The Full Wiki

History of the Caribbean: Map

Advertisements
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the fifteenth century. In the twentieth century the Caribbeanmarker was again important during World War II, in the decolonization wave in the post-war period, and in the tension between Communist Cubamarker and the United Statesmarker (US). Genocide, slavery, immigration and rivalry between world powers have given Caribbean history an impact disproportionate to the size of this small region.

The Caribbean before European contact

The oldest evidence of humans in the Caribbean is in Georgia founded by Christi Torres Trinidadmarker at Banwari Trace where 9-year-old remains have been found. These prem sites, which belong to the Archaic (pre-ceramic) age, have been termed Ortoiroid. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlement in dates to about 3600 BCE, but the reliability of these finds is questioned. Consistent dates of 3100 BCE appear in Cubamarker. The earliest dates in the Lesser Antilles are from 2000 BCE in Antiguamarker. A lack of pre-ceramic sites in the Windward Islands and differences in technology suggest that these Archaic settlers may have Central American origins. Whether an Ortoiroid colonisation of the islands took place is uncertain, but there is little evidence of one.

Between 400 BCE and 200 BCE the first ceramic-using agriculturalists, the Saladoid culture, entered Trinidad from South America. They expanded down the Orinoco River to Trinidad, and then spread rapidly up the islands of the Caribbean. Some time after 250 CE another group, the Barrancoid entered Trinidad. The Barancoid society collapsed along the Orinoco around 650 and another group, the Arauquinoid, expanded into these areas and up the Caribbean chain. Around 1300 a new group, the Mayoid entered Trinidad and remained the dominant culture until Spanish settlement.

At the time of the European discovery of most of the islands of the Caribbean, three major Amerindian indigenous peoples lived on the islands: the Taíno in the Greater Antilles, The Bahamasmarker and the Leeward Islands; the Island Caribs and Galibi in the Windward Islands; and the Ciboney in western Cubamarker. The Taínos are subdivided into Classic Taínos, who occupied Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, Western Taínos, who occupied Cuba, Jamaica, and the Bahamian archipelago, and the Eastern Taínos, who occupied the Leeward Islands. Trinidadmarker was inhabited by both Carib speaking and Arawak-speaking groups.

≤this section needs to be revised, new scientific dna studies have changed some of the pre-Columbian indigenous history≥[8226]

The colonial era

Soon after the voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, both Portuguesemarker and Spanishmarker ships began claiming territories in Central and South America. These colonies brought in gold, and other European powers, most specifically Englandmarker, the Netherlandsmarker, and Francemarker, hoped to establish profitable colonies of their own. Colonial rivalries made the Caribbean a cockpit for European wars for centuries.

Spanish conquest

During the first voyage of the explorer Christopher Columbus (mandated by the Spanish crown to conquer) contact was made with the Lucayans in the Bahamasmarker and the Taíno in Cubamarker and the northern coast of Hispaniolamarker, and a few of the native people were taken back to Spain. Small amounts of gold were found in their personal ornaments and other objects such as masks and belts. The Spanish, who came seeking wealth, enslaved the native population and rapidly drove them to near-extinction. To supplement the Amerindian labour, the Spanish imported African slaves.(see also Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies) Although Spain claimed the entire Caribbean, they settled only the larger islands of Hispaniolamarker, Puerto Rico, Cubamarker, Jamaicamarker and Trinidadmarker.

Other European powers

The other European powers established a presence in the Caribbean after the Spanish Empire declined, partly due to the reduced native population of the area from European diseases.

  • Francis Drake was an English privateer who attacked many Spanish ships and forts in the Caribbean, including San Juanmarker harbour in 1595. His most celebrated Caribbean exploit was the capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Diosmarker in March, 1573.




  • French colonisation too began on St. Kitts, the British and the French splitting the island amongst themselves in 1625. It was used as a base to colonise the much larger Guadeloupemarker (1635) and Martiniquemarker (1635), but was lost completely to Britain in 1713.






