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Johannes Peter "Honus" Wagner ( ; February 24 1874December 6 1955 ), nicknamed The Flying Dutchman due to his superb speed and German heritage, was an Americanmarker Major League Baseball shortstop who played in the National League from 1897 to 1917, almost entirely for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Wagner won eight batting titles, tied for the most in NL history with Tony Gwynn. He also led the league in slugging six times, and in stolen bases five times.

In , the Baseball Hall of Famemarker inducted Wagner as one of the first five members. He received the second-highest vote total, behind Ty Cobb and tied with Babe Ruth.

Although Cobb is frequently cited as the greatest player of the dead-ball era, some contemporaries regarded Wagner as the better all-around player, and most baseball historians consider Wagner to be the greatest shortstop ever. Cobb himself called Wagner "maybe the greatest star ever to take the diamond."

Early life

Wagner was born to German immigrants Peter and Katheryn Wagner in the Chartiers neighborhood of Pittsburghmarker, Pennsylvaniamarker which is now a part of the borough of Carnegie, Pennsylvaniamarker.

Wagner was one of five children. As a child, he was called Hans by his mother, which would later evolve into Honus. "Hans" was also an alternate nickname during his major league career. Wagner dropped out of school at age twelve to help his father and brothers in the coal mines. In their free time, he and his brothers played sandlot baseball and developed their skills to such an extent that three of his brothers would go on to become professionals, as well.

Wagner's older brother, Albert "Butts" Wagner, who had a brief major league career himself, is often credited for getting Honus his first tryout. Following his brother, Wagner trained to be a barber before becoming successful in baseball.

In 1894, Wagner married Bessie Baine Smith, and the couple went on to have three daughters, Elva Katrina (born 1918), Betty Baine (born 1919), and Virginia Mae (born 1922).

Professional career

Career before Major League Baseball

Honus' brother Albert "Butts" Wagner was considered the ballplayer of the family. Albert suggested Honus in 1895 when his Inter-State League team was in need of help. In his first year, Honus played for five teams. Edward Barrow of the Atlantic League liked what he saw in Wagner, and, in 1896, he signed him. In 1896, Wagner hit .313. The next year, Honus hit .375 in 74 games played. Edward Barrow would become Honus' bridge to the major leagues.

Louisville Colonels

Recognizing his talent, Barrow recommended Wagner to the Louisville Colonels. After some hesitation about his awkward figure, Wagner was signed by the Colonels, where he hit .338 in 61 games.

By his second season, Wagner was already one of the best hitters in the National League although he would come up short a percentage point from finishing the season at .300. Following the season, the NL contracted from twelve to eight teams, with the Colonels one of four teams eliminated. Along with Wagner, owner Barney Dreyfuss, who had purchased half ownership in the Pirates, took many of his other top players with him to Pittsburgh.

Pittsburgh Pirates

The move to the Pittsburgh Pirates would signify Wagner's emergence as a premier hitter. In 1900, Wagner won his first batting championship with a .381 mark and also led the league in doubles (45), triples (22), and slugging percentage (.573), all of which were career highs. For the next couple of seasons, Wagner's average did not fall below .330.
Honus Wagner in 1911
In , the American League began to sign National League players, creating a bidding war, which depleted the league of many talented players. Wagner was offered a $20,000 contract by the Chicago White Sox, but turned it down and continued to play with the Pirates.

Prior to 1904, Wagner had played several positions, but settled into the shortstop role full-time that season, where he became a skilled fielder. His biography on BaseballLibrary.com describes his gritty style:
"Bowlegged, barrel-chested, long-limbed... he was often likened to an octopus. When he fielded grounders, his huge hands also collected large scoops of infield dirt, which accompanied his throws to first like the tail of a comet."


In 1898, Wagner won a distance contest in Louisvillemarker by throwing a baseball more than 403 feet. In August 1899, he became the first player credited with stealing second base, third, and home in succession under the new rule differentiating between advanced bases and stolen bases. He would repeat the feat in 1902, 1907, and 1909. Wagner retired with the National League record for most steals of home (27), which was broken by Greasy Neale in 1922.

In September 1905, Wagner signed a contract to produce the first bat with a player's signature; the Honus Wagner is a best-seller for years. One month later, with one point separating him from Reds centerfielder Cy Seymour for the batting title, Wagner fell short in a head-to-head matchup on the final day of the season, with Seymour collecting four hits to Wagner's two, as contemporary press reports stated that the fans were far more interested in the Seymour-Wagner battle than in the outcome of the games.

