returned all of Florida to Spanish control, but
without specifying the boundaries. The Spanish wanted the expanded
boundary, while the United States demanded the old boundary at the
31st parallel. In the Treaty of
of 1795, Spain recognized the 31st parallel as the
Second Spanish rule
East and West Florida in 1810
Spanish presence was minor during that empire's second rule over
Florida. Spain offered extremely lucrative free land packages in
Florida as a means of attracting settlers, and foreigners came in
droves, especially from the United States. The territory became a
haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against the
U.S., and the U.S. demanded Spain reform. There were almost no
Spanish settlers and only a few soldiers. In the meantime, American
settlers established a foothold in the area and ignored Spanish
officials. British settlers who had remained also resented Spanish
rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for
exactly ninety days of the so-called Free and Independent Republic
of West Florida
on September 23.
meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the Spanish garrison at
Rouge (now in Louisiana), and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a
single white star on a blue field.
This flag would later
become known as the "Bonnie Blue
Throughout this period, Spain offered land grants to anyone who
settled in Florida. As a result, hundreds of Americans came into
the colony. Once Florida became a U.S. Territory, these
grants—which the U.S. agreed to honor if found valid—caused years
of litigation as settlers attempted to prove the validity of their
On October 27, 1810, parts of West Florida were annexed by
proclamation of U.S. President James
, who claimed the region as part of the Louisiana Purchase
. At first, purchase
negotiator Fulwar Skipwith
West Florida government were opposed to the proclamation,
preferring to negotiate terms to join the Union. However, William C. C. Claiborne
, who was sent to take
possession of the territory, refused to recognize the legitimacy of
the West Florida government. Skipwith proclaimed that he was ready
to "die in defense of the Lone Star flag." However, Skipwith and
the legislature eventually backed down, and agreed to accept
Madison's proclamation. Possession was taken of St.
Francisville on December 6, 1810, and of Baton Rouge on December
These portions were incorporated into the newly
formed Territory of Orleans
The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida to the
Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States
gradually increased the area it occupied.
settler attacks on Indian towns, Seminole
Indians based in East Florida began
raiding Georgia settlements, purportedly at the behest of the
The United States
led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish
territory, including the 1817 – 1818 campaign against the Seminole
Indians by Andrew Jackson
known as the First Seminole War
Following the war, the United States effectively controlled East
The Adams-Onís Treaty
signed between the United States and Spain on February 22, 1819 and
took effect on July 10, 1821. According to the terms of the treaty, the
United States acquired Florida and, in exchange, renounced all
claims to Texas.
Andrew Jackson formally took control of
Florida from Spanish authorities on July 17, 1821 at Pensacola.
became an organized territory
of the United States
on March 30, 1822. The Americans merged East Florida and West
Florida (although the majority of West Florida was annexed to
Territory of Orleans and
Mississippi Territory), and
established a new capital in Tallahassee, conveniently located halfway between the East
Florida capital of St. Augustine and the West Florida capital of
Pensacola. The boundaries of Florida's first two
counties, Escambia and St. Johns, approximately coincided with the boundaries of
West and East Florida respectively.
Seminole leader Osceola
As settlement increased, pressure grew on the United States
government to remove the Indians from their lands in Florida. Many
settlers in Florida developed plantation agriculture, similar to
other areas of the Deep South. To the consternation of new
landowners, the Seminoles harbored and integrated runaway blacks
, and clashes between whites
and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. In 1832, the
United States government signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing
some of the Seminole chiefs, promising them lands west of the
Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida voluntarily. Many
Seminoles left then, while those who remained prepared to defend
their claims to the land. White settlers pressured the government
to remove all of the Indians, by force if necessary, and in 1835,
the U.S. Army arrived to enforce the treaty.
Second Seminole War began at the
end of 1835 with the Dade Massacre,
when Seminoles ambushed Army troops marching from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to reinforce Fort King (Ocala).
They killed or mortally wounded all
but one of the 108 troops. Between 900 and 1,500 Seminole Indian
warriors effectively employed guerrilla tactics against United
States Army troops for seven years. Osceola
a charismatic young war leader, came to symbolize the war and the
Seminoles after he was arrested by deception while attending truce
negotiations in 1837. First imprisoned at Fort Marion, he died of malaria at Fort Moultrie in South
Carolina less than 3
months after his capture.
The war dragged on until 1842. The
U.S. government is estimated to have spent between US$20 million
and US$40 million on the war, at the time an astronomical sum.
all of the Seminoles were forcibly exiled to Creek lands west of
the Mississippi; about 300 were allowed to remain in the Everglades.
On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state of the United
States of America. Its first governor was William Dunn Moseley
, a descendant of
English immigrants William and Susannah Moseley, who settled in
Lower Norfolk County, Virginia, in 1649. Generations of Moseleys
had gradually migrated down the Southeastern coast.
