Hollywood is a district in
Angeles, situated west-northwest of Downtown Los
Due to its fame and cultural identity
as the historical center
of movie studios
and movie stars
, the word "Hollywood" is often used
as a metonymy
of American cinema
. The nickname
refers to the glittering, superficial nature of
Hollywood and the movie industry. Today, much of the movie industry
has dispersed into surrounding areas such as the Westside
neighborhood, but significant
auxiliary industries, such as editing
companies, remain in Hollywood, as does
of Paramount Pictures
Many historic Hollywood theaters
are used as
venues and concert stages to premiere major theatrical releases and
host the Academy Awards
. It is a popular
destination for nightlife, and tourism and is home to the Hollywood Walk
it is not the typical practice of the city of Los Angeles to establish specific boundaries for districts or
neighborhoods, Hollywood is a recent exception. On February 16, 2005,
California Assembly Members
Goldberg and Koretz introduced a
bill to require California to keep specific records on Hollywood as though it
For this to be done, the boundaries were
defined. This bill was unanimously supported by the Hollywood
Chamber of Commerce
Los Angeles City Council
Assembly Bill 588 was approved by the Governor on August 28, 2006,
and now the district of Hollywood has official borders.
can be loosely described as the area east of Beverly
Hills and West Hollywood, south of Mulholland
Drive, Laurel Canyon, Cahuenga
Boulevard, and Barham Boulevard, and the cities of Burbank and Glendale, north of Melrose
Avenue and west of the Golden
State Freeway and Hyperion Avenue. This includes all of
Park and Los
Feliz—two areas that were hitherto generally considered
separate from Hollywood by most Angelenos.
The population of the district,
including Los Feliz, as of the 2000 census was 167,664 and the
household income was $33,409 in
portion of the city of Los Angeles, Hollywood does not have its own municipal
government, but does have an official, appointed by the Hollywood
Chamber of Commerce, who serves as an honorary "Mayor of Hollywood" for ceremonial
purposes only. Johnny Grant
this position for decades, until his death on January 9,
In 1853, one adobe
hut stood on the site that
became Hollywood. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished in
the area with thriving crops. A locally popular etymology is that
the name "Hollywood" traces to the ample stands of native Toyon
or "California Holly", that cover the hillsides
with clusters of bright red berries each winter. But this and
accounts of the name coming from imported holly
then growing in the area, are not confirmed. The
name Hollywood was coined by H. J. Whitley
, the Father of Hollywood.
He and his wife, Gigi, came up with the name while on their
honeymoon in 1886, according to Margaret Virginia Whitley
memoir. The name "Hollywood" was used by H. H. Wilcox when he laid
out his 160 acre farm in 1887. On February 1, 1887 Harvey filed a
deed and map of property he sold with the Los Angeles County
Recorder's office. He had learned of the name Hollywood from his
neighbor Ivar Weid and wanted to be the first to record it on a
By 1900, the community then called Cahuenga
had a post office, newspaper, hotel and two markets, along with a
population of 500. Los Angeles, with a population of 100,000 people
at the time, lay east through the citrus groves. A single-track
ran down the middle of
Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip
took two hours. The old citrus fruit packing house would be
converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the
inhabitants of Hollywood.
Hollywood Hotel 1905.
The first section of the famous Hollywood Hotel
, the first major hotel in
Hollywood, was opened in 1902, by H. J. Whitley
, the President of the Los
Pacific Boulevard and Development Company of which he was a major
shareholder. He was eager to sell residential lots among the lemon
ranches then lining the foothills. Flanking the west side of
, the structure
fronted on Prospect Avenue
. Still a
dusty, unpaved road, it was regularly graded and graveled. His
company opened and developed the first residential area the Ocean
Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality
in 1903. Among the town ordinances
was one prohibiting the sale of liquor
and one outlawing the
driving of cattle through the streets in herds of more than two
hundred. In 1904, a new trolley car track running from Los Angeles
to Hollywood up Prospect Avenue was opened. The system was called
"the Hollywood Boulevard." It cut travel time to and from Los
because of an ongoing struggle to secure an adequate water supply, the townsmen voted for Hollywood to be
annexed into the City of Los Angeles, as the
water system of the growing city had opened the Los Angeles Aqueduct and was piping
water down from the Owens
River in the Owens Valley.