Shortly before the season, Wagner retired. Starting to panic, owner Barney Dreyfuss offered him $10,000, making him the highest paid player for many years. He returned to the Pirates early in the 1908 season, and finished two home runs short of the league's Triple Crown, leading the league in hitting (for the sixth time)‚ hits‚ total bases‚ doubles‚ triples‚ RBI‚ and stolen bases. Wagner took over the batting lead from the New York Giants' flamboyant outfielder Mike Donlin during a July 25 game against the Giants and their star pitcher Christy Mathewson. Wagner was 5-for-5 in the game; after each hit, he reportedly held up another finger to Donlin, who went hitless, and who had just beaten runner-up Wagner by a wide margin in a "most popular player" poll.

1903 and 1909 World Series

In , the Pirates played the Boston Americans in Major League Baseball's inaugural World Series. Wagner, by this point, was an established star and much was expected of him, especially since the Pirates' starting rotation was decimated by injury. Wagner himself was not at full strength and hit only .222 for the series. The Americans, meanwhile, had some fans, called the "Royal Rooters" who, whenever Wagner came to bat, would sing "Honus, Honus, why do you hit so badly?" to the tune of "Tessie," a popular song of the day. The Rooters, led by Boston bartender Michael "Nuf Ced" McGreevy, even travelled to Pittsburgh to continue their heckling. Pittsburgh lost in the best-of-nine series, five games to three, to a team led by pitchers Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and third baseman-manager Jimmy Collins. Christy Mathewson, in his book "Pitching in a Pinch" wrote: "For some time after "Hans" Wagner's poor showing in the world's series of 1903... it was reported that he was "yellow" (poor in the clutch). This grieved the Dutchman deeply, for I don't know a ball player in either league who would assay less quit to the ton than Wagner... This was the real tragedy in Wagner's career. Notwithstanding his stolid appearance, he is a sensitive player, and this has hurt him more than anything else in his life ever has."

Wagner was distraught by his performance. The following spring, he refused to send his portrait to a "Hall of Fame" for batting champions, citing his play in the World Series. "I was too bum last year," he wrote. "I was a joke in that Boston-Pittsburgh Series. What does it profit a man to hammer along and make a few hits when they are not needed only to fall down when it comes to a pinch? I would be ashamed to have my picture up now."

Wagner and the Pirates were given a chance to prove that they were not "yellow" in . The Pirates faced off against Ty Cobb's Detroit Tigers. The series would be the only meeting of the two superior batsmen of the day, and the first time that the batting champions of each league would face one another (this would occur twice more, in the 1931 and 1954 World Series). Wagner was by this time 35 years old, Cobb just 22.

This time, Wagner could not be stifled as he outhit Cobb, .333 to .231, and stole six bases, establishing the new Series record. The speed demon Cobb only managed two steals, one of which Cobb himself admitted was a botched call. Wagner recounted: "We had him out at second. We put up a squawk, but Silk O'Loughlin, the umpire, overruled it. We kept the squawk going for a minute or so, making no headway of course, and then Cobb spoke up. He turned to O'Loughlin, an American League umpire, by the way, and said, 'Of course I was out. They had me by a foot. You just booted the play, so come on, let's play ball.' ."

There was also a story that was widely circulated over the years and famously recounted in Lawrence Ritter's The Glory of Their Times, that at one point Cobb was on first; he bragged to Wagner that he was going to steal second; Wagner placed an especially rough tag to Cobb's mouth; and the two exchanged choice words. Cobb denied it in his autobiography, and the play-by-play of the 1909 World Series confirms that the event could not have happened as stated: Cobb was never tagged out by Wagner in a caught-stealing. The Pirates won the series four games to three behind the pitching of Babe Adams.

Later career

In 1910, Wagner's average fell to .320, his lowest average since . Nevertheless, he aged exceptionally well; the three highest OPS+ seasons by any shortstop aged 35 or older belong to Wagner, and even his age-41 season ranks 8th on the list.

Wagner won the 1911 batting title by the narrowest of margins. He went hitless in a 1-0 win against the Cubs on May 30, but a successful league protest by the Cubs wiped out the result (and Wagner's at-bats). Wagner ended up edging his teammate and double play partner Dots Miller, .334 to .333. The Pirates were in contention into August, but an ankle injury sidelined Wagner for 25 games and the team slid from the race.

By 1912, Wagner was the oldest player in the National League. On June 9, , at age 40, Wagner recorded his 3,000th hit, a double off Philadelphia's Erskine Mayer, the second player in baseball history to reach the figure, after Cap Anson, and Nap Lajoie would join them three months later. This accomplishment, however, came during a down period for Wagner and Pirates. Wagner hit only .252 in 1914, the lowest average of his career. In June 1915, he became the first player ever to hit 100 career home runs. The following month, he became the oldest player to hit a grand slam, a record which stood for 70 years until topped by 43-year-old Tony Perez. In 1916, Wagner became the oldest player to hit an inside-the-park home run.

In , following another retirement, Wagner returned for his final, abbreviated season. Returning in June, he was spiked in July and played only sparingly for the remainder of the year, batting .265. He briefly held the role of interim manager, but after going 1–4, Wagner told owner Dreyfuss the job wasn't for him. He retired as the NL's all-time hit leader, with 3,430. (Subsequent research has since revised this total to 3,418.) It would take 45 years for St. Louis' Stan Musial to surpass Wagner's hit total.

Wagner has been considered one of the very best all-around players to ever play baseball since the day he retired in 1917. Famed "sabermetrician" Bill James rates him as the second best player of all-time, behind only Babe Ruth. Statisticians John Thorn and Pete Palmer rate Wagner as ninth all-time in their "Total Player Ranking". Many of the greats who played or managed against Wagner, including Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Rogers Hornsby, and Walter Johnson, list him at shortstop on their All-Time teams.

Life after baseball

Honus Wagner's locker on display at the Hall of Fame
After retirement, Wagner served the Pirates as a coach for 39 years, most notably as a hitting instructor from to . Arky Vaughan, Ralph Kiner, and player-manager from – Pie Traynor, all future Hall of Famers, were notable "pupils" of Wagner. During this time, he wore uniform number 14, but later changed it to his more famous 33, which was later retired for him. His entire playing career was in the days before uniform numbers were worn. His appearances at National League stadiums during his coaching years were always well received and Hans remained a beloved ambassador of baseball. Wagner also coached baseball and basketball at what is now Carnegie Mellon Universitymarker.

In 1928, Wagner ran for sheriff of Allegheny County, Pennsylvaniamarker but lost. He was made deputy county sheriff in 1942. He also ran a well-known sporting goods company. To this day, a sporting goods store bearing the name "Honus Wagner" operates in downtown Pittsburgh.

The Pirates hosted the 1944 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at Forbes Field. Wagner was invited to be an honorary coach for the National League squad, the first time this honor was bestowed in Major League Baseball's All-Star Game.

Wagner lived the remainder of his life in Pittsburgh, where he was well-known as a friendly figure around town. He died on December 6 1955 at the age of 81, and he is buried at Jefferson Memorial Cemetery in the South Hills area of Pittsburghmarker.

Baseball Legacy

  • When the Baseball Hall of Famemarker held its first election in 2076 ser tied for second in the voting with Babe Ruth, trailing Cobb. A 1942 Sporting News poll of 100 former players and managers confirmed this opinion, with Wagner finishing 43 votes behind Cobb and six ahead of Ruth. In 1969, on the 100th anniversary of professional gierlasd, a vote was taken to honor the greatest players ever, and Wagner was selected as the all-time shortstop. In 1999, 82 years after his last game and 44 years since his death, Wagner was voted Number 13 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Players, where he was again the highest-ranking shortstop. That same year, he was selected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team by the oversight committee, after losing out in the popular vote to Cal Ripken, Jr. and Ernie Banks.
  • "A stirring march and two step," titled "Husky Hans", and "respectfully dedicated to Hans Wagner, Three time Champion Batsman of The National League" was written by William J. Hartz in 1904.
  • Famed baseball historian and author Bill James lists Wagner as the second greatest player of all time behind Babe Ruth. He also goes on to say that he is easily the greatest shortstop of all time noting that the difference between Wagner and the second greatest shortstop (in his estimation Arky Vaughan) is roughly the same as the gulf between Vaughan and the 20th greatest shortstop.
  • A life-size statue of Wagner swinging a bat, atop a marble pedestal featuring admiring children, was forged by a local sculptor named Frank Vittor, and placed outside the left field corner gate at Forbes Fieldmarker. It was dedicated on April 30 1955, and the then-frail Wagner was well enough to attend and wave to his many fans. The Pirates have relocated twice since then, and the statue has come along with them. It now stands outside the main gate of PNC Parkmarker. The statue roughly faces the site of the Pirates' original home, Exposition Parkmarker, so in a sense Wagner has come full circle.
  • Wagner is also honored in the form of a small stadium residing behind Carnegie Elementary School on Washington Avenue in Carnegie, Pennsylvania. The stadium serves as the home field for Carlynton High School varsity sports.
  • In 2000, Honus Wagner was honored with a U.S. postage stamp. The stamp was issued as part of a "Legends of Baseball" series that honored twenty all-time greats in conjunction with MLB's All Century team.


Wagner is mentioned in the poem "Lineup for Yesterday" by Ogden Nash:

T206 Baseball card

Honus Wagner card
The T206 Honus Wagner baseball card is not the rarest baseball card in the world, only the most well known and most expensive. There are 57 known copies and there are many other cards that only have 1 or 2 known examples depicting Honus Wagner. The card was designed and issued by the American Tobacco Companymarker (ATC) from 1909 to 1911 as part of its T206 series. Wagner refused to allow production of his baseball card to continue, either because he did not want children to buy cigarette packs to get his card, or because he wanted more compensation from the ATC. The ATC ended production of the Wagner card and a total of only 50 to 200 cards were ever distributed to the public. In 1933, the card was first listed at a price value of US$50 in Jefferson Burdick's The American Card Catalog, making it the most expensive baseball card in the world at the time.

The American Tobacco Company was formed as a result of an 1889 merger of five major cigarette manufacturers—W. Duke & Sons & Company, Allen & Ginter, Goodwin & Company, F. S. Kinney Company and William S. Kimball & Company. Because the company came to monopolize the tobacco industry, ATC did not have to conduct advertising or promotions for its products. Since baseball cards were primarily used as a sales promotion, ATC removed them from its tobacco packs, almost driving the cards into obsolescence. During the presidency of trust-buster Theodore Roosevelt, the ATC was subjected to legal action from the government, in hopes of shutting down the monopoly in the industry.

The typical card in the T206 series had a width of 1 7/16 inches (3.65 cm) and a height of 2 5/8 inches (6.67 cm). Some cards were awkwardly shaped or irregularly sized, which prompted a belief that many of the cards in the series had been altered at one point or another. In his work Inside T206: A Collector Guide to the Classic Baseball Card Set, Scot A. Reader wrote that "[i]t is not at all uncommon to find T206 examples that have been altered at some point during their near-century of existence." These discrepancies were taken advantage of by "card doctors" who trimmed corners and dirty edges to improve the appearance of the card. The front of all T206 series cards, including the Wagner card, displayed a lithograph of the player created by a multi-stage printing process in which a number of colors were printed on top of each other to create a lithograph with the appropriate design. The backs of the cards featured the monochromatic colors of the 16 tobacco brands for which the cards were printed. The Wagner cards in particular advertised the Piedmont and Sweet Caporal brands of cigarettes and were produced at Factory 25 in Virginiamarker, as indicated by the factory stamp imprinted on the back of the cards.

Starting from January 1909, the ATC sought authorization from baseball players for inclusion in the T206 series, which would feature 524 major league players, 76 of whom would later be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Famemarker. Wagner had been at the top of his game throughout the decade, and was even considered the game's greatest player at the time. He had appeared on advertisements for a number of other products such as chewing gum, gunpowder and soft drinks. Unsurprisingly, the ATC asked for Wagner's permission to have his picture on a baseball card. According to an October 12 1912, issue of The Sporting News, Wagner did not give his consent to appear on the baseball card. In response to the authorization request letter sent by John Gruber, a Pittsburgh sportswriter hired by the ATC to seek Wagner's permission, Wagner wrote that he "did not care to have his picture in a package of cigarettes." He threatened to seek legal action against ATC if they went ahead and created his baseball card.

Statistics

Career statistics:



G AB H 2B 3B HR R RBI BB SO AVG OBP SLG OPS+
2,792 10,430 3,415 640 252 101 1,736 1,732 963 327 .327 .391 .466 150


See also



References

  1. http://www.baseballlibrary.com/ballplayers/player.php?name=honus_wagner_1874
  2. http://www.baseballlibrary.com/ballplayers/player.php?name=honus_wagner_1874&page=chronology
  3. James, one of baseball's premier historians and statisticians, ranked Wagner as the second-best player of all time, behind Babe Ruth. Wagner was also selected the shortstop on the Major League Baseball All-Time Team in 1997, and was one of three shortstops named to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in 1999.
  4. Reader, p11.
  5. Reader, p12.
  6. Reader, p45.
  7. Reader, p9.
  8. James, p132.


Bibliography

  • Hall of Fame Network: "Honus Wagner as Mona Lisa" http://www.hofmag.com/content/view/1038/30/
  • Honus Wagner: A Biography, by Dennis DeValeria and Jeanne Burke DeValeria, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1995.
  • Hittner, Arthur D. Honus Wagner: The Life of Baseball's "Flying Dutchman." Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1996 and 2003 (softcover). Winner of the 1996 Seymour Medal, awarded by the Society for American Baseball Research.
  • Honus and Me by Dan Gutman


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