  • In 1697 the Spanish ceded the western third of Hispaniola (Haitimarker) to France. France also held control of Tortugamarker.






Impact of Colonialism on the Caribbean

A medalion showing the Capture of Trinidad and Tobago by the British in 1797.
Sir Ralph Abercromby, Commander of the British forces that captured Trinidad and Tobago.
The exploitation of the Caribbeanmarker landscape dates back to the Spanish conquistadors around 1600 who mined the islands for gold which they brought back to Spain. The more significant development came when Christopher Columbus wrote back to Spain that the islands were made for sugar development. The history of Caribbean agricultural dependency is closely linked with European colonialism which altered the financial potential of the region by introducing a plantation system. Much like the Spanish enslaved indigenous Indians to work in gold mines, the seventeenth brought a new series of oppressors in the form of the Dutch, the English, and the French. By the middle of the eighteenth century sugar was Britain's largest import which made the Caribbean that much more important as a colony. The “New World” plantations were established in order to fulfill the growing needs of the “Old World”. The sugar plantations were built with the intention of exporting the sugar back to Britain which is why the British did not need to stimulate local demand for the sugar with wages. A system of slavery was adapted since it allowed the colonizer to have an abundant work force with little worry about declining demands for sugar. In the nineteenth century wages were finally introduced with the abolition of slavery. The new system in place however was similar to the previous as it was based on white capital and colored labor. Large numbers of unskilled workers were hired to perform repeated tasks, which made if very difficult for these workers to ever leave and pursue any non farming employment. Unlike other countries, where there was an urban option for finding work, the Caribbean countries had money invested in agriculture and lacked any core industrial base. The cities that did exist offered limited opportunities to citizens and almost none for the unskilled masses who had worked in agriculture their entire lives. The products produced brought in no profits for the countries since they were sold to the colonial occupant buyer who controlled the price the products were sold at. This resulted in extremely low wages with no potential for growth since the occupant nations had no intention of selling the products at a higher price to themselves. The result of this economic exploitation was a plantation dependence which saw the Caribbean nations possessing a large quantity of unskilled workers capable of performing agricultural tasks and not much else. After many years of colonial rule the nations also saw no profits brought into their country since the sugar production was controlled by the colonial rulers. This left the Caribbean nations with little capital to invest towards enhancing any future industries unlike European nations which were developing rapidly and separating themselves technologically and economically from most impoverished nations of the world.

Wars

The Caribbean region was war-torn throughout much of colonial history, but the wars were often based in Europe, with only minor battles fought in the Caribbeanmarker. Some wars, however, were borne of political turmoil in the Caribbean itself.
  • Thirty Years' War between the Netherlands and Spain.
  • The First, Second, and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars were battles for supremacy.
  • Nine Years' War between the European powers.
  • The War of Spanish Succession (European name) or Queen Anne's War (American name) spawned a generation of some of the most infamous pirates.
  • The War of Jenkins' Ear (American name) or The War of Austrian Succession (European name) Spain and Britain fought over trade rights; Britain invaded Spanish Florida and attacked the citadel of Cartagena de las Indias in present-day Colombia.
  • The Seven Years' War (European name) or French & Indian War (American name) was the first "world war" between France, her ally Spain, and Britain; France was defeated and was willing to give up all of Canada to keep a few highly profitable sugar-growing islands in the Caribbean. Britain seized Havana toward the end, and traded that single city for all of Florida at the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
  • The American Revolution saw large British and French fleets battling in the Caribbean again. American independence was assured by French naval victories in the Caribbean.
  • The French Revolution allowed for the creation of the Republic of Haitimarker.
  • The Spanish-American War ended Spanish control of Cuba and Puerto Rico and heralded the period of American dominance of the islands.


Independence

Map of Antilles / Caribbean in 1843.
Haiti, the former French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola was the first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powers when in 1791, a slave rebellion that became the Haitian Revolution under the leadership of Toussaint l'Ouverture established Haiti as a free, black republic by 1804. Haiti became the world's oldest black republic, and the second-oldest republic in the Western Hemispheremarker, after the United States. The remaining two-thirds of Hispaniola were conquered by Haitian forces in 1821. In 1844, the newly-formed Dominican Republicmarker declared its independence from Haiti.

