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Hornby Railways is the leading brand of model railway in the United Kingdommarker. Its roots date back to 1901, when founder Frank Hornby received a patent for his Meccano construction toy. The first clockwork train was produced in 1920. In 1938 Hornby launched its first 00 gauge train. In 1964, Hornby and Meccano were bought by their competitor Tri-Ang, and sold on when Tri-ang went into receivership. In the 1980s Hornby Railways became independent.

History

Early history: 1920 - 1938

A characteristic logotype
Hornby was at first a tradename for the railway productions of Meccano Ltd and based in Liverpoolmarker, which released its first train, a clockwork 0 gauge (1:48) model, in 1920. An electric train soon followed but was under-designed and the few that were made were sold out in France. In 1925 a much more successful electric model was introduced , operating on high voltage (220-240V) AC power. Safety concerns saw low voltage 4V and then 6V motors introduced, followed by a reliable 20V AC system, which was developed in the early 1930s. However, clockwork remained the mainstay of the Hornby 0 gauge trains until 1937, and became the only power available in Liverpool-made 0 gauge trains from 1949.

A factory was established in France, which developed its own range of French outline trains, but Liverpool dominated export activity elsewhere, with large numbers of Hornby trains exported to Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and Scandinavia. Even though the export models were often painted in 'foreign' liveries, Hornby trains looked very British. Hornby attempted to break into the American market by setting up a factory in 1927 in Elizabeth, New Jerseymarker, to make American-style trains. These were colourful and attractive, but low market and only clockwork. They probably would have failed in the marketplace because several established U.S. firms could undercut them and Hornby offered no better-class goods or electric models, but the Wall Street Crash precipitated matters. In late 1929, Meccano Ltd. sold its New Jersey factory to the A. C. Gilbert Company, and Hornby trains had vanished from the U.S. market by 1930. The leftover inventory was sold in Canadamarker and in the UK, and some of the tooling was reused for products in other markets.

Hornby Dublo era: 1938 - 1963

Logo, 1956-1961


Meccano introduced its 00 gauge trains in 1938 under the name 'Hornby Dublo'. The locomotives were die-cast, and the carriages and wagons were generally made of tinplate. This was a very well planned range of electric and clockwork models, successfully consolidating 12 V DC as the standard for 00 gauge and leading to the adoption of 00 gauge as a broadly accepted modelling standard in the UK, whereas much of the rest of the world adopted HO gauge. The range expanded quickly, but was curtailed from 1940 due to World War II, production being completely suspended in 1942. Production resumed after the war but did not reach full capacity until 1948. Clockwork models were not produced in 00 gauge after the war. In 2008, a special commemorative model of LNER Class A4 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley was produced, in period packaging, to celebrate the 70th anniversary of this introduction.

Like its counterparts Bassett-Lowke and Exley in the UK and Lionel and American Flyer in the US, Hornby thrived in the first half of the decade but struggled in the late 1950s. The company were slow to recognise the threat posed by rival manufacturers (particularly Triang-Rovex) and to realise the potential of plastic. In 1959, far too late, Hornby introduced two-rail track and moulded plastic rolling stock (the Super Detail series), but even then the system was complicated and difficult to use in comparison to its rivals. Meanwhile the company plugged on producing a range of very old-fashioned 0 gauge models, in 1957 completely retooling much of the range instead of taking the opportunity to discontinue it, indicative of major failings at management level.

Tri-ang Hornby: 1964 - 1972

Logo, 1966-1972


In 1964, Lines Bros Ltd., the parent company of rival Tri-ang Railways purchased Meccano Ltd., and merged Hornby and Tri-ang into Tri-ang Hornby. The former Hornby line was discontinued in favour of Tri-ang's less costly plastic designs. The Hornby Dublo tooling was sold to G & R Wrenn, which continued to make most of the loco range and 'superdetail' rolling stock. Remaining stocks of 0 gauge were either scrapped or sold to the local retailer Hattons.

Hornby Railways: 1972 - 1980

Logo, 1978-1996
The Tri-ang group was disbanded in 1971 when Meccano Ltd's owner Lines Bros. filed for bankruptcy. The former Tri-ang Hornby was sold to Dunbee-Combex-Marx, becoming Hornby Railways in 1972. By 1976 Hornby was facing challenges from Palitoy and Airfix, both of which were producing high quality detailed models. Detail on the models was upgraded to make the product line more attractive to adult hobbyists.

A multiple train control system named Zero 1 was introduced in the late 1970s. This control system was a forerunner to the Digital Command Control (DCC) system, an NMRA open standard, which appeared in the 1990s. Though an important milestone, Zero 1 was not very successful; both the controller units and the decoder modules required for the locomotives were expensive, the power control method used by the system gave rise to appallingly rough running, and locomotives equipped with a Zero 1 decoder could not be used on conventional systems, making it difficult to run one's locomotives on friends' layouts or club layouts.

In 1970s Hornby released steam-powered 3-1/2" gauge locomotive, a model of the Rocket

By 1980 the market was extremely tough and Dunbee-Combex-Marx was liquidated, placing Hornby in receivership.

Hornby Hobbies: 1980 - present

In 1980 Hornby became Hornby Hobbies and in 1981 a management buyout saw the company back on a sound footing. It went public in 1986.

By the early 1990s Hornby again faced competition from newcomers like Dapol and established foreign manufacturers, including Lima and Bachmann Industries. Manufacturing was moved to Guangdongmarker province in Chinamarker in 1995, completed by 1999, cutting costs and improving quality. As part of the process Hornby also bought in some of Dapol's products and also some of the old Airfix moulds (by then owned by Dapol). Train sets based on Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends and Harry Potter (the "Hogwarts Express") have been particularly profitable ventures. In September 2003 Hornby released its first steam-powered 00 gauge locomotive, a model of the record-breaking Mallard. Several other "Live Steam" locomotives have now been produced.

Since then Hornby has bought Lima, an Italian model railway equipment manufacturer that had previously acquired Jouef, a French manufacturer. Some of the ex-Lima models appear in the main Hornby products list. This range is known as Hornby International. This acquisition also included the Rivarossi line of HO-scale products, also originally from Italy, and the Arnold brand of N-scale products.

With competition mainly from Bachmann, and to a lesser extent from a rejuvenated Dapol Hornby Railways now (in 2008) produce a large range of highly detailed British steam and diesel locomotives, such as the BR 9F, SR Merchant Navy, Class 60, Class 50, Class 31 and Class 08.

In November 2006, Hornby Hobbies acquired Airfix and Humbrol paints for the sum of £2.6 million.The parent company went into administration earlier that year after cashflow problems. Airfix fans had been concerned that it could be the end of the brand, but just like the name Hornby was once a tradename of Meccano, Airfix is now a successful tradename of Hornby.

In May 2008, Hornby announced the acquisition of Corgi Classics Limited, one of the world's oldest makers of collectable die-cast models of trucks, buses, cars and aeroplanes, from Corgi International Limited for £7.5million.

Product Lines

Skaledale

Skaledale is a range of resin buildings and track accessories for 00 gauge railways. The range is produced by Hornby. Many models of buildings are very similar to those of Lyddle End, except they are made to the larger scale of 1:76.2. Available in the range are station buildings, shops, houses, platforms and street and track accessories amongst others.

Lyddle End

Lyddle End is the new range of N scale model railway buildings for Hornby Railways. The buildings are created from high quality die cast resin and are made to represent the fictional village of Lyddle End, somewhere in Englandmarker. Most of the buildings are models of GWR style buildings made out of red sandstone.

Hornby created these buildings thanks to the success of their 00 gauge buildings , which they call Skaledale. Many of the buildings are the same, except in different scales, to save the cost of designing a new model . Lyddle End models are popular with adult modellers .

See also



Notes

  1. [1]
  2. [2]
  3. One The Right Track, China-Britain Business Council, 2005


References

  • Foster, Michael (1980) Hornby Dublo Trains: 1938-1964: The story of the perfect table railway, Hornby Companion Series, vol. 3, New Cavendish Books, ISBN 0-904568-18-0
  • Hornby PLC (2004) Hornby OO Scale Model Railways: Fiftieth Edition, Product catalogue: R8108, Limited anniversary edition, EAN 501-0-9634810-8-7
  • Schneider, Lewis (May 2000) Hornby's made-in-USA trains, Classic Toy Trains, vol. 13, p. 84


External links




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