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Hobart ( ) is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmaniamarker. Founded in 1803 as a penal colony, Hobart is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydneymarker. In 2008, the city had a greater area population of approximately 209,287. The city is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, and also serves as the home port for both Australian and French Antarcticmarker operations.

The city is located in the state's south-east on the estuary of the Derwent Rivermarker. The skyline is dominated by Mount Wellingtonmarker at 1,271 metres high.

History

The first settlement began in 1803 as a penal colony at Risdon Covemarker on the eastern shores of the Derwent Rivermarker, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804 it was moved to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivan's Cove. The city, initially known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the Colonial Secretary. The area's original inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. A series of bloody encounters with the Europeans and the effects of diseases brought by the settlers forced away the aboriginal population, which was rapidly replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February, 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition. He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:
...The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared; and the bright yellow fields of corn, and dark green ones of potatoes, appear very luxuriant...
I was chiefly struck with the comparative fewness of the large houses, either built or building.
Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, and the whole of Tasmania 36,505.


But since the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Oceanmarker whaling and the sealing trade, it rapidly grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, and was renamed Hobart in 1875.

Geography

The City of Hobart (green) and Greater Hobart (teal)


Topography

This section discusses the topography of the Greater Hobart area and as such pinpoints the regions of urban sprawl of the suburbs and the towns included in the Greater Hobart area as well as land formations.Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent Rivermarker in the state's south-east at . Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic Dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian Mudstone. Much of the waterfront of the Hobart CBD is built on Reclaimed land such as the Sullivans Cove and Salamanca areas, done during the convict era of Tasmania.

Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent Rivermarker, on the Western Shore from the Derwent Valley in the North through the flatter areas of Glenorchy which rests on older Triassic sediment and into the hilly areas of New Town, Lenah Valley both resting on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the South, in the Derwent Estuary. The Eastern Shore also extends from the Derwent Valley area in a Southerly direction hugging the Meehan Ranges in the East before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive. These flatter areas of the Eastern Shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Ranges into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdalemarker

Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent Estuary itself; Sandy Bay, Nutgrove, Kingston, Bellerive and Howrah Beaches as well as many more in Frederick Henry Bay such as; Seven Mile, Roaches, Cremorne, Clifton and Goats Beaches.
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Climate

Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). The highest temperature recorded was 40.8°C on 4 January 1976 and the lowest was −2.8°C on 25 June 1972. Compared to other major Australia cities, Hobart has the second fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. (Melbourne has the fewest) Although Hobart rarely receives snow during the winter, the adjacent Mount Wellington is often seen with a snowcap. Unseasonal mountain snow covering has been known to occur during the other seasons. During the 20th century, Hobart did receive many snowfalls at sea level because of cold air masses arriving from Antarctica. These snow-bearing winds often carried on through Tasmania and Victoria to the Snowy Mountainsmarker in southern New South Walesmarker and northern Victoriamarker. Though snow is unusual in general at sea level in Australia, Hobart has had the most sea level snowfalls out of any Australian capital city, although Canberramarker, Sydneymarker, Melbournemarker, and Adelaidemarker have sometimes recorded some snow.

See also: A graph of the climate of Hobart as measured and recorded on Ellerslie Road


Demographics

As of the 2006 census there were 200,525 people in the greater Hobart area and the City of Hobart local government area has a population of 47,700. According to the 2006 census, approximately 12.0% of greater Hobart's residents were born overseas, commonly the United Kingdommarker, New Zealandmarker, Germanymarker and Netherlandsmarker.

Most common occupations are Professionals 21.6%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 16.1%, Technicians and Trades Workers 13.8%, Managers 11.5% and Community and Personal Service Workers 10.6%. Median weekly household income was $869, compared with $1,027 nationally.

In the 2006 census, 63.8% of residents specified a Christian religion. Major religious affiliations are Anglican 29.8%, Catholic 21.1%, Uniting Church 4.2% and Presbyterian and Reformed 2.0%. In addition, 21.6% specified "No Religion" and 12.0% did not answer.

