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Homam-e Tabrizi ( ) or HOMĀM-AL-DIN B. ʿALĀʾ TABRIZI(1238/39 to 1314/1315) was an Persian poet of the Ilkhanid era. He was a follower of Saadi and his poetry was mostly in form of ghazal.


His birthplace is unknown as are details of his life and education. Most sources following Dowlatshah Samarqandi claim that he was a student of Nasir al-Din Tusi. He is also said to be a student or associate of Qutb al-Din Shirazi. He roses in prominence in the political and intellectual circles of Tabrizmarker and was close to the Jovayni family. He also founded a Sufi lodge house (Khanghah) in Tabriz which was endowed by the Jovayni family. Homam mentions a travel to Baghdadmarker and is said to have made a pilgramage to Meccamarker. He is bured in the poet's monument Maqbaratoshoaramarker in Tabriz. An important book detailing cultural activities of Tabriz in the Ilkhanid era called Safina-yi Tabriz sheds more light on the cultural activities of the city.

Works and influences

Homam left a prose, a commendation (Taqriz) of Rashid al-Din's "Esharat" contained in a manuscript in the library of Tehran university. He is most well known for his Divan which is around 3944 verses. The Divan contains Persian, Arabic poems and also macaronic ghazal in Persian and the Iranian old Azari language. Homām is best known for his ḡazals, which follow those of Saʿdi in style and tone. Many of them are replies (jawābs) to specific ḡazals of Saʿdi (see, e.g., Ḥabib al-siar II, p 564; IV, p. 653), and later Homām was called “the Saʿdi of Azerbaijan” (Ātaškada I, p. 146). The Ghazals in the Divan are his most important contribution to Persian literature. Many of them are replies to the Ghazals of the Persian poet Saadi and later Homam was called the "Saadi of Azerbaijan". Among his Mathnawi, two stand out in particular. One is a in the meter of Sanai's Hadiqat al-haqiqa and focuses on similar themes. The other, "Sohbat-nama" is a disquisition on love. Homam's poetry was influenced by Saadi, Sanai and Anvari. In turn, he influenced Hafez and Kamal al-Din Khujandi.

Sample Persian Poetry

A sample quatrain from Homam in Persian:

پس از سال به خوابت ديده ام دوش

مبادا هرگز آن خوابم فراموش

هنوزم هست ديدار تو در چشم

هنوزم هست گفتار تو در گوش

A sample Ghazal from Homam in Persian:

چو ما به ديدن رويت ز دور خرسنديم

نسيم با سر زلفت چرا كند بازي

به دست باد سر زلف را تو باز مده

كه هست پيشه آن هرزه گرد غمازي

اگر حريف مني يك زبان و يك دل باش

مكن كه خوش نبود ده دلي و طنازي

مكن تفرج سرو سهي ، همان بهتر

كه عشق با قد و بالاي خويشتن بازي

Old Iranian Azari language

Homam also wrote in Iranian Azari language.

A Macaronic(mula'ma which is popular in Persian poetry where some verses are in one language and another in another language) poem from Homam Tabrizi where some verses are in Khorasani (Dari) Persian and others are in the dialect of Tabriz.

Another Ghazal from Homam Tabrizi where all the couplets except the last couplet is in Persian. The last couplet reads:

Standard Persian:

بهار و گل با روی یار خوش است

بی یاران نه گل باشد و نه بهاران


  2. "Azari, the Old Iranian Language of Azerbaijan," Encyclopaedia Iranica, op. cit., Vol. III/2, 1987 by E. Yarshater. Excerpt: "macaronic ḡazal by Homām Tabrīzī (d. 714/1314) in Persian and a local language which must be that of Tabrīz (see M. Moḥīṭ Ṭabāṭabāʾī, “Dar pīrāmūn-e zabān-e fārsī,” Majalla-ye āmūzeš o parvareš 8/ 10, 1317 Š./1938, p. 10; M. Ḥ. Adīb Ṭūsī, NDA Tabrīz 7/3, 1334 Š./1955, pp. 260-62
  3. Gholam Reza Ensafpur, “Tarikh o Tabar Zaban-i Azarbaijan”(The history and roots of the language of Azarbaijan), Fekr-I Rooz Publishers, 1998 (1377). انصاف‌پور، غلام‌رضا:"تاریخ تبار و زبان آذربایجان"، انتشارات فكر روز، 1377
  4. كارنگ، عبدالعلی: «تاتی و هرزنی، دو لهجه از زبان باستان آذربایجان»، تبریز، 1333 Karang, Abdul Ali. “Tati, Harzani, two dialects from the ancient language of Azerbaijan”, Tabriz, 1333. 1952.

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