The Full Wiki

History of cosmetics: Map

  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The history of cosmetics spans at least 6000 years of human history, and almost every society on earth.

The ancient world

See Cosmetics in Ancient Rome.

The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Ancient Egypt around 4000 BC. The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics. The Romans and Ancient Egyptians, not realizing their dangerous properties, used cosmetics containing mercury and white lead. Fragrances, particularly frankincense and myrrh are mentioned in the Christian Bible: Exodus 30: 34, Gospel of Matthew 2:11. Ancient Egyptians had a wide extent of make-up utensils. One of them is kohl, which was used to outline the eyes. It is made up of lead, copper, burned almonds, soot, and other ingredients. It was believed that eye make-up could ward off evil spirits and improve the sight. Even the poor wore eye make-up in ancient Egypt. The production of cosmetics during ancient Rome was usually done by female slaves called Cosmetae.

Africa

The cosmetic uses of kohl and henna have their roots in north Africa.

The Middle East

Cosmetics were used in Persiamarker and what is today the Middle East from ancient periods. After Arab tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire. . In Islamic Law, there is no prohibition on wearing cosmetics, but there are requirements as stated above. And that the cosmetics must not be made of harmfull substances as to harm ones body.

An early teacher was Abu al-Qssum al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif.. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of Beauty" (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed stocks rolled and pressed in special moulds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification.

South Asia

Henna has been used in Indiamarker since around the 4th or 5th centuries. It is used either as a hair dye, or in the art of mehndi, in which complex designs are painted on to the hands and feet, especially before a Hindu wedding. Henna is also used in some north African cultures. African henna designs tend to be bolder, and Indian designs more complex.

The use of kohl or kajal has a long history in Hindu culture. The use of traditional preparations of kohl on children and adults has been considered to have health benefits, However in the United Statesmarker it has been linked to lead poisoning and is prohibited.

China

Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg from around 3000 BCE. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails.

Japan



In Japanmarker, geishas wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips. Sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Rice powder colors the face and back; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose. Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent. The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.

Europe

In the Middle Ages makeup was thought sinful and immoral by the Church, worn by prostitutes and upper class women. But in the Renaissance and up until the Industrial Revolution it was revived from the rediscovery and reintroduction of the Ancient World. The lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs. The typically light-colored European skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher class a person was, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and mostly women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned women and killed many. Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth". Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style.

The Americas

Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle.

The 20th century

During the early years of the 20th century, make-up became fashionable in the United States of Americamarker and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt. But the most influential new development of all was that of the movie industry in Hollywoodmarker. Among those who saw the opportunity for mass-market cosmetics were Max Factor, Sr., Elizabeth Arden, and Helena Rubinstein. Modern synthetic hair dye was invented in 1907 by Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal. He also invented sunscreen in 1936.

Flapper style influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. Previously, suntans had only been sported by agricultural workers, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day. During the 1960s and 1970s, many women in the western world influenced by feminism decided to go without any cosmetics. The anti-cosmetics movement was an outgrowth of this; feminists in this movement object to cosmetics' role in the second-class status of women, making them mere sex-objects who must waste time with cosmetics. Cosmetics in the 1970s were divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening.

Modern developments in technology, such as the High shear mixer have facilitated the production of cosmetics which are more natural looking and have greater staying power in wear than their predecessors.

Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphiamarker, and was trademarked under the name Mumm. Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965.

References

 ;kiotydssfxdv


See also




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message