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Hong Kong ( ) is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of Chinamarker. It became a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (1839–1842), and then extended in 1898 onto the mainland and northern islands. It was occupied by the Japanese during the Pacific War, after which the British resumed control. Hong Kong was reclassified as a British dependent territory in 1983 until China regained sovereignty in 1997.

Situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Deltamarker and South China Seamarker, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour. With land mass of and a population of 7 million people, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. It is the 179th largest habited territory in the world. Although the city's population is 95% Han and 5% from other ethnic groups, its cosmopolitan makeup is symbolised by its cuisine, cinema, music and traditions.

Hong Kong has a capitalist economy, developed under the ethos of "positive non-intervention" and has become one of the world's top financial centres. The Hong Kong dollar is the 9th most traded currency in the world. Under the principle of "one country, two systems", the independent judiciary functions under the English Common law framework. The political system is governed by the Basic Law of Hong Kong. Although it has a burgeoning multi-party system, its legislaturemarker is partly elected through universal suffrage; the Chief Executive of Hong Kong is the head of government. It has a "high degree of autonomy" in all areas except foreign affairs and defence. Hong Kong's immigration policies remained largely unchanged since the handover - residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor can they enter the territory freely. The defence of Hong Kong is assured by military forces sent by the Central Government, and is constitutionally bound not to interfere with its internal affairs.


Hong Kong began as a coastal island. While pockets of settlements had taken place in the region with archaeological findings dating back thousands of years, regularly written records were not made until the engagement of Imperial China and the British colony in the territory. Starting out as a fishing village, salt production site and trading ground, it would evolve into a military port of strategic importance and eventually an international financial centre that enjoys the world's 6th highest GDP per capita, supporting 33% of the foreign capital flows into China.

Human settlement in the area now known as Hong Kong dates back to the late Paleolithic and early Neolithic era, but the name Hong Kong (香港) did not appear on written record until the Treaty of Nanking of 1842. The area's earliest recorded European visitor was Jorge Álvares, a Portuguese explorer who arrived in 1513.

In 1839 the refusal by Qing Dynastymarker authorities to import opium resulted in the First Opium War between China and Britain. Hong Kong Island became occupied by British forces in 1841, and was formally ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking at the end of the war. The British established a crown colony with the founding of Victoria Citymarker the following year. In 1860, after China's defeat in the Second Opium War, Kowloon Peninsula south of Boundary Streetmarker and Stonecutter's Islandmarker were ceded to Britain under the Convention of Peking. In 1898 Britain obtained a 99-year lease of Lantau Islandmarker and the adjacent northern lands, which became known as the New Territories. Hong Kong's territory has remained unchanged to the present.

During the first half of the 20th century, Hong Kong was a free port, serving as an entrepôt of the British Empire. The British introduced an education system based on their own model, while the local Chinese population had little contact with the European community of wealthy tai-pans settled near Victoria Peakmarker.

In conjunction with its military campaign in the Second World War, the Empire of Japanmarker invaded Hong Kong on 8 December 1941. The Battle of Hong Kong ended with British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the colony to Japan on 25 December. During the Japanese occupation, civilians suffered widespread food shortages, rationing, and hyper-inflation due to forced exchange of currency for military notes. Hong Kong lost more than half of its population in the period between the invasion and Japan's surrender in 1945, when the United Kingdom resumed control of the colony.

Hong Kong's population recovered quickly as a wave of migrants from China arrived for refuge from the ongoing Chinese Civil War. When the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949, more migrants fled to Hong Kong in fear of persecution by the Communist Party. Many corporations in Shanghai and Guangzhoumarker also shifted their operations to Hong Kong.

As textile and manufacturing industries grew with the help of population growth and low cost of labour, Hong Kong rapidly industrialised, with its economy becoming driven by exports, and living standards rising steadily. The construction of Shek Kip Mei Estate in 1953 marked the beginning of the public housing estate programme, designed to cope with the huge influx of immigrants. Trade in Hong Kong accelerated even further when Shenzhenmarker, immediately north of Hong Kong, became a special economic zone of the PRC, and established Hong Kong as the main source of foreign investment to China. With the development of the manufacturing industry in southern China beginning in the early 1980s, Hong Kong's competitiveness in manufacturing declined and its economy began shifting toward a reliance on the service industry, which enjoyed high rates of growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and absorbed workers released from the manufacturing industry.