Economy

Hobart is a busy seaport, notably serving as the home port for the Antarcticmarker activities of Australia and Francemarker. The port loads around 2,000 tonnes of Antarctic cargo a year for the Australian research vessel Aurora Australis.

The city also supports several other industries, including a high-speed catamaran factory Incat and a zinc smelter operated by Nyrstar, as well as a vibrant tourist industry. Visitors come to the city to explore its historic inner suburbs, to visit the weekly market in Salamanca Place, as well as to use the city as a base from which to explore the rest of Tasmaniamarker.

Other notable businesses in the area include the Cadbury chocolate factory and the Cascade Brewerymarker located in South Hobartmarker near the natural spring waters of Mount Wellingtonmarker. The Hobart surrounding area has many vineyards, including Moorilla Estatemarker at Berriedalemarker.

Distinctive features

The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardensmarker is a popular recreation area a short distance from the City centre. It is the second-oldest Botanic Gardens in Australia and holds extensive significant plant collections as well as built heritage.

Mount Wellingtonmarker, accessible by passing through Fern Tree, is the dominant feature of Hobart's skyline, indeed many descriptions of Hobart have used the phrase "nestled amidst the foothills", so undulating is the geographical landscape. At 1,271 metres, the mountain has its own ecosystems, is rich in biodiversity and plays a large part in determining the local weather.

The Tasman Bridgemarker is also a uniquely important feature of the city, connecting the two shores of Hobart and visible from many locations.

Culture

Arts and entertainment

Hobart is home to the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, which is resident at the Federation Concert Hall on the city's waterfront. It offers a year-round program of concerts and is thought to be one of the finest small orchestras in the world.
Hobart also plays host to the University of Tasmania's acclaimed Australian International Symphony Orchestra Institute (AISOI) which brings pre-professional advanced young musicians to town from all over Australia and internationally. The AISOI plays host to a public concert season during the first two weeks of December every year focusing on large symphonic music. Like the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, the AISOI uses the Federation Concert Hall as its performing base.

Hobart has also long been home to a thriving classical, jazz, folk, punk, hip-hop, electro, metal and rock music scene. Internationally recognised musicians such as singer/songwriters Michael Noga (of The Drones), The Paradise Motel, The Scientists of Modern Music Sacha Lucashenko of The Morning After Girls, two thirds of indie rock band Love Of Diagrams, post punk band Sea Scouts, singer-songwriter Monique Brumby, blues guitarist Phil Manning (of blues-rock band Chain), power-pop group The Innocents, maverick DIY overlord Sean Bailey (Lakes, Paeces, Wasted Truth) and metal bands Striborg and Psycroptic are all successful expatriates. In addition, founding member of Violent Femmes, Brian Ritchie, now calls Hobart home, and has formed a local band, The Green Mist.

Several festivals such as the Hobart Fringe Festival, Hobart Summer Festival, Southern Roots Festival, Ten Days On The Island and the Falls Festival in Marion Bay and The Soundscape Festival all capitalise on Hobart's artistic communities.

Hobart is home to the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Hobart also hosts the bulk of the 10 Days on the Island festival, a biannual international arts festival.

Australia's first legal casino was the 17-storey Wrest Point Hotel Casinomarker in Sandy Baymarker, opened in 1973. It is still the tallest building in the city, despite being several kilometres out of the CBD, and is a nationally recognised icon.

The Hobart nightlife primarily revolves around Salamanca Place, the waterfront area and Elizabeth St in North Hobart, but popular pubs, bars and nightclubs exist around the city as well. Major national and international music events are usually held at the Derwent Entertainment Centremarker, or the Casinomarker.
Popular restaurant strips include Elizabeth Streetmarker in North Hobartmarker, and Salamanca Place near the waterfront. These include a large number of ethnic restaurants including Chinese, Thai, Greek, Pakistani, Italian, Indian and Mexican.