Another reason for the vote was that
Hollywood could have access to drainage through Los Angeles´ sewer
system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue was changed to
and all the street
numbers in the new district changed. For example, 100
Prospect Avenue, at Vermont Avenue,
became 6400 Hollywood Boulevard; and 100 Cahuenga Boulevard, at
Hollywood Boulevard, changed to 1700 Cahuenga
Motion picture industry
Nestor Studio, Hollywood's first movie
Filmmaking in the greater Los Angeles area preceded the
establishment of filmmaking in Hollywood. The Biograph Company
short film A Daring Hold-Up in Southern California
Angeles in 1906. The first studio in the Los Angeles area was
established by the Selig
construction beginning in August 1909.
In early 1910, director D. W. Griffith
sent by the Biograph Company
the west coast with his troupe, consisting of actors Blanche Sweet
, Mary Pickford
, Lionel Barrymore
and others. They started
filming on a vacant lot in downtown Los Angeles. The company
decided to explore new territories and traveled five miles
(8 km) north to the little village of Hollywood, which was
friendly and enjoyed the movie company filming there. Griffith then
filmed the first film
ever shot in Hollywood
called In Old California
a one-reel melodrama set in Mexican colonial-era California in the
1800s. The movie company stayed there for months and made many,
many films before returning to New York.
The first studio in Hollywood was established by the New
Jersey-based Centaur Co., which wanted to make westerns in
California. They rented an unused roadhouse
at 6121 Sunset Boulevard
at the corner of Gower
, and converted it into a
movie studio in October 1911, calling it Nestor Studio after the
name of the western branch of their company. The first feature film
made specifically in a Hollywood
studio, in 1914, was The
, directed by Cecil
B. DeMille and
Oscar Apfel, and was filmed at the
Lasky-DeMille Barn amongst other area locations.
By 1915, the majority of American films were being produced in the
Los Angeles area.
Hollywood movie studios, 1922.
Four major film companies — Paramount
— had studios in Hollywood, as
did several minor companies and rental studios.
By 1920, Hollywood had become world famous as the center of the
United States film
From the 1920s to the 1940s, a large percentage of transportation
to and from Hollywood was by means of the red cars
January 22, 1947, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, KTLA, began
operating in Hollywood.
In December of that year, The
became the first network television series
to be filmed in Hollywood. And in the 1950s, music recording
studios and offices began moving into Hollywood. Other businesses,
however, continued to migrate to different parts of the Los Angeles
area, primarily to Burbank.
Much of the movie industry remained in
Hollywood, although the district's outward appearance
CBS built CBS Television City on the corner of Fairfax Avenue and Beverly Boulevard, on the former site of
CBS's expansion into the Fairfax District
pushed the unofficial boundary of Hollywood further south than it
had been. CBS's slogan for the shows taped there was "From
Television City in Hollywood..."
the early 1950s the famous Hollywood
Freeway was constructed from Four Level Interchange interchange in downtown Los Angeles, past the
Bowl, up through Cahuenga Pass and into the San Fernando Valley.
In the early days, streetcars ran up
through the pass, on rails running along the central median.
Records building on Vine St. just
north of Hollywood Boulevard was built in 1956.
houses offices and recording studios which are not open to the
public, but its circular design looks like a stack of vinyl
The now derelict lot at the corner of Hollywood Boulevard and
Serrano Avenue was once the site of the illustrious Hollywood Professional School
whose alumni reads like a Hollywood Who's Who of household "names".
Many of these former child stars attended a "farewell" party at the
commemorative sealing of a time capsule buried on the lot.
of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists working
in the entertainment industry and the first embedded star on the
walk—honoring actress Joanne
Woodward -- was set in place on February 9, 1960.
Honorees receive a star based on career and lifetime achievements
in motion pictures, live theatre
, television, and/or music, as well
as their charitable and civic contributions.
Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was officially listed in the National Register of
Historic Places protecting important buildings and ensuring
that the significance of Hollywood's past would always be a part of
1999, the long-awaited Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail
Red Line subway opened, running from Downtown Los
Angeles to the Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western
Avenue, Vine Street and Highland Avenue.
Theatre, which opened in 2001 on Hollywood Boulevard at
Highland Avenue, where the historic Hollywood Hotel once stood, has become the
new home of the Oscars.