With the lease of the New Territories due to expire within two decades, the governments of Britain and China discussed the issue of Hong Kong's sovereignty in the 1980s. In 1984 the two countries signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration, agreeing to transfer sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997, and stipulating that Hong Kong would be governed as a special administrative region, retaining its laws and a high degree of autonomy for at least fifty years after the transfer. The Hong Kong Basic Law, which would serve as the constitutional document after the transfer, was ratified in 1990, and the transfer of sovereignty occurred at midnight on 1 July 1997, marked by a handover ceremony at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centremarker.

Hong Kong's economy was affected by the Asian financial crisis, and the H5N1 avian influenza, both in 1997. After a gradual recovery, Hong Kong suffered again due to an outbreak of SARS in 2003. Today, Hong Kong continues to serve as an important global financial centre, but faces uncertainty over its future role with a growing mainland China economy, and its relationship with the PRC government in areas such as democratic reform and universal suffrage.


The name "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese name "香港", meaning "fragrant harbour" in English. Before 1842, the name Hong Kong originally referred colloquially to a small inlet (now Aberdeen Harbourmarker/Little Hong Kong) between the island of Ap Lei Chaumarker and the south side of Hong Kong Island. The inlet was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. The reference to fragrance may refer to the harbour waters sweetened by the fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl Rivermarker, or to the incense factories lining the coast to the north of Kowloon which was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export, before the development of Victoria Harbourmarker. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed, and the name Hong Kong was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.


In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and reflecting the policy known as "one country, two systems", Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs. The declaration stipulates that the region maintain its capitalist economic system and guarantees the rights and freedoms of its people for at least 50 years beyond the 1997 handover. The Basic Law is the constitutional document that outlines executive, legislative and judicial authorities of government, although final authority for interpreting the Basic Law rests with the PRC government.

The primary institutions of government are:

The Basic Law and universal suffrage have been major issues of political debate since the transfer of sovereignty. In 2002, the government's proposed Article 23 of the Basic Law, which required the enactment of laws prohibiting acts of treason and subversion against the Chinese government, was met with fierce opposition, and eventually shelved. Debate between pro-Beijing groups and Pan-democracy camp characterises Hong Kong's political scene, with the latter supporting a faster pace of democratisation.

Legal system and judiciary

In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established during British rule, rather than legal system of China. Hong Kong's courts are permitted to refer to decisions rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions as precedents, and judges from other common law jurisdictions are allowed to participate in proceedings of Hong Kong's Court of Final Appeal and sit as Hong Kong judges.

Structurally, Hong Kong's court system consists of the Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, which is made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and the District Court, which includes the Family Courtmarker. Other adjudicative bodies include the Lands Tribunal, the Magistrates' Courts, the Juvenile Court, the Coroner's Court, the Labour Tribunal, the Small Claims Tribunal, and the Obscene Articles Tribunal, which is responsible for classifying non-video pornography to be circulated in Hong Kong. Justices of the Court of Final Appealmarker are appointed by Hong Kong's Chief Executive.

The Department of Justice is the largest legal institution in Hong Kong, and its responsibilities involve legislation, judicial administration, prosecution, civil representation, legal and policy drafting and reform, and the legal profession. Aside from prosecuting criminal cases, officials of the Department of Justice also appear in court on behalf of the government in all civil and administrative lawsuits against the government. As protector of the public interest, it may apply for judicial reviews and assign legal representation on behalf of the public to take part in such a trial. The Basic Law, which serves as the constitutional document of the Hong Kong SAR, protects the Department of Justice from any interference by the government.

Administrative districts

Hong Kong has a unitary system of government, no local government exists since the two municipal councils were abolished in 2000. And as such there is no formal definition for its cities and towns. Administratively, Hong Kong is subdivided into 18 geographic districts, each represented by a district council whose role is to advise the government on local matters such as public facilities, community programmes, cultural activities and environmental improvements. There are a total of 534 district councils seats, 405 of which are elected, while the rest are appointed by the Chief Executive and 27 ex officio chairmen of rural committees. The government's Home Affairs Department communicates government policies and plans to the public through the district offices.