Some Caribbean nations gained independence from European powers in the nineteenth century. Some smaller states are still dependencies of European powers today.

Cuba & Puerto Rico remained a Spanish colony until the Spanish American War in 1898, when Cuba attained its independence in 1902 and Puerto Rico became an unincorporated territory of the United States. Being the last of the Greater Antilles under colonial control.

Between 1958 and 1962 most of the British-controlled Caribbean became the West Indies Federation before it separated into many separate nations.

Relations with the US

Since the Monroe Doctrine, the United States gained a major influence on most Caribbean nations. In the early part of the twentieth century this influence was extended by participation in The Banana Wars. Areas outside British or French control became known in Europe as "America's tropical empire".

Victory in the Spanish-American war and the signing of the Platt amendment in 1901 ensured that the United States would have the right to interfere in Cuban political and economic affairs, militarily if necessary. After the Cuban revolution of 1959 relations deteriorated rapidly leading to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis and successive US attempts to destabilise the island. The US invaded and occupied Hispaniolamarker (present day Dominican Republicmarker and Haitimarker) for 19 years (1915-34), subsequently dominating the Haitian economy through aid and loan repayments. The US invaded Haiti again in 1994 and in 2004 were accused by CARICOM of arranging a coup d'état to remove elected Haitian leader Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

In 1965, 23,000 US troops were sent to the Dominican Republic to quash a local uprising against military rule. President Lyndon Johnson had ordered the invasion to stem what he claimed to be a "Communist threat", however the mission appeared ambiguous and was roundly condemned throughout the hemisphere as a return to gunboat diplomacy. In 1983 the US invaded Grenadamarker to remove populist left-wing leader Maurice Bishop. The US maintains a naval military base in Cuba at Guantanamo Baymarker. The base is one of five unified commands whose "area of responsibility" is Latin America and the Caribbean. The command is headquartered in a Miamimarker, Floridamarker office building.

As an arm of the economic and political network of the Americas, the influence of the United States stretches beyond a military context. In economic terms, the United States represents a primary market for the export of Caribbean goods. Notably, this is a recent historical trend. The post-war era reflects a time of transition for the Caribbean basin when, as colonial powers sought to disentangle from the region (as part of a larger trend of decolonization), the US began to expand its hegemony throughout the region. This pattern is confirmed by economic initiatives such as the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI), which sought to congeal alliances with the region in light of a perceived Sovietmarker threat. The CBI marks the emergence of the Caribbean basin as a geopolitical area of strategic interest to the US. This relationship has carried through to the 21st century, as reflected by the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act. The Caribbean Basin is also of strategic interest in regards to trade routes; it has been estimated that nearly half of US foreign cargo and crude oil imports are brought via Caribbean seaways. During wartime, these figures only stand to increase. It is important to note that the US is also of strategic interest to the Caribbean. Caribbean foreign policy seeks to strengthen its participation in a global free market economy. As an extension of this, Caribbean states do not wish to be excluded from their primary market in the US, or be bypassed in the creation of “wider hemispheric trading blocs” that stand to drastically alter trade and production in the Caribbean Basin. As such, the US has plays an influential role in shaping the Caribbean’s role in this hemispheric market. Likewise, building trade relationships with the US has always figured in strongly with the political goal of economic security in post-independence Caribbean states.

See also



References

  1. Rouse, Irving. The Tainos : Rise and Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus ISBN 0-300-05696-6.
  2. Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.114
  3. Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.3
  4. Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.5
  5. Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.23
  6. Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.27
  7. Cross, Malcolm. Urbanization and Urban Growth in the Caribbean. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. pp.28


Further reading

  • de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, London, New York, published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs by Oxford University Press, 1972.
  • Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  • Klooster, Wim, Illicit riches. Dutch trade in the Caribbean, 1648-1795, 1998 KITLVmarker


External links







Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message