Almost half the state's population were enslaved African Americans
working on large cotton and sugar plantations. Like the people who
held them, many slaves had come from the coastal areas of Georgia
and the Carolinas, and were part of the Gullah
-Gee Chee culture of the Low Country
. Others were enslaved African
Americans from the Upper South who had been sold to traders taking
slaves to the Deep South. In Florida all the peoples created a new
In the 1850s white settlers were again encroaching on lands used by
Seminoles. The United States government decided to make another
attempt to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. Increased Army
patrols led to hostilities. The Third Seminole War
from 1855 to 1858. At its end, US forces estimated only 100
Seminoles were left in Florida. In 1859, 75 Seminoles surrendered
and were sent to the West, but some Seminoles continued to live in
On the eve of the Civil War, Florida had the least population of
the Southern states. It was invested in plantation agriculture. By
1860 Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved.
There were fewer than 1000 free people of
before the Civil War.
Civil War, Reconstruction and Jim Crow
The Battle of Olustee was the only
major Civil War battle fought in Florida
Following Abraham Lincoln
in 1860, Florida joined other Southern states in seceding from the
took place January 10, 1861 and, after
less than a month as an independent republic, Florida became one of
the founding members of the Confederate States of America
As Florida was an important supply route for the Confederate Army
, Union forces
operated a blockade around the entire state. Union troops occupied
major ports such as Cedar Key, Jacksonville, Key West, and Pensacola. Though numerous
skirmishes occurred in Florida, including the Battle of Natural Bridge, the
Battle of Marianna and the
Battle of Gainesville, the
only major battle was the Battle of
Olustee near Lake City.
After meeting the requirements of Reconstruction
including ratifying amendments to the US Constitution
, Florida was
readmitted to the United States on July 25, 1868. This did not end
the struggle for political power among groups in the state.
conservative white Democrats wrestled for power until they regained
it in 1877, partly through violent actions by white paramilitary
groups targeting freedmen and allies to reduce their voting. From
1885 to 1889, the state legislature passed statutes with provisions
to reduce voting by blacks and poor whites, which had threatened
white Democratic power with a populist coalition. As these groups
were stripped from voter rolls, white Democrats established power
in a one-party state, as happened across the South.
By 1900 the state's African Americans numbered more than 200,000;
44 percent of the total population. This was the same proportion as
before the Civil War, and they were effectively disfranchised. Not
being able to vote meant they could not sit on juries, and were not
elected to local, state or federal offices. They were not recruited
for law enforcement or other government positions. White Democrats
proceeded to pass Jim Crow legislation
establishing racial segregation in public facilities and
transportation. Without political representation, African Americans
were shortchanged in the state. For more than six decades, white
Democrats controlled virtually all the state's seats in Congress,
which were apportioned based on the total population of the state
rather than only on those voting.
Migrations and tourism industry
Tourists hunting in 1893
During the late 19th century, Florida became a popular tourist
destination as railroads
expanded into the
area. Railroad magnate Henry Plant built at Tampa the
luxurious Tampa Bay
Hotel, which later became the campus for the University
of Tampa. Henry Flagler
built the Florida East Coast
Railway from Jacksonville to Key
West. Along the route he provided for his
passengers grand accommodations, including The Ponce de
León Hotel in St. Augustine, The Ormond Hotel in Ormond Beach, The Royal
Poinciana Hotel and The Breakers Hotel in Palm Beach, and The Royal
Palm Hotel in Miami.
In February 1888, Florida had a special tourist: President Grover Cleveland
, the first lady and his
party visited Florida for a couple of days. He visited the
Subtropical Exposition in Jacksonville where he made a speech
supporting tourism to the state; then, he took a train to St.
Augustine, meeting Henry Flagler; and then a train to Titusville, where he boarded a steamboat and visited
Rockledge. On his return trip, he visited Sanford and Winter Park.
After WWI there was a rise in lynchings
and other racial violence directed by whites against blacks in the
state, as well as across the South and in northern cities. It was
due in part from strains of rapid social and economic changes, as
well as competition for jobs. Whites continued to resort to
lynchings to keep dominance, and tensions rose. White mobs committed
murders, accompanied by wholesale destruction of black houses,
churches and schools, in the small communities of Ocoee, November
1920; Perry in
December 1922; and Rosewood in January 1923.