As a British Colony and later territory, defence was provided by the British military under the command of the Governor of Hong Kong who was ex officio Commander-in-chief. When the People's Republic of China assumed sovereignty in 1997, the British barracks were replaced by a garrison of the People's Liberation Army, comprising ground, naval, and air forces, and under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission. The Basic Law protects local civil affairs against interference by the garrison, and members of the garrison are made subject to Hong Kong laws. The Hong Kong Government remains responsible for the maintenance of public order; however, it may request the PRC government for help from the garrison in maintaining public order and in disaster relief. The PRC government is responsible for the costs of maintaining the garrison.

Geography and climate

Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this false-colour satellite image.

Hong Kong, which consists of a peninsula and 236 islands, is located on China's south coast, east of Macaumarker on the opposite side of the Pearl River Deltamarker. It is surrounded by the South China Seamarker on the east, south, and west, and borders the Guangdong city of Shenzhen to the north over the Shenzhen River. The territory's area consists primarily of Hong Kong Island, Lantau, Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories as well as some 260 other islands. Of the total area, is land and is water.

As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves. Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories. The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shanmarker, at a height of above sea level. Hong Kong's long, irregular and curvaceous coast line provides it with many bays, rivers and beaches.

Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has made much effort to promote a green environment, and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour. Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.

Situated just south of the Tropic of Cancermarker, Hong Kong's climate is humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa). Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. It is also the time when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winter weather usually starts sunny and becomes cloudier towards February, with the occasional cold front bringing strong, cooling winds from the north. The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year, while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatorymarker are and , respectively.


Hong Kong is one of the world's leading financial centres. Its highly developed capitalist economy has been ranked the freest in the world by the Index of Economic Freedom for 15 consecutive years. It is an important centre for international finance and trade, with one of the greatest concentration of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region, and is known as one of the Four Asian Tigers for its high growth rates and rapid industrialisation between the 1960s and 1990s. In addition, Hong Kong's gross domestic product, between 1961 and 1997, has grown 180 times larger than the former while per capita GDP rose by 87 times. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the sixth largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of US$2.97 trillion as at October 2007, and the second highest value of initial public offerings, after London. Hong Kong's currency is the Hong Kong dollar, which has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1983.

The Government of Hong Kong plays a passive role in the financial industry, mostly leaving the direction of the economy to market forces and the private sector. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the Second World War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in the 1980s. Hong Kong matured to become a financial centre in the 1990s, but was greatly affected by the Asian financial crisis in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand has led to a strong recovery, as cost decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary period ended.

The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it must import most of its food and raw materials. Hong Kong is the world's eleventh largest trading entity, with the total value of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. Much of Hong Kong's exports consist of re-exports, which are products made outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and distributed via Hong Kong. Even before the transfer of sovereignty, Hong Kong had established extensive trade and investment ties with the mainland, and now enables it to serve as a point of entry for investment flowing into the mainland. At the end of 2007, there were 3.46 million people employed full-time, with the unemployment rate averaging 4.1%, the fourth straight year of decline. Hong Kong's economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for over 90% of its GDP, while industry now constitutes just 9%. Inflation was at 2% in 2007, and Hong Kong's largest export markets are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.

As of 2009, Hong Kong is the fifth most expensive city for expatriates, behind Tokyo, Osaka, Moscow, and Genevamarker. In 2008, Hong Kong was ranked sixth, and in 2007, it was ranked fifth. In 2009, Hong Kong was ranked third in the Ease of Doing Business Index.


The territory's population reached more than 7 million in 2007. Hong Kong has a fertility rate of 0.95 children per woman, one of the lowest in the world and far below the 2.1 children per woman required to sustain the current population. However, the population in Hong Kong continues to grow due to the influx of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per year – there exists a daily quota of 150 people from Mainland China with family ties in Hong Kong are granted a 'one way permit'. According to a United Nation report, Life expectancy in Hong Kong is 81.8 years as of 2006, the second highest in the world.