Hobart is home to Australia's oldest theatre, the Theatre Royal. It also has three Village Cinema complexes, one each in the city, Glenorchymarker and Rosnymarker. The State Cinema in North Hobart specialises in arthouse and foreign films.

Events

Hobart is internationally famous among the yachting community as the finish of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race which starts in Sydneymarker on Boxing Day (the day after Christmas Day). The arrival of the yachts is celebrated as part of the Hobart Summer Festival, a food and wine festival beginning just after Christmas and ending in mid-January. The Taste of Tasmania is a major part of the festival, where locals and visitors can taste fine local and international food and wine.

Hobart is the finish point of the Targa Tasmania rally car event held annually in April since 1991.

The annual Tulip Festival at the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardensmarker is a popular Spring celebration in the City.

The Australian Wooden Boat Festival is a bi-annual event held in Hobart celebrating wooden boats. It is held concurrently with the Royal Hobart Regatta, which began in 1830 and is therefore Tasmania's oldest sporting event.

Sports in Hobart



Most of Hobart's sporting teams in national competitions are statewide teams rather than exclusively city teams. These include the Tasmanian Tigers cricket team, which plays its home games at the Bellerive Ovalmarker on the Eastern Shore.

Despite Australian rules football's huge popularity in the state of Tasmania, the state does not have a team in the Australian Football League. However, a bid for an Tasmanian AFL team is a popular topic among football fans as well as by the State government (one of the potential sponsors of such a team).

However, local domestic club football is still played, Tasmanian State League football features five clubs from Hobart, other leagues such as Southern Football League and the Old Scholars Football Association are also played each Winter.

Tasmania is not represented by teams in national, rugby union, rugby league, netball, soccer, or basketball leagues. However, the "Oasis Hobart Chargers" team does represent Hobart in the South East Australian Basketball League (SEABL). Besides the AFL bid for Aussie Rules football, there is also a Tasmanian bid applying for entry into the A-League.

Hockey Tasmania has a men's team (the Tasmanian Tigers) and a women's team (the Van Demons) competing in the Australian Hockey League.

Media

Hobart's major newspaper is The Mercury, which was founded by John Davies in 1854 and has been continually published ever since. The paper is currently owned and operated by Rupert Murdoch's News Limited.

Nine free-to-air television channels service Hobart. Commercial television channels are provided by Southern Cross Tasmania, Tasmanian Digital Television (TDT), also providing One HD in high definition only, and WIN Television, also providing the nationwide Go! channel. The Australian Broadcasting Corporationmarker provides ABC1marker and ABC2. Multicultural broadcaster SBS provides SBS One and SBS Two.Until 1986, television broadcasts in the city were restricted to two channels: TVT-6 and the ABC. In 1986, SBS began transmission to the city. In 1994 market aggregation allowed Launcestonmarker based station TNT-9 (now Southern Cross Tasmania) to broadcast to Hobart as well. TVT-6 (since known as TasTV, now WIN Television) took on a Nine Network affiliation, with Southern Cross carrying both Seven and Ten programming. All stations commenced digital broadcasting during 2003, and in December 2003, a fifth station, TDT, began broadcasting. TDT is a joint venture between Southern Cross and WIN. In March 2005, ABC2 came on-line.In 2009, One HD and GO! were made available in Hobart. One HD in Tasmania is known as One HD Tasmania.Pay TV services are provided by Austar and SelecTV via satellite.

Commercial radio stations licensed to cover the Hobart market include 7HO FM, Sea FM and Heart 107.3. Local community radio stations include Christian radio station Ultra106five, youth station Edge Radio and 92FM which targets the wider community with specialist programmes. The five ABC radio networks available on analogue radio broadcast to Hobart via 936 ABC Hobart, Radio National, Triple J, Newsradio and ABC Classic FM.

Government

The Greater Hobart Metropolitan consists of five local government areas of which three, City of Hobartmarker, City of Glenorchy and City of Clarence are designated as cities. Hobart also includes the urbanised local governments of the Municipality of Kingborough and Municipality of Brighton. All of the local governments are responsible for their own urban, up to a certain scale, and residential planning as well as waste management and mains water storage.