The governor appointed a
special grand jury and special prosecuting attorney to investigate
Rosewood and Levy County
, but the jury
did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute. Rosewood was never
To escape segregation, lynchings, and civil right suppression,
forty thousand African Americans migrated from Florida to northern
cities in the Great Migration
1910-1940. That was one-fifth of their population in 1900. They
sought better lives, including decent-paying jobs, better education
for their children, and the chance to vote and participate in
political life. Many were recruited for jobs with the Pennsylvania
The 1920s were a prosperous time for much of the nation. Florida's
new railroads opened up large areas to development, spurring the
Florida land boom of the
. Investors of all kinds, mostly from outside Florida,
raced to buy and sell rapidly appreciating land in newly platted
communities such as Miami and Palm Beach. A majority of the people
who bought land in Florida were able to do so without stepping foot
in the state, by hiring people to speculate and buy the land for
them. By 1925, the market ran out of buyers to pay the high prices
and soon the boom became a bust. The 1926 Miami Hurricane
the real estate market. The Great
arrived in 1929; however, by that time, economic
decay already consumed much of Florida from the land boom that
collapsed four years earlier.
first theme parks emerged in the 1930s and included Cypress
Gardens (1936) near Winter Haven and Marineland (1938) near St. Augustine. In the 1960s Walt Disney chose Central Florida as the site of
his planned Walt Disney World Resort and began purchasing land.
generating land speculation, he used dummy corporations
and willing associates
to acquire 27,400 acres (110 km², 43 mi²). In 1971, the Magic
Kingdom, the first component of the resort, opened and
began the dramatic transformation of the Orlando area into an international resort destination with
a wide variety of themed parks. The Orlando area
features theme parks including Universal Orlando Resort, SeaWorld, and Wet 'n
Military and space industry
Starting in the early twentieth century and accelerating as
World War II
dawned, the state became a
major hub for the United
States Armed Forces
. Naval Air Station Pensacola was originally established as a naval station
in 1826 and became the first American naval aviation facility in
1917. The entire nation mobilized for World War II
and many bases were established in Florida, including Naval Air
Station Jacksonville, Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Naval Air Station Whiting
Field and Homestead Air Force Base. Eglin Air Force Base and MacDill Air Force Base (now the home of U.S. Central Command
) were also developed
during this time. During the Cold War
Florida's coastal access and proximity to Cuba encouraged the
development of these and other military facilities. Since the end
of the Cold War, the military has closed some facilities, including
major bases at Homestead and Cecil Field, but its presence is still
significant in the economy.
Kennedy Space Center
Due to the low latitude of the state, it was chosen in 1949 as a
test site for the country's nascent missile program. Patrick Air
Force Base and the Cape Canaveral launch site began to take shape as the 1950s
By the early 1960s, the Space Race
was in full swing. As programs were
expanded and employees joined, the space program generated a huge
boom in the communities around Cape Canaveral. This area is now
collectively known as the Space Coast
and features the Kennedy Space Center.
It is also a major center of the aerospace industry
. To date, all
manned orbital spaceflights launched by the United States,
including the only men to visit the Moon
been launched from Kennedy Space Center.
Migrations and Civil Rights Movement, 1945-present
Florida's populations have been rapidly changing. After World War
II, Florida was transformed as air
and the Interstate
system encouraged in-migration from the north. In 1950,
Florida was ranked twentieth among the states in population; 50
years later it was ranked fourth. Due to low tax rates and warm
climate, Florida became the destination for many retirees from the
Northeast, Midwest and Canada.
The Cuban Revolution
of 1959 led to
a large wave of Cuban immigration into South Florida, which
transformed Miami into a major center of commerce, finance and
transportation for all of Latin America. Immigration from
Haiti, other Caribbean states, and Central and South America continues to
the present day.
Like other states in the South, Florida had many African American
leaders who were active in the Civil Rights Movement. In the 1940s
and '50s, a new generation started working on issues. Harry Moore
built the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People
) in Florida, rapidly increasing its membership
to 10,000. Because Florida's voter laws were not as restrictive as
those of Georgia and Alabama, he also had some success in
registering black voters. In the 1940s he increased voter
registration among blacks from 5 to 31% of those
The state had white groups who resisted change to the point of
attacking and killing blacks. In December 1951 was the notorious
bombing of the house of activists Harry
and his wife Harriette, who both died of injuries from
the blast. Although their murders were not solved then, a state
investigation in 2006 reported they had been killed by an
independent unit of the Ku Klux Klan
Numerous bombings were directed against African Americans in
1951-1952 in Florida.
The state's population had changed markedly by in-migration of new
groups, as well as outmigration of African Americans, 40,000 of
whom moved north in earlier decades of the twentieth century during
the Great Migration
. By 1960 African
Americans in Florida numbered 880,186 citizens, but represented
only 18% of the state's population. This was a much smaller
proportion than in 1900, when according to the census, they
comprised 44% of the state's population but numbered 231,209
persons. Since the 19th century, educated black middle classes had
developed in numerous cities. By their leadership in Florida and
other states, African Americans gained national support and passage
of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965,
which protected voting for all citizens.