About 95% of the people of Hong Kong are of Han ethnicity, the majority of whom are Cantonese, Hakka and Chiu Chow. The remaining 5% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese forming a highly visible group despite their smaller numbers. In addition, there are in excess of 300,000 foreign domestic helpers from Indonesia and the Philippines, according to official figures. There is a South Asian population of Punjabis, Sindhis, Pakistanismarker and Nepalesemarker. Some Vietnamese refugee have become permanent residents of Hong Kong. There are also a number of Europeans (mostly British), Americans, Australians, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in the city's commercial and financial sector.

Hong Kong's de facto official language is Cantonese, a Chinese language originating from Guangdong Provincemarker to the north of Hong Kong. English is also an official language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by 3.1% of the population as an everyday language and by 34.9% of the population as a second language. Signs displaying both Chinese and English are common throughout the territory. Since the 1997 handover, an increase in immigrants from mainland China and greater integration with the mainland economy have brought an increasing number of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.

Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of freedom, guaranteed by the Basic Law. 90% of Hong Kong's population practises a mix of local religions, most prominently Buddhism (mainly Chinese Mahayana), Confucianism, and Taoism. A Christian community of around 600,000 exists, forming about 8% of the total population, and is nearly equally divided between Catholics and Protestants, although other, smaller Christian communities exist including the Latter-Day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. There are also Sikh, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Bahá'í communities. Religious freedom after the 1997 handover is guaranteed under the Basic Law. The practice of Falun Gong is tolerated; the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches each freely appointing its own bishops, unlike in mainland China.


Hong Kong's education system roughly follows the system in England, although at the higher education levels, both English and American systems exist. The government maintains a policy where the medium of instruction is Cantonese (母語教學), written Chinese and English. In secondary schools the policy now emphasises 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency, thus Mandarin language education has been increasing. The Programme for International Student Assessment, has ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world.

Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations, and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations. However, starting from the year of 2006 of Form 1, all students receive 3 years of compulsory junior and 3 years compulsory senior secondary education. Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools; the more common subsidised schools, including government aids and grant schools; and private schools, often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools.

There are nine public universities in Hong Kong, and a number of private higher institutions, offering various bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, other higher diplomas and associate degree courses. The University of Hong Kongmarker, the oldest institution of tertiary education in the territory, was referred by Quacquarelli Symonds as a "world-class comprehensive research university" and was ranked 24th on the 2009 THES - QS World University Rankings, making it 1st in Asia. The Hong Kong University of Science & Technologymarker and Chinese University of Hong Kongmarker are ranked 35 and 46 respectively, making them ranked 2nd and 4th respectively in Asia.


Kong is frequently described as a place where "East meets West", reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese roots with the culture brought to it during its time as a British colony. One of the more noticeable contradictions is Hong Kong's balancing of a modernised way of life with traditional Chinese practices. Concepts like feng shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business. Other objects like Ba gua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits, and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it, due to its similarity to the word for "die" in the Chinese language. The fusion of east and west also characterises Hong Kong's cuisine, where dim sum, hot pot and fast food restaurants coexist with haute cuisine.

Hong Kong is a recognised global centre of trade, and calls itself an 'entertainment hub'. Its martial arts film genre gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywoodmarker performers and martial artists have originated from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Chow Yun-Fat, Jackie Chan, and Yuen Woo-ping. A number of Hong Kong film-makers have also achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai and Stephen Chow. Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, and In the Mood for Love have gained international recognition. Hong Kong is the centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music and Western genres, and has a multinational fanbase.

The Hong Kong government supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museummarker, the Hong Kong Museum of Artmarker, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. Also, the government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately.

Hong Kong has two licensed terrestrial broadcastersATV and TVB. There are three local and a number of foreign suppliers of cable and satellite services. The production of Hong Kong's soap dramas, comedy series and variety shows reach audiences throughout the Chinese-speaking world. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip. The media is relatively free from official interference compared to mainland China, although the Far Eastern Economic Review points to signs of self-censorship by journals whose owners have close ties to or business interests in the PRC, but state that even Western media outlets are not immune to growing Chinese economic power.

Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area. It sends delegates to international competition, namely the Olympic Games and Asian Games, and played host to the equestrian events during the 2008 Summer Olympics. There are major multipurpose venues like Hong Kong Coliseummarker and MacPherson Stadium. Hong Kong's steep terrain makes it ideal for hiking, with expansive views over the territory, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.