Most city wide events such as the Taste of Tasmania and Hobart Summer Festival, are funded by the Tasmanian State Government as a joint venture with the local council. Urban planning of the Hobart CBD in particular the Heritage listed areas such as Sullivans Cove are also intensely scrutinised by State Government, which is operated out of Parliament House on the waterfront.

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Education

Hobart is home to the main campus of the University of Tasmania, situated in Sandy Baymarker. On-site accommodation colleges include Christ College, Jane Franklin Hall and St John Fisher College. Other campuses are in Launceston and Burnie.

Infrastructure

Transportation



The only public transportation within the city of Hobart is via a network of Metro Tasmania buses funded bythe Tasmanian Government; and also a few private bus services. Like many large cities, Hobart once operated passenger tram services, a trolleybus network consisting of six routes which operated until 1968. However, the tramway closed in the early 1960s. The tracks are still visible in the older streets of Hobart. Suburban passenger trains, run by the Tasmanian Government Railways, were closed in 1974 and the intrastate passenger service, the Tasman Limited, ceased running in 1979.

The main arterial routes within the urban area are the Brooker Highway to Glenorchymarker and the northern suburbs, the Tasman Bridgemarker and Bowen Bridgemarker across the river to Rosnymarker and the Eastern Shore. The East Derwent Highway to Lindisfarne, Geilston Bay, and Northwards to Brighton, the South Arm Highway leading to Howrah, Rokeby, Lauderdale and Opossum Bay and the Southern Outlet south to Kingstonmarker and the D'Entrecasteaux Channelmarker. Leaving the city, motorists can travel the Lyell Highway to the west coast, Midland Highway to Launcestonmarker and the north, Tasman Highway to the east coast, or the Huon Highway to the far south.

Ferry services from Hobart's Eastern Shore into the city were once a common form of public transportation, but with lack of government funding, as well as a lack of interest from the private sector, there has been the demise of a regular commuter ferry service – leaving Hobart's commuters relying solely on travel by automobiles and buses. There is however a water taxi operating from the Eastern Shore into Hobart which provides an alternative to the Tasman Bridgemarker.

Hobart is served by Hobart International Airportmarker with flights to/from Melbourne (Qantas, Virgin Blue, Jetstar, and Tiger Airways); Sydney (Qantas, Jetstar, and Virgin Blue); Brisbane (Virgin Blue); Adelaide (Virgin Blue and Tiger Airways); and Canberra (Virgin Blue). The smaller Cambridge Aerodromemarker mainly serves small charter airlines offering local tourist flights. In the past decade, Hobart International Airport received a huge upgrade, with the airport now being a first class airport facility. In 2009, it was announced that Hobart Airport would receive more upgrades, upgrades including a first floor, aerobridges (currently, passengers must walk on the tarmac), Shopping facilities, possible new flights to Asia and New Zealand and possible new national flights to Darwin, Cairns and Perth, A second runway is possible to be underway in the next 15 years to assist with growing passenger numbers to Hobart. Hobart Control Tower may be renovated and fitted with new radar equipment and the airport's carpark maybe extended further. Also, new facilities will be built just outside the airport, with a new service station, hotel and day care centre already been built and the road leading to the airport has been maintained and re-sealed.

Sister cities



See also



References

  1. Frank Bolt, The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804, ISBN 0 975 71660 3
  2. Parliament of Tasmania – House of Assembly Standing Orders "We acknowledge the traditional people of the land upon which we meet today, the Mouheneener people."
  3. Australian Bureau of Meteorology
  4. Religious Affiliation (broad groups) by Sex – Greater Hobart
  5. State Cinema
  6. [1] Hobart City Council - Sister Cities (Retrieved August 16, 2009)


Further reading

  • Bolt, Frank (2004) The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804 Peregrine Pty Ltd, Kettering Tasmania. ISBN 0-9757166-0-3


External links




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