In the years after such legislation, African Americans and other
minorities in the South began to vote and participate more fully in
the political process.
The state created a Civil Service in the constitutional rewrite of
1968. Until that time, every time a cabinet officer or governor
changed, "three fourths of the employees lost their jobs."
2000 Presidential election controversy
Florida became the battleground of the controversial 2000 US presidential election
when a count of the popular votes held on Election Day was
extremely close. Accusations of fraud and manipulation arose.
Subsequent recount efforts degenerated into
arguments over mispunched ballots, "hanging chads," and
controversial decisions by the Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris and the Florida
Supreme Court. Ultimately, the United
States Supreme Court ended all recounts and let stand the official count
by Harris, which was accepted by Congress.
The result was
that George W. Bush was determined to have won the Presidential
Hurricanes and environment
Florida has historically been at risk from hurricanes and tropical
storms. These have presented higher risks and property damage as
the concentration of population and development has increased along
Florida's coastal areas. Not only are more people and property at
risk, but development has overtaken the natural system of wetlands
and waterways, which used to absorb some of the storms'
Hurricane Andrew in 1992 struck Homestead, just south of Miami, and was, until Hurricane
Katrina in 2005, the most expensive natural disaster in US
Besides heavy property damage, the hurricane nearly
destroyed the region's insurance industry.
The western panhandle of the state was damaged heavily in 1995
, with storms Allison
, and Opal
hitting the area within the span of a
few months. The storms increased in strength as the season went on,
culminating with Opal's landfall as a Category 3 in October.
Florida also suffered heavily during the 2004 Atlantic hurricane
, when four major storms struck the state. Hurricane Charley
made landfall in the
Charlotte County area and cut northward through the peninsula,
Atlantic coast and drenched most of central Florida with heavy
rains, Hurricane Ivan
damage in the western Panhandle, and Hurricane Jeanne
caused damage to the same
area as Frances, including compounded beach erosion. Damage from
all four storms was estimated to be at least $22 billion, with some
estimates going as high as $40 billion.
In 2005, South Florida was struck twice, by Hurricane Katrina
and Hurricane Wilma
. The panhandle was struck by
Environmental issues include preservation and restoration of the
Everglades, which has moved slowly. There has been pressure by industry
groups to drill for oil in the eastern
Mexico but so far, large-scale drilling off the coasts of
Florida has been prevented.
- History of places in Florida
- Purdy:2 states that the evidence for the presence of humans in
Florida by 14,000 years ago is "indisputable".
- Milanich 1998:3-12
- Milanich 1998:12-37
- Milanich 1998:38-132
- - retrieved June 17, 2006.
- Hale G. Smith and Marc Gottlob. 1978."Spanish-Indian
Relationships: Synoptic History and Archaeological Evidence,
1500-1763", in Milanich, Jerald and Samuel Proctor. Tacachale:
Essays on the Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia during
the Historic Period. Gainesville, Florida: The University
Presses of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-0535-3
- Gallay, pp. 144-147
- Historical Census Browser, accessed
- Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census,
University of Virginia, accessed 15 Mar 2008
- Maxine D. Rogers, et al., Documented History of
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Sources and further reading
- Baptist, Edward E. Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's
Plantation Frontier Before the Civil War.
- Barnes, Jay. Florida's Hurricane History. University
of North Carolina Press: 1998. ISBN 0-8078-4748-8.
- Brown, Robin C. Florida's First People: 12,000 Years of
Human History. Pineapple Press: 1994. ISBN 1-56164-032-8.
- Burnett, Gene M. Florida's Past: People and Events That
Shaped the State. Pineapple Press: 1998. ISBN
- Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the
English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717. Yale
University Press. 2002. ISBN 0-300-10193-7.
- Gannon, Michael. The New History of Florida.
University Press of Florida: 1996. ISBN 0-8130-1415-8.
- Henderson, Ann L., and Gary R. Mormino. Spanish Pathways in
Florida: 1492-1992. Pineapple Press: 1991. ISBN
- Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida.
University of Illinois Press: 1999. ISBN 0-252-06753-3
- Milanich, Jerald T. Florida's Indians From Ancient Time to
the Present. University Press of Florida. 1998.
- Milanich, Jerald T.. Florida Indians and the Invasion from
Europe. University Press of Florida. 1995. ISBN
- Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People,
Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States. 1974
- Purdy, Barbara A. Florida's People During the Last Ice
Age. University Press of Florida. 2008. ISBN
- Sobel, Robert The Money Manias:
The Eras of Great Speculation in America, 1770-1970 1973.
- Taylor, Robert A., and Lewis N. Wynne. Florida in the Civil
War. Arcadia Publishing: 2002. ISBN 0-7385-1491-8.