While motion picture production still occurs within the Hollywood
district, most major studios are actually located elsewhere in the
Los Angeles region. Paramount
is the only major studio still physically located
within Hollywood. Other studios in the district include the
aforementioned Jim Henson (formerly Chaplin) Studios, Sunset Gower
Studios, and Raleigh Studios.
Hollywood and the adjacent neighborhood of Los
Feliz served as the initial homes for all of the early
television stations in the Los Angeles market, most have now relocated to other
locations within the metropolitan area. KNBC began this
exodus in 1962, when it moved from the former NBC Radio City Studios located at the
northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street to NBC Studios in Burbank. KTTV pulled up
stakes in 1996 from its former home at Metromedia Square in the 5700 block of Sunset Boulevard to relocate
to Bundy Drive in West Los Angeles. KABC-TV moved from its original location at ABC Television
Center (now branded The Prospect Studios) just east of Hollywood to Glendale in 2000, though the Los Angeles bureau of ABC News
still resides at Prospect. After being purchased by 20th Century Fox in 2001, KCOP left its
former home in the 900 block of North La Brea Avenue to join KTTV
on the Fox lot. The CBS
Corporation-owned duopoly of KCBS-TV and KCAL-TV moved from its longtime home at CBS Columbia
Square in the 6100 block of Sunset Boulevard to a new
facility at CBS Studio
Center in Studio City. KTLA, located in
the 5800 block of Sunset Boulevard, and KCET, in the
4400 block of Sunset Boulevard, are the last broadcasters
(television or radio) with Hollywood addresses.
Additionally, Hollywood once served as the home of nearly every
radio station in Los Angeles, all of which have now moved into
other communities. KNX was the
last station to broadcast from Hollywood, when it left CBS Columbia
Square for a studio in the Miracle
Mile in 2005.
In 2002, a number of Hollywood citizens began a campaign for the
district to secede from Los Angeles and become, as it had been a
century earlier, its own incorporated municipality. Secession
supporters argued that the needs of their community were being
ignored by the leaders of Los Angeles. In June of that year,
the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors placed secession
referendums for both Hollywood and the San Fernando
Valley on the ballots for a "citywide election."
pass, they required the approval of a majority of voters in the
proposed new municipality as well as a majority of voters in all of
Los Angeles. In the November election, both referendums failed by
wide margins in the citywide vote.
Hollywood is served by several neighborhood councils, including the
Hollywood United Neighborhood Council (HUNC) 
the Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council. 
These two groups
are part of the network of neighborhood councils certified by the
City of Los Angeles Department of Neighborhood Empowerment, or
Neighborhood Councils cast advisory
votes on such issues as zoning, planning, and other community
issues. The council members are voted in by stakeholders, generally
defined as anyone living, working, owning property, or belonging to
an organization within the boundaries of the council. 
After many years of serious decline, when many Hollywood landmarks
were threatened with demolition, Hollywood is now undergoing rapid
with the goal of urban density
mind. Many developments have been completed, typically centered on
Hollywood Boulevard. The Hollywood and Highland complex (site of the Kodak Theater), has been a major catalyst for the redevelopment
of the area.
In addition, numerous fashionable bar
businesses have opened on or
surrounding the boulevard, returning Hollywood to a center of
nightlife in Los Angeles. Many older buildings have also been
converted to lofts and condominiums, Cosmo
was the first live/work loft development in the Hollywood
area. A W Hotel is currently under construction at the intersection
of Hollywood and Vine. HollyWood
Hollywood neighborhoods and communities
the neighborhood of Hollywood that includes most of Hollywood
Boulevard and Sunset Boulevard falls within the 13th District of
the City of Los Angeles. Recent city councilmembers include:
Michael Woo: 1985-1993
Jackie Goldberg: 1994-2000
Eric Garcetti: 2000-present
The city agency that spearheads revitalization within the Hollywood
Redevelopment Project Area is the Community Redevelopment of Los
Angeles located in the House of Blues Building at 6244 Sunset
Blvd., #2206, Hollywood, CA 90028.