According to Emporis, there are 7,650 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, putting the city at the top of world rankings. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at , much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space causing demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing, has resulted in 36 of the world's 100 tallest residential buildings being in Hong Kong, and more people living or working above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world's most vertical city.

As a result of the lack of space and demand for construction, few older buildings remain, and the city is instead becoming a centre for modern architecture. The International Commerce Centremarker (ICC), at high, is the tallest building in Hong Kong and also the third tallest in the world. The tallest building prior to the ICC is Two International Finance Centremarker, at high. Other recognisable skyline features include the HSBC Headquarters Buildingmarker, the triangular Central Plazamarker with its pyramid-shaped spire, The Centermarker with its night-time multi-coloured neon light show, and I. M. Pei's Bank of China Tower with its sharp, angular façade. According to the Emporis website, the city skyline has the biggest visual impact of all world cities. Notable remaining historical assets include the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Towermarker, the Central Police Station, and the remains of Kowloon Walled Citymarker.

There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildingsmarker, waterfront redevelopment in Central, and a series of projects in West Kowloon. More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, as the 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airportmarker lifted strict height restrictions.


Hong Kong has a highly developed transportation network. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport, making it the highest percentage in the world. Payment can be made using the Octopus card, a stored value system introduced by the MTR, which is now widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and well as accepted for cash at other outlets.

The city's rapid transit system, MTR, has 150 stations which serves 3.4 million people a day. Hong Kong Tramways has served the city since 1904, covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island and is the only tram system in the world run exclusively with double deckers. Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used; single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower load capacity. Most normal franchised bus routes in Hong Kong operate until 1 a.m. Public light buses serve most parts of Hong Kong, particularly areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly.

The Star Ferry service, founded in 1888, operates four lines across Victoria Harbourmarker and provides scenic views of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53,000 daily passengers. It acquired iconic status following its use as a setting on The World of Suzie Wong. Travel writer Ryan Levitt considered the main Tsim Sha Tsui to Central crossing one of the most picturesque in the world. Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands, new towns, Macau, and cities in mainland China. Hong Kong is also famous for its junks traversing the harbour, and small kai-to ferries which serve remote coastal settlements.

Hong Kong Island's steep, hilly terrain calls for some unusual ways of getting up and down the slopes. It was initially served by sedan chair, steeply ascending the side of a mountain. The Peak Trammarker, the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. In Central and Western districtmarker, there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, the Mid-Levels escalatormarker.

Hong Kong International Airportmarker is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement, serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3.74 million tonnes of cargo in 2007. It replaced the overcrowded Kai Tak Airportmarker in Kowloon in 1998, and has been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys. Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong, Hong Kong Airlines and Hong Kong Express.

See also

Notes and references

Further reading

  • Hongkong, meine Liebe - Ein spezieller Reiseführer. Thorsten Boose, Silke Oettel. Shaker Media, 2009. ISBN 978-3-86858-255-0
  • A History of Hong Kong (Third Edition). Frank Welsh. HarperCollins. 1 October 1998. 624 pages. ISBN 1-56836-002-9.
  • Mathematical Modelling of Hong Kong Political and Economical Development. Derek Lam. Guangzhou Academic Press. 18 February 1986. 23 pages.
  • Hong Kong's History: State and Society Under Colonial Rule (Asia's Transformations). Tak-Wing Ngo. Routledge. 1 August 1999. 205 pages. ISBN 0-415-20868-8.
  • This is Hong Kong. Hong Kong Government – Brand Hong Kong. April 2009. 49 pages. [1654]
  • The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Poshek Fu, David Deser. Cambridge University Press. 25 March 2002. 346 pages. ISBN 0-521-77602-3.
  • A Modern History of Hong Kong. Steve Tsang. I.B. Tauris. 14 May 2004. 356 pages. ISBN 1-86064-184-9.
  • An Outline History of Hong Kong. Liu Shuyong. 291 pages. ISBN 7-119-01946-5.
  • Forts and Pirates - A History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong History Society. Hyperion Books. December 1990. ISBN 962-7489-01-8.

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