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Honolulu is the capital of and the most populous census-designated place (CDP) in the U.S. state of Hawaiimarker. Although Honolulu refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahumarker, the city and the county are consolidated, known as the City and County of Honolulumarker, and the city and county is designated as the entire island. The City and County of Honolulu is the only incorporated city in Hawaii, as all other local government entities are administered at the county level. The population of the CDP was 371,657 at the 2000 census, while the population of the City and County was 909,863. In the Hawaiian language, Honolulu means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter."

History

Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts. These indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 12th century. However, after Kamehameha I conquered O ahumarker in the Battle of Nu uanu at Nu uanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawai imarker to Waikīkīmarker in 1804. His court later relocated, in 1809, to what is now downtown Honolulu.

In 1795, Captain William Brown of Englandmarker was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor. More foreign ships would follow, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.
Upper Fort Street, Honolulu, 1867, by George Henry Burgess
In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahainamarker on Mauimarker to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital , erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, Iolani Palacemarker, and Ali iōlani Halemarker. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the Islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.

Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, which saw the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, Hawai i's subsequent annexation by the United States, and the Japanesemarker attack on Pearl Harbormarker, Honolulu would remain the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.

An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawai i. Modern air travel would bring thousands and, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the Islands. Of these, about 62.3% in 2007 entered the state at Honolulu International Airportmarker. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawai i, with thousands of hotel rooms. The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.

Great Chinatown Fire of 1900

Witnesses said that a batch of bubonic plague was introduced to Honolulu on October 20, 1899 by an off loaded shipment of rice which had been carrying rats from the America Maru. At that time, Chinatown’s residences were in close proximity to each other in addition to poor living standards and sewage disposal. Plague infected 11 people. The response by the Board of Health included incinerating garbage, renovating the sewer system, putting Chinatown under quarantine, and most of all burning infected buildings. 41 fires were set, but on January 20, 1900 winds picked up and the fire spread to other buildings which was undesired. The runaway fire burned for seventeen days and scorched 38 acres of Honolulu. The fire campaign continued for another 31 controlled burns after the incident. The 7,000 homeless residences were moved to detention camps to house them and maintain the quarantine until April 30. A total of 40 people died of the plague.

Wo Fat Building is an example of post-fire architecture, built 1900 after the fire
Critics accused the government of being driven by Sinophobia, regardless of the fire most likely being an accident, an exodus occurred. While the people rebuilt, they began to live in suburbs while continue to work in Chinatown, to avoid going homeless if another disaster occurred. In addition the post-fire architecture began using masonry rather than wood seeing that the stone and brick buildings proved much more fire resistant during the fire.

Geography and climate

Honolulu is located at (21.308950, -157.826182).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of . of it is land and of it (18.42%) is water.

The closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arenamarker, Californiamarker Lighthouse, at 2,045 nautical miles (2,353 statute miles) or 3,787 kilometers. (Nautical vessels require some additional distance to circumnavigate Makapu'u Point.) However, part of the Aleutian Islandsmarker of Alaskamarker are slightly closer than California.

Honolulu has a warm semiarid (BSh) climate according to Köppen classification, and enjoys warm weather and plenty of sunshine throughout the year. Despite its location in the tropics, the climate (temperature, precipitation and humidity) is moderated by Hawaii's mid-ocean location.

Temperatures vary little throughout the months, with average high temperatures of 80-89°F (27-32°C) and lows of 65-75°F (19-24°C) throughout the year. Temperatures rarely exceed 90's°F (32°C), and with lows in the upper-50's°F (~15°C) occurring once or twice a year. Waters off the coast of Honolulu averages 82°F (27°C) in the summer months and 77°F (25°C) in the winter months.

Annual average precipitation is , which mainly occurs during the winter months of October through March, and very little rainfall during the summer. Honolulu has an average of 270 sunshine days and 98 wet days a year.

Government



The municipal offices of the City and County of Honolulumarker, including Honolulu Halemarker, the seat of the city and county, are located in the census-designated place. The Hawaii state government buildings are also located in the CDP.

The Honolulu District is located on the southeast coast of Oahu between Makapuu and Halawamarker. The district boundary follows the Koolau crestline, so Makapuu Beach is in the Koolaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Halawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Aliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadiummarker, Pearl Harbormarker (with the USS Arizona Memorialmarker), and Hickam Air Force Basemarker are actually all located in the island's Ewa District.

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Honolulu CDP. The main Honolulu Post Office is located by the international airport at 3600 Aolele Street.

Diplomatic missions

Several countries have diplomatic facilities in Honolulu CDP in the City and County of Honolulu. The Consulate-General of Japan in Honolulumarker is located at 1742 Nuuanu Avenue. The Consulate-General of South Korea in Honolulu is located at 2756 Pali Highway. The Consulate-General of the Philippines in Honolulu is located at 2433 Pali Highway. The Consulate-General of the Federated States of Micronesia in Honolulu is located in Suite 908 at 3049 Ualena Street. The Consulate-General of Australia in Honolulu is located in the penthouse of 1000 Bishop Street. The Consulate-General of the Marshall Islands in Honolulu is located in Suite 301 at 1888 Lusitana Street.

Cityscape

Most of the city's commercial and industrial developments are located on a narrow but relatively flat coastal plain, while numerous ridges and valleys located inland of the coastal plain divide Honolulu's residential areas into distinct neighborhoods: some spread along valley floors (like Manoa in Manoa Valley) and others climb the interfluvial ridges. Within Honolulu proper can be found several volcanic cones: Punchbowlmarker, Diamond Headmarker, Koko Headmarker (includes Hanauma Baymarker), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and Aliamanu being the most conspicuous.

Neighborhoods



  • Downtown Honolulu is the financial, commercial, and governmental center of Hawaii. On the waterfront is Aloha Towermarker, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaii. Currently the tallest building is the -tall First Hawaiian Centermarker, located on King and Bishop Streets. The downtown campus of Hawaii Pacific Universitymarker is also located there.
  • The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown. It is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street - home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District.
  • The Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaii's state government, incorporating the Hawaii State Capitolmarker, Iolani Palacemarker, Honolulu Halemarker (City Hall), State Library, and the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings.
  • Kaka ako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopment effort in the past decade. It is home to two major shopping areas, Ward Warehouse and Ward Centre. The John A. Burns School of Medicine, part of the University of Hawai i at Manoamarker is also located there. A Memorial to the Ehime Maru Incident victims is built at Kakaako Waterfront Park.
  • Waikīkīmarker is the world-famous tourist district of Honolulu, located between the Ala Wai Canal and the Pacific Oceanmarker next to Diamond Headmarker. Numerous hotels, shops, and nightlife opportunities are located along Kalakaua and Kuhio Avenues. Waikīkī Beach attracts millions of visitors a year. Just west of Waikīkī is Ala Moana Centermarker, the world's largest open-air shopping center. A majority of the hotel rooms on Oahu are located in Waikīkī.
  • Manoamarker and Makiki are residential neighborhoods located in adjacent valleys just inland of downtown and Waikīkī. Manoa Valley is home to the main campus of the University of Hawai i. President Barack Obama lived in Makiki with his maternal grandparents until graduating from Punahou School, apart from four years in Indonesia with his mother and stepfather.
  • Nu uanu and Pauoa are upper-middle-class residential districts located inland of downtown Honolulu. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacificmarker is located in Punchbowl Cratermarker fronting Pauoa Valley.
  • Palolo and Kaimuki are neighborhoods east of Manoa and Makiki, inland from Diamond Head. Palolo Valley parallels Manoa and is a residential neighborhood. Kaimuki is primarily a residential neighborhood with a commercial strip centered on Waialae Avenue running behind Diamond Head. Chaminade University is located in Kaimuki.
  • Waialae and Kahala are upper-class districts of Honolulu located directly east of Diamond Head, where there are many high-priced homes. Also found in these neighborhoods are the Waialae Country Club and The Kahala Hotel & Resort.
  • East Honolulu includes the residential communities of Āina Haina, Niu Valley, and Hawai i Kai. These are considered upper-middle-class neighborhoods. The upscale gated communities of Wai alae iki and Hawai i Loa Ridge are also located here.
  • Kalihi and Palama are working-class neighborhoods with a number of government housing developments. Lower Kalihi, toward the ocean, is a light-industrial district.
  • Salt Lake and Aliamanu are (mostly) residential areas built in extinct tuff cones along the western end of the Honolulu District, not far from the Honolulu International Airportmarker.
  • Moanalua is two neighborhoods and a valley at the western end of Honolulu, and home to Tripler Army Medical Center.


Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 371,657 people, 140,337 households, and 87,429 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 4,336.6 people per square mile (1,674.4/km2). There were 158,663 housing units at an average density of 1,851.3/sq mi (714.8/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.67% White, 1.62% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 55.85% Asian, 6.85% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races; and 14.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.37% of the population.

There were 140,337 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size is 3.23.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,112, and the median income for a family was $56,311. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $29,930 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,191. About 7.9% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 and older.

As of the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 22.2% of Honolulu's population; of which 20.5% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 2.3% of Honolulu's population; of which 2.2% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indian made up 0.2% of Honolulu's population; of which 0.1% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 52.3% of Honolulu's population; of which 51.6% were non-Hispanic. Pacific Islander Americans made up 5.9% of Honolulu's population. Individuals from some other race made up 0.8% of the city's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 16.3% of the city's population; of which 15.0% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 4.5% of Honolulu's population.

Economy

Hawaiian Airlines, Island Air, and Aloha Air Cargo are headquartered in the CDP. Prior to its dissolution, Aloha Airlines was headquartered in the CDP.

Transportation

Honolulu International Airport reef runway
Aerial view of H-1 (looking east) from Honolulu Airport heading into downtown Honolulu


Air

Located on the western end of the CDP, Honolulu International Airportmarker (HNL) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawaii. Kalaeloa Airportmarker is primarily a commuter facility used by unscheduled air taxis, general aviation and transient and locally-based military aircraft.

Highways

The following freeways, part of the Interstate Highway System serve Honolulu:

Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of Oahu are:

Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, Ewa, Aiea, Pearl Citymarker, Waipahumarker, and Mililanimarker.

There is a Hawaii Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (HEVDP).

Public transportation

Bus

Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi, Honolulu's TheBus system has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Association bestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994–1995 and 2000–2001. TheBus operates 107 routes serving Honolulu and outlying areas on Oahu with a fleet of 531 buses, and is run by the non-profit corporation Oahu Transit Services in conjunction with the city Department of Transportation Services. Honolulu is ranked 4th for highest per-capita use of mass transit in the United States.

A ferry linked to TheBus began service in September 2007 known as TheBoat. Fare for TheBoat is $2.00, and ran from Barber's Point to Aloha Tower Marketplace daily. But on July 1, 2009, TheBoat service was discontinued.

Rail

Currently, there is no urban rail transit system in Honolulu, although electric street railways were once used during the early days of Honolulu's history. The first major attempt was called the Honolulu Area Rail Rapid Transit (HART) project. Originally proposed in 1968 by Mayor Neal S. Blaisdell and supported by his successor, Frank Fasi, HART was originally envisioned as a line from Pearl City to Hawaii Kai. By 1980, however, the project's length was cut to an segment between the University of Hawaii at Manoamarker and Honolulu International Airportmarker.

In the wake of proposed budget cuts by President Ronald Reagan, newly elected Mayor Eileen Anderson cancelled the project in 1981 and returned grants and funding to their sources, arguing the project would break her vow of fiscal responsibility.

After defeating Anderson in 1984 to regain the mayorship, Fasi started plans to revive the HART project. Funding avenues that Fasi explored included a substantial (66 percent) increase in the gasoline tax and diversion of money earmarked for then-stalled Interstate H-3 to be used for the project. In 1990, Governor John Waihee proposed allowing counties to collect a 0.5% increase in the excise tax to be used for transportation projects, and the state legislature approved the plan in May 1990. The counties would have until October 1, 1992 to enact the increase.

In October 1991, the Fasi administration chose Oahu Transit Group to develop the rail line, which was based on cars by AEG Westinghouse similar to those used in the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit system. The U.S. House amended a transit bill to include $618 million for Honolulu's project, about one-third of the cost, and the Council in November entered into a joint funding agreement with the state.

On September 23, 1992, the city council voted 5-4 against enacting the tax increase, which effectively destroyed the project. Fasi made unsuccessful attempts to have a rail referendum (which was struck down by the courts), and to have private investors fund part of the line. The House revoked funding for the project on May 11, 1993, citing lack of guaranteed local funding.

In 2005, under the administration of Mufi Hannemann, the city, county and state approved development of an action plan for a unspecific rapid transit system, known as the "Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project", to be built in several phases. The initial line proposed linking Kapoleimarker in West Oahu to the University of Hawaii at Manoamarker. Then on December 22, 2006 the city council approved a fixed-guideway system meant to accommodate a rapid transit system of rail or buses, running from Kapoleimarker in West Oahu to Ala Moana, with spurs into Waikikimarker and Manoamarker.

Opponents of the proposed rail system attempted to place a measure on the Honolulu ballot which would have prohibited any rail system from being used, but failed to gather the required signatures in time. In response, the Honolulu City Council voted to put a question on the Honolulu ballot which would direct the city transportation department to create a steel-wheel-on-steel-rail transit system.

On November 4, 2008, the residents of Honolulu voted to allow the process of developing the rail project to continue. The trains will be approximately long, electric, steel wheel to steel rail technology and will capable of carrying more than 300 passengers each. The measure passed with 52% of the vote.

The line is scheduled to open in five phases between 2012 and 2018:



The rail line, as currently planned, will be built starting from suburban areas in Kapolei and Ewa, and progressing towards the urban center in Honolulu. This is because the first phase includes a baseyard for trains, and a planning decision by the city to delay the major infrastructure impacts associated with construction in the urban center to later phases of the project.

Cultural institutions



Performing arts

Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony is the oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaii Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. The main music venues include the Neal Blaisdell Centermarker Concert Hall, the Waikiki Shellmarker, and the Hawaii Theatremarker.

Honolulu also includes several venues for live theater, including the Diamond Head Theatremarker.

Visual arts

There are various institutions supported by the state and private entities for the advancement of the visual arts. The Honolulu Academy of Artsmarker is endowed with the largest collection of Asian and Western art in Hawaii. It also has the largest collection of Islamic art, housed at the Shangri La estate. The academy hosts a film and video program dedicated to arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke Theatre, named for the academy's historic patroness Doris Duke.

The Contemporary Museum is the only contemporary art museum in the state. It has two locations: main campus in Makiki and a multi-level gallery in downtown Honolulu at the First Hawaiian Centermarker.

The Hawaii State Art Museum is also located in downtown Honolulu at No. 1 Capitol District Building and boasts a collection of art pieces created by local artists as well as traditional Hawaiian art. The museum is administered by the Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts.

Natural museums

The Bishop Museummarker is the largest of Honolulu's museums. It is endowed with the state's largest collection of natural history specimens and the world's largest collection of Hawaiiana and Pacific culture artifacts. The Honolulu Zoomarker is the main zoological institution in Hawaii while the Waikiki Aquariummarker is a working marine biology laboratory. The Waikiki Aquarium is partnered with the University of Hawaii and other universities worldwide. Established for appreciation and botany, Honolulu is home to several gardens: Foster Botanical Gardenmarker, Liliuokalani Botanical Gardenmarker, Walker Estate, among others.

Sports

Honolulu's climate lends itself to year-round fitness activities. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the United States. Honolulu is also home to three large road race:

Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, and baseball programs of the University of Hawaii at Manoamarker. High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular.

Honolulu has no professional sports teams. It was the home of the Hawaii Islanders (Pacific Coast League, 1961–1987), The Hawaiians (World Football League, 1974–1975), Team Hawaii (North American Soccer League, 1977), and the Hawaiian Islanders (af2, 2002–2004).

The NCAA football Hawaii Bowl is played in Honolulu. Honolulu has also hosted the NFL's annual Pro Bowl each February since 1980, though the 2010 Pro Bowl will be played in Miami. From 1993 to 2008, Honolulu hosted Hawaii Winter Baseball, featuring minor league players from Major League Baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Korea Baseball Organization, and independent leagues.

Venues

Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:

Aloha Stadiummarker, a venue for American football and soccer , is located in the Halawa CDPmarker.

Media

Honolulu is served by two daily newspapers, Honolulu Magazine, several radio stations and television stations, among other media.

Tourist attractions

See also Oahu tourist attractions
See also Sites related to President Obama in Honolulu






Education

Colleges and universities

Colleges and universities in the Honolulu CDP include University of Hawaii at Manoamarker, Chaminade Universitymarker, and Hawaii Pacific Universitymarker.

Primary and secondary schools

Hawaii Department of Education operates public schools in Honolulu. Public high schools within the CDP include Wallace Rider Farringtonmarker, Kaimukimarker, Henry J. Kaiser, Kalanimarker, Moanalua, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt.

Private schools such as Punahou Schoolmarker, Iolani Schoolmarker, Kamehameha Schoolsmarker, and Mid-Pacific Institute also exist.

Public libraries

Hawaii State Public Library System operates public libraries. The Hawaii State Library in the CDP serves as the main library of the system, while the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, also in the CDP, serves handicapped and blind people.

Branches in the CDP include Aina Haina, Hawaii Kai, Kaimuki, Kalihi-Palama, Manoa, McCully, Salt Lake-Moanalua, and Waikiki.

References

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  2. Microsoft Streets and Trips 2007 Software, Copyright 2006 by Microsoft Corp. et al. Kilometers converted to nautical and statute miles by figures given in The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007, Copyright World Alamnac Education Group, p.350-353
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  8. " Location." Consulate-General of South Korea in Honolulu. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  9. " Other Philippine Missions in the U.S.." Consulate-General of the Philippines in Chicago. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  10. " Department of Foreign Affairs, Overseas Embassies, Consulates, and Missions." Department of Foreign Affairs (Federated States of Micronesia). Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  11. " Australian Consulate-General in Honolulu, United States of America." Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  12. " Foreign Mission." Republic of the Marshall Islands. Retrieved on January 28, 2009.
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  14. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=31200US261801517000&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_DP5&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=308&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=
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  20. National Transit Database, Top Transit Cities (2006)
  21. http://thebus.org/updates July 1, 2009.
  22. http://www.khnl.com/Global/story.asp?S=9295785 Honolulu - Rail transit passes
  23. http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20081106/NEWS01/811060369/1001/NEWS05 Honolulu rail might be rerouted to airport
  24. City and County of Honolulu Department of Transportation Services, Project Schedule (PDF), retrieved on 13 January 2009
  25. http://pacific.bizjournals.com/pacific/stories/2004/01/05/daily10.html
  26. " Halawa CDP, Hawaii." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  27. " Hawaii State Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  28. " Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  29. " Aina Haina public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  30. " Hawaii Kai Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  31. " Kaimuki Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  32. " Kalihi-Palama Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  33. " Manoa Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  34. " McCully Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  35. " Salt Lake-Moanalua Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  36. " Waikiki Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.


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