As of the 2000 census, there were 210,777 people residing in the
Community Plan Area of Hollywood. The population density was 8,443
people per square mile (3,261/km²). The racial makeup of the
community was 59.84% White
(47.27% White Non-Hispanic), 9.44% Asian
, 0.13% Pacific Islander
0.62% Native American
19.10% from other races
6.59% from two or more races. 34.51% of the population were
of any race. 49.63%
of the population was foreign born; of this, 46.24% came from Latin
America, 32.73% from Asia, 17.80% from Europe and 3.23% from other
parts of the world.
Students who live in Hollywood are zoned to schools in the Los Angeles Unified School
. The area is within Board District 4. As of 2008
Marlene Canter represents the district. Canter announced that she
will not seek re-election after her term expires in June
Hollywood High School
Helen Bernstein High
are public high schools in the Hollywood area.
Christ the King Elementary School is a private school in the
For many years, the motion picture Industry had its own
privateIndustry-run institution for child actors, the Hollywood Professional
The Will and Ariel Durant Branch and the Frances Howard Goldwyn –
Hollywood Regional Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library
Hollywood Bowl opening night
Grauman's Chinese Theater.
The Ripley's Believe It or Not!
Crossroads of the World.
- The Academy Awards are held in
late February/early March (since 2004) of each year, honoring the
preceding year in film. Prior to 2004, they were held in late
March/early April. Since 2002, the Oscars have been held at their
new home at the Kodak Theater at Hollywood Boulevard and Highland
Classic Film Festival & Exposition (Annual timing is five
days—connected to Labor Day weekend) Classic film memorabilia,
expert presentations, author signings, and movie screenings with
- The annual Hollywood
Christmas Parade: The 2006 parade on Nov 26th, was the 75th
edition of the Christmas Parade. The parade goes down Hollywood
Boulevard and is broadcast in the LA area on KTLA, and around
the United States on Tribune-owned stations and the WGN superstation. 
Hollywood history books
- Gaelyn Whitley Keith (2006) The Father of Hollywood: The
True Story (Hardcover), Book Surge, An Amazon.com Company.
- Nudelman, Robert & Wanamaker, Marc (2005) Historic
Hollywood: An Illustrated History (Hardcover), Texas:
Historical Pub Network. (ISBN 978-1893619463)
- R. Jezek, George & Wanamaker, Marc (2003) Hollywood:
Now and Then (Hardcover), California: George Ross Jezek
Photography & Publishing. (ISBN 978-0970103611)
- Gregory Paul Williams (2005) The Story of Hollywood: An
Illustrated History (Hardcover), BL Press LLC. (ISBN
- City of Los Angeles Map - Larger View
- Scott (2005).
- Keith (2006).
- ^ "Death Calls H.J. Whitley. Real Estate Man Known as "Father
of Hollywood". Pioneer in Many Southland Developments.". Los
Retrieved 2008-07-17. "H. J. Whitley, pioneer California real
estate man and known as the "Father of Hollywood." died yesterday
at the age of 83 years and after an illness of more than a year.
Mr. Whitley died during his sleep while staying as a guest of his
son Ross Whitley at the Whitley Park"
- Niver (1971), p. 262.
- Robertson (2001), p. 21.
- Robertson (2001), p. 21. The facility later became the
Hollywood Film Laboratory, which is now called the Hollywood
- Feature-length films made in the Los Angeles
area before The Squaw Man include From Dusk to
Dawn (1913) and The Sea Wolf (1913). American
Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures.
- Koszarski (1994), p. 99.
- Russell Leavitt, In California: A Fading Hollywood,
TIME magazine, June 14, 1982
- City of Los Angeles Census 2000 Statistical
Profile, Community Plan Area: Hollywood
- Board District 4 Map. Los Angeles Unified School
District. Retrieved on November 24, 2008.
- " Board Members." Los Angeles Unified School
District. Retrieved on November 24, 2008.
- " Two LAUSD board members retire, Friedlander wins
Shoah scholarship prize." The Jewish Journal. November
- Keith, Gaelyn Whitley (2006). The Father of Hollywood: The
True Story. BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 1419641948.
- Koszarski, Richard (1994). An Evening's Entertainment: The
Age of the Silent Feature Picture, University of California
Press. ISBN 0520085353.
- Niver, Kemp R. (1971). Biograph Bulletins, 1896–1908.
Los Angeles: Locare Research Group.
- Robertson, Patrick (2001). Film Facts, Billboard
- Scott, Allen J. (2005). On Hollywood: The Place, The
Industry. